Results for 'pre-human primates'

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  1.  8
    The Ethical Justification for the Use of Non-Human Primates in Research: The Weatherall Report Revisited.Gardar Arnason - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (5):328-331.
    The Weatherall report on the use of non-human primates in research was published in 2006. Its main conclusion was that there is a strong scientific case for the use of non-human primates in some cases, but the report stressed the importance of evaluating each case in the light of the availability of alternatives. In addition to arguing for the scientific necessity of using non-human primates in research, the report also provided an ethical justification. As could be expected, (...)
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  2.  1
    A Flimsy Case for the Use of Non-Human Primates in Research: A Reply to Arnason.Catia Faria - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (5):332-333.
    The Weatherall Report claims that research on non-human primates is permitted and morally required. The argument rests on the following thought experiment: > The hospital fire : A hospital is on fire. Some of the residents are humans and others are non-human animals. You can only save one group. What do you do? Some people have the intuition that we should rescue the humans. According to the report, if we accept that human lives have priority over non-human lives in (...)
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  3.  3
    Ethical Issues When Modelling Brain Disorders Innon-Human Primates.Carolyn P. Neuhaus - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (5):323-327.
    Non-human animal models of human diseases advance our knowledge of the genetic underpinnings of disease and lead to the development of novel therapies for humans. While mice are the most common model organisms, their usefulness is limited. Larger animals may provide more accurate and valuable disease models, but it has, until recently, been challenging to create large animal disease models. Genome editors, such as Clustered Randomised Interspersed Palindromic Repeat, meet some of these challenges and bring routine genome engineering of larger (...)
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  4.  11
    Comparative Metaphysics: The Development of Representing Natural and Normative Regularities in Human and Non-Human Primates.Hannes Rakoczy - 2015 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 14 (4):683-697.
    How do human children come up to carve up and think of the world around them in its most general and abstract structure? And to which degree are these general forms of viewing the world shared by other animals, notably by non-human primates? In response to these questions of what could be called comparative metaphysics, this paper discusses new evidence from developmental and comparative research to argue for the following picture: human children and non-human primates share a basic (...)
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  5.  11
    Non-Human Primates: The Appropriate Subjects of Biomedical Research?M. Quigley - 2007 - Journal of Medical Ethics 33 (11):655-658.
    Following the publication of the Weatherall report on the use of non-human primates in research, this paper reflects on how to provide appropriate and ethical models for research beneficial to humankind. Two of the main justifications for the use of non-human primates in biomedical research are analysed. These are the “least-harm/greatest-good” argument and the “capacity” argument. This paper argues that these are equally applicable when considering whether humans are appropriate subjects of biomedical research.
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  6.  14
    Ethology and the Development of Sex and Gender Identity in Non-Human Primates.Frances D. Burton - 1977 - Acta Biotheoretica 26 (1):1-18.
    The current view that behaviour which is manifest in non-human primates forms a baseline for human behaviours is examined with special reference to the development of gender determination. A review of 21 non-human primate societies suggests that the behaviour of the sexes relates to assumption and occupation of societal roles defined by the local group. The significance of these findings for the human condition is discussed.
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  7.  9
    Sensory Pre-Conditioning and Incidental Learning in Human Subjects.Harry W. Karn - 1947 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 37 (6):540.
  8.  13
    The Prior Question: Do Human Primates Have a Theory of Mind?Robert M. Gordon - 1998 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (1):120-121.
    Given Heyes's construal of there is still no convincing evidence of theory of mind in human primates, much less nonhuman. Rather than making unfounded assumptions about what underlies human social competence, one should ask what mechanisms other primates have and then inquire whether more sophisticated elaborations of those might not account for much of human competence.
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  9.  5
    The Effect of Instructions Upon Sensory Pre-Conditioning of Human Subjects.Rube Chernikoff & W. J. Brogden - 1949 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 39 (2):200.
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  10.  15
    An Exploratory Study of Human Rights Knowledge: A Sample of Kindergarten and Elementary School Pre-Service Teachers in Spain. [REVIEW]Claudia Messina & Liliana Jacott - 2013 - Human Rights Review 14 (3):213-230.
