Results for 'preponderance of the evidence'

1000+ found
Order:
  1.  62
    'More Likely Than Not' - Knowledge First and the Role of Statistical Evidence in Courts of Law.Michael Blome-Tillmann - 2017 - In Adam Carter, Emma Gordon & Benjamin Jarvis (eds.), Knowledge First - Approaches in Epistemology and Mind. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. pp. 278-292.
    The paper takes a closer look at the role of knowledge and evidence in legal theory. In particular, the paper examines a puzzle arising from the evidential standard Preponderance of the Evidence and its application in civil procedure. Legal scholars have argued since at least the 1940s that the rule of the Preponderance of the Evidence gives rise to a puzzle concerning the role of statistical evidence in judicial proceedings, sometimes referred to as the (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  2. Sensitivity, Causality, and Statistical Evidence in Courts of Law.Michael Blome-Tillmann - 2015 - Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 4 (2):102-112.
    Recent attempts to resolve the Paradox of the Gatecrasher rest on a now familiar distinction between individual and bare statistical evidence. This paper investigates two such approaches, the causal approach to individual evidence and a recently influential (and award-winning) modal account that explicates individual evidence in terms of Nozick's notion of sensitivity. This paper offers counterexamples to both approaches, explicates a problem concerning necessary truths for the sensitivity account, and argues that either view is implausibly committed to (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  3.  11
    Evidence – Competence – Discourse: The Theoretical Framework of the Multi-Centre Clinical Ethics Support Project Metap.Stella Reiter-Theil, Marcel Mertz, Jan Schürmann, Nicola Stingelin Giles & Barbara Meyer-Zehnder - 2011 - Bioethics 25 (7):403-412.
    In this paper we assume that ‘theory’ is important for Clinical Ethics Support Services (CESS). We will argue that the underlying implicit theory should be reflected. Moreover, we suggest that the theoretical components on which any clinical ethics support (CES) relies should be explicitly articulated in order to enhance the quality of CES.A theoretical framework appropriate for CES will be necessarily complex and should include ethical (both descriptive and normative), metaethical and organizational components. The various forms of CES that exist (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   9 citations  
  4. Higher‐Order Evidence and the Limits of Defeat.Maria Lasonen‐Aarnio - 2014 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 88 (2):314-345.
    Recent authors have drawn attention to a new kind of defeating evidence commonly referred to as higher-order evidence. Such evidence works by inducing doubts that one’s doxastic state is the result of a flawed process – for instance, a process brought about by a reason-distorting drug. I argue that accommodating defeat by higher-order evidence requires a two-tiered theory of justification, and that the phenomenon gives rise to a puzzle. The puzzle is that at least in some (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   31 citations  
  5.  17
    Evidence–Competence–Discourse: The Theoretical Framework of the Multi‐Centre Clinical Ethics Support Project Metap.Stella Reiter‐Theil, Marcel Mertz, Jan Schuermann, Nicola Stingelin Giles & Barbara Meyer‐Zehnder - 2011 - Bioethics 25 (7):403-412.
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   11 citations  
  6.  21
    Indirect Evidence and the Poverty of the Stimulus: The Case of Anaphoric One.Stephani Foraker, Terry Regier, Naveen Khetarpal, Amy Perfors & Joshua Tenenbaum - 2009 - Cognitive Science 33 (2):287-300.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   6 citations  
  7.  83
    The Philosophy of Evidence-Based Medicine.Jeremy Howick - 2011 - Wiley-Blackwell, Bmj Books.
    The philosophy of evidence-based medicine -- What is EBM? -- What is good evidence for a clinical decision? -- Ruling out plausible rival hypotheses and confounding factors : a method -- Resolving the paradox of effectiveness : when do observational studies offer the same degree of evidential support as randomized trials? -- Questioning double blinding as a universal methodological virtue of clinical trials : resolving the Philip's paradox -- Placebo controls : problematic and misleading baseline measures of effectiveness (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   30 citations  
  8.  22
    Are Farmers of the Middle Distinctively “Good Stewards”? Evidence From the Missouri Farm Poll, 2006.Harvey S. James & Mary K. Hendrickson - 2010 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 23 (6):571-590.
    In this paper we consider the question of whether middle-scale farmers, which we define as producers generating between $100,000 and $250,000 in sales annually, are better agricultural stewards than small and large-scale producers. Our study is motivated by the argument of some commentators that farmers of this class ought to be protected in part because of the unique attitudes and values they possess regarding what constitutes a “good farmer.” We present results of a survey of Missouri farmers designed to assess (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  9.  84
    Religion, the Nature of Ultimate Owner, and Corporate