    This study aims to explore the level of information and knowledge 150 Spanish kindergarten and elementary school teachers in pre-service training have about human rights. We compared two groups of students: students with no specific training and students with specific training (the students with specific training study with the new training teaching programme that includes a compulsory subject related to citizenship education). The contents are organized around three thematic areas. Human rights are included in the first area ‘Basic concepts to (...)
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  11. 先秦儒家关于“欲”的理论 (Pre-Qin Confucian Theory on Human Desires).Keqian Xu - 2006 - 中州学刊 (Academic Journal of Zhongzhou) 2006 (1):166-170.
    The theory about human desire is one important component in early Confucian theory of humanity. It is worth our attention that Pre-Qin Confucians never put human desire at the absolute opposite position to the Heavenly Principle, as their successors do. Contrarily, they generally believe that the desire is the inseparable property of normal human nature, and making efforts to satisfy the human desire is reasonable. Only in terms of reducing the conflicts between human desire and the limited resources they advocate (...)
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  12.  47
    Human Immortality and Pre-Existence.John McTaggart Ellis McTaggart - 1916 - Kraus Reprint.
    HUMAN IMMORTALITY AND PRE-EXISTENCE PART I HUMAN IMMORTALITY I do not propose to offer here any arguments in support of the positive assertion that men are ...
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  13.  1
    The Temporal Dynamics of Regularity Extraction in Non‐Human Primates.Laure Minier, Joël Fagot & Arnaud Rey - 2016 - Cognitive Science 40 (4):1019-1030.
    Extracting the regularities of our environment is one of our core cognitive abilities. To study the fine-grained dynamics of the extraction of embedded regularities, a method combining the advantages of the artificial language paradigm and the serial response time task was used with a group of Guinea baboons in a new automatic experimental device. After a series of random trials, monkeys were exposed to language-like patterns. We found that the extraction of embedded patterns positioned at the end of larger patterns (...)
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  14. The Force-Field Puzzle and Mindreading in Non-Human Primates.José Luis Bermúdez - 2011 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 2 (3):397-410.
    What is the relation between philosophical theorizing and experimental data? A modest set of naturalistic assumptions leads to what I term the force-field puzzle. The assumption that philosophy is continuous with natural science, as captured in Quine’s force-field metaphor, seems to push us simultaneously towards thinking that there have to be conceptual constraints upon how we interpret experimental data and towards thinking that there cannot be such conceptual constraints, because all theorizing must be accountable to data and observation. The key (...)
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  15.  2
    Commentary: Lessons From the Analysis of Non-Human Primates for Understanding Human Aging and Neurodegenerative Diseases.Andre Menache & Anne Beuter - 2016 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 10.
  16. Nonhuman Primates, Human Need, and Ethical Constraints.David DeGrazia - 2016 - Hastings Center Report 46 (4):27-28.
    “The Ethics of Infection Challenges in Primates,” by Anne Barnhill, Steven Joffe, and Franklin Miller, is an exceptionally timely contribution to the literature on animal research ethics. Animal research has long been both a source of high hopes and a cause for moral concern. When it comes to infection challenge studies with nonhuman primates, neither the hope—to save thousands of human lives from such diseases as Ebola and Marburg—nor the concern—the conviction that primates deserve especially strong protections—could (...)
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  17.  52
    Primates, Hominids, and Humans—From Species Specificity to Human Uniqueness? A Response to Barbara J. King, Gregory R. Peterson, Wesley J. Wildman, and Nancy R. Howell. [REVIEW]J. Wentzel van Huyssteen - 2008 - Zygon 43 (2):505-525.
    In this response to essays by Barbara J. King, Gregory R. Peterson, Wesley J. Wildman, and Nancy R. Howell, I present arguments to counter some of the exciting and challenging questions from my colleagues. I take the opportunity to restate my argument for an interdisciplinary public theology, and by further developing the notion of transversality I argue for the specificity of the emerging theological dialogue with paleoanthropology and primatology. By arguing for a hermeneutics of the body, I respond to criticism (...)
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  18.  37
    Sequential Learning in Non-Human Primates.Christopher M. Conway & Morten H. Christiansen - 2001 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 5 (12):539-546.
  19.  29
    A Fortnight of My Life is Missing: A Discussion of the Status of the Human 'Pre-Embryo'.Alan Holland - 1990 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 7 (1):25-37.
    ABSTRACT Summed up in the coinage of the term ‘pre‐embryo’is the denial that human beings, as such, begin to exist from the moment of conception. This denial, which may be thought to have significant moral implications, rests on two kinds of reason. The first is that the pre‐embryo lacks the characteristics of a human being. The second is that the pre‐embryo lacks what it takes to be an individual human being. The first reason, I argue, embodies an untenable view of (...)
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  20.  1
    A Theory of Social Thermoregulation in Human Primates.Hans IJzerman, James A. Coan, Fieke M. A. Wagemans, Marjolein A. Missler, Ilja van Beest, Siegwart Lindenberg & Mattie Tops - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  21.  21
    Right-Handedness May Have Come First: Evidence From Studies in Human Infants and Nonhuman Primates.Daniela Corbetta - 2003 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (2):217-218.
    Recent studies with human infants and nonhuman primates reveal that posture interacts with the expression and stability of handedness. Converging results demonstrate that quadrupedal locomotion hinders the expression of handedness, whereas bipedal posture enhances preferred hand use. From an evolutionary perspective, these findings suggest that right-handedness may have emerged first, following the adoption of bipedal locomotion, with speech emerging later.
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  22.  13
    The Conflict of Pre-Paradigm Schools in Modern Human Origins Research.Goran Strkalj - 2000 - Acta Biotheoretica 48 (1):65-71.
    The debate on the origins of modern humans is one of the oldest and most controversial in the field of palaeoanthropology. In the 1860s the debate was established in the evolutionary context and, as a conflict between two major schools and various sub-schools, it has continued up until the present day. The opposing schools were and still are, at best, in only partial alignment on the major scientific issues. Each of them is founded in its own metaphysics and focuses on (...)
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  23.  6
    Pre-Hunt Communication Provides Context for the Evolution of Early Human Language.Szabolcs Számadó - 2010 - Biological Theory 5 (4):366-382.
    The origin of human language is one of the most fascinating and most difficult problems of evolution. Here I argue that pre-hunt communication was the starting context of the evolution of human language. Hunting of big game created a shared interest; animals and hunting actions are easy to imitate; the need to plan created a pressure for increasing complexity; and finally, cultural inheritance of hunting tools and know-how made the transition unique. I further argue that this “first step” was actually (...)
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  24. A Fortnight of My Life is Missing: A Discussion of the Status of the Human ‘Pre‐Embryo’.Alan Holland - 1990 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 7 (1):25-37.
    ABSTRACT Summed up in the coinage of the term ‘pre‐embryo’is the denial that human beings, as such, begin to exist from the moment of conception. This denial, which may be thought to have significant moral implications, rests on two kinds of reason. The first is that the pre‐embryo lacks the characteristics of a human being. The second is that the pre‐embryo lacks what it takes to be an individual human being. The first reason, I argue, embodies an untenable view of (...)
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  25.  73
    Action Comprehension in Non-Human Primates: Motor Simulation or Inferential Reasoning?Justin N. Wood & Marc D. Hauser - 2008 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 12 (12):461-465.
  26. A Theory of Human Behavior Based on Studies of Non-Human Primates.Colter Rule - 1967 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 10 (2):153-176.
  27.  3
    Using Non-Human Primates to Benefit Humans: Research and Organ Transplantation.David Shaw, Wybo Dondorp & Guido de Wert - 2014 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 17 (4):573-578.
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  28.  6
    Domain-Specific Knowledge in Human Children and Non-Human Primates: Artifacts and Foods.Laurie R. Santos, Marc D. Hauser & Elizabeth S. Spelke - 2002 - In Marc Bekoff, Colin Allen & Gordon M. Burghardt (eds.), The Cognitive Animal: Empirical and Theoretical Perspectives on Animal Cognition. MIT Press. pp. 205--216.
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  29. ""The Frontal Feedback Model of the Evolution of the Human Mind: Part 1, the" Pre"-Human Brain and the Perception-Action Cycle.Raymond A. Noack - 2006 - Journal of Mind and Behavior 27 (3):247.
     
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  30.  8
    Theory of Mind in Young Human Primates: Does Heyes's Task Measure It?Deepthi Kamawar & David R. Olson - 1998 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (1):122-123.
    Three- to six-year-olds were given Heyes's proposed task and theory of mind tasks. Although they correlated, Heyes's was harder; only 50% of participants with a theory of mind reached a criterion of 75% correct. Because of the complex series of inferences involved in Heyes's task, it is possible that one could have a theory of mind and fail Heyes's version.
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  31. Do Non-Human Primates Have Episodic Memory.Bennett L. Schwartz - 2005 - In Herbert S. Terrace & Janet Metcalfe (eds.), The Missing Link in Cognition: Origins of Self-Reflective Consciousness. Oxford University Press.
     
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  32.  1
    Non‐Adjacent Dependencies Processing in Human and Non‐Human Primates.Raphaëlle Malassis, Arnaud Rey & Joël Fagot - forthcoming - Cognitive Science.
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  33. Is the Neural Basis of Vocalisation Different in Non-Human Primates and Homo Sapiens?Detlev Ploog - 2002 - In The Speciation of Modern Homo Sapiens. pp. 121-135.
     
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  34.  12
    Using Non-Human Primates to Benefit Humans: Research and Organ Transplantation—Response to César Palacios-González.Wybo Dondorp, David Shaw & Guido de Wert - 2016 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 19 (2):227-228.
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  35. The Evolution of Irrationality: Insights From Non-Human Primates.Laurie Santos - 2007 - In Tamar Szabo Gendler & John Hawthorne (eds.), Oxford Studies in Epistemology. Oxford University Press.
     
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  36.  6
    Seasonality in Primates: Studies of Living and Extinct Human and Non-Human Primates. Edited by Diane K. Brockman & Carel P. Van Schaik. Pp. 590. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2005.) £70.00, ISBN 0-521-1820693, Hardback. [REVIEW]Hannah E. Parathian - 2007 - Journal of Biosocial Science 39 (3):477-478.
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  37.  2
    Brain Structures Playing a Crucial Role in the Representation of Tools in Humans and Non-Human Primates.Guido Gainotti - 2012 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 35 (4):224-225.
    The cortical representation of concepts varies according to the information critical for their development. Living categories, being mainly based upon visual information, are bilaterally represented in the rostral parts of the ventral stream of visual processing; whereas tools, being mainly based upon action data, are unilaterally represented in a left-sided fronto-parietal network. The unilateral representation of tools results from involvement in actions of the right side of the body.
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  38.  2
    Serial List Retention by Non-Human Primates: Complexity and Cognitive Continuity.F. Robert Treichler - 2012 - In David McFarland, Keith Stenning & Maggie McGonigle (eds.), The Complex Mind. Palgrave-Macmillan. pp. 25.
  39. Regularity Extraction Across Species: Associative Learning Mechanisms Shared by Human and Non‐Human Primates.Arnaud Rey, Laure Minier, Raphaëlle Malassis, Louisa Bogaerts & Joël Fagot - forthcoming - Topics in Cognitive Science.
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  40.  10
    Review of Dario Maestripieri's Games Primates Play: An Undercover Investigation of the Evolution and Economics of Human Relationships (New York: Basic Books, 2012). [REVIEW]Melissa Emery Thompson - 2012 - Human Nature 23 (2):250-252.
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  41. Unbornness: Human Pre-Existence and the Journey Toward Birth.Peter Selg - 2010 - Steinerbooks.
    The Sistine Madonna and the chorus of the unborn : Raphael and Nelly Sachs -- The human soul and the cosmos : life before conception -- From spiritual to earthly community : entering earthly existence -- Appendix : Rudolf Steiner : the transition from cosmic to earthly existence in the development of the human being.
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  42.  11
    Tests of Sensory Pre-Conditioning with Human Subjects.W. J. Brogden - 1942 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 31 (6):505.
  43.  7
    Improving the Quality of Host Country Ethical Oversight of International Research: The Use of a Collaborative ‘Pre‐Review’ Mechanism for a Study of Fexinidazole for Human African Trypanosomiasis.Carl H. Coleman, Chantal Ardiot, Séverine Blesson, Yves Bonnin, Francois Bompart, Pierre Colonna, Ames Dhai, Julius Ecuru, Andrew Edielu, Christian Hervé, François Hirsch, Bocar Kouyaté, Marie‐France Mamzer‐Bruneel, Dionko Maoundé, Eric Martinent, Honoré Ntsiba, Gérard Pelé, Gilles Quéva, Marie‐Christine Reinmund, Samba Cor Sarr, Abdoulaye Sepou, Antoine Tarral, Djetodjide Tetimian, Olaf Valverde, Simon Van Nieuwenhove & Nathalie Strub‐Wourgaft - 2015 - Developing World Bioethics 15 (3):241-247.
    Developing countries face numerous barriers to conducting effective and efficient ethics reviews of international collaborative research. In addition to potentially overlooking important scientific and ethical considerations, inadequate or insufficiently trained ethics committees may insist on unwarranted changes to protocols that can impair a study's scientific or ethical validity. Moreover, poorly functioning review systems can impose substantial delays on the commencement of research, which needlessly undermine the development of new interventions for urgent medical needs. In response to these concerns, the Drugs (...)
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  44.  47
    Reichsrundschreiben 1931: Pre-Nuremberg German Regulations Concerning New Therapy and Human Experimentation.Hans-Martin Sass - 1983 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 8 (2):99-112.
    This is the first re-publication and first English translation of regulations concerning Human Experimentation which were binding law prior to and during the Third Reich, 1931 to 1945. The introduction briefly describes the duties of the Reichsgesundheitsamt, which formulated these regulations. It then outlines the basic concept of the Richtlinien for protecting subjects and patients on the one hand and for encouraging New Therapy and Human Experimentation on the other hand. Major issues, like personal responsibility of the physician or researcher, (...)
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  45.  21
    Pre-AP English 10 17 February 2009 Human Nature According to Golding, Freud, and Katrina In His Novel Lord of the Flies, William Golding Examines the Relationship Between Civilization and Savagery by Illustrating How Society's Mores Lose Their Hold When People Are Reduced to Basic Survival. His Characters Represent Different Facets of Human Nature, Including Peace, Logic, Violence, and Power, but Eventually They Succumb to the Selfish, Power-Driven Aspect of Their Personalities. [REVIEW]Carrie Misenheimer - forthcoming - Human Nature.
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  46.  30
    Priming Primates: Human and Otherwise.Mark Chen, Tanya L. Chartrand, Annette Y. Lee-Chai & John A. Bargh - 1998 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (5):685-686.
    The radical nub of Byrne & Russon's argument is that passive priming effects can produce much of the evidence of higher-order cognition in nonhuman primates. In support of their position we review evidence of similar behavioral priming effects n humans. However, that evidence further suggests that even program-level imitative behavior can be produced through priming.
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  47.  23
    Imitation and Mirror Self-Recognition May Be Developmental Precursors to Theory of Mind in Human and Nonhuman Primates.Kim A. Bard - 1998 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (1):115-115.
    Heyes argues that nonhuman primates are unable to imitate, recognize themselves in mirrors, and take another's perspective, and that none of these capabilities are evidence for theory of mind. First, her evaluation of the evidence, especially for imitation and mirror self-recognition, is inaccurate. Second, she neglects to address the important developmental evidence that these capabilities are necessary precursors in the development of theory of mind.
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  48.  13
    Ethicists Offer Advice for Testing Human Brain Cells in Primates.Nicholas Wade - unknown
    If stem cells ever show promise in treating diseases of the human brain, any potential therapy would need to be tested in animals. But putting human brain stem cells into monkeys or apes could raise awkward ethical dilemmas, like the possibility of generating a humanlike mind in a chimpanzee's body.
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  49.  1
    PET 6-[18F]Fluoro-L-M-Tyrosine Studies of Dopaminergic Function in Human and Nonhuman Primates.Jamie L. Eberling - 2008 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 1.
  50. Differences in Auditory Timing Between Human and Nonhuman Primates.Honing Henkjan & Merchant Hugo - 2014 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 37 (6):557-558.
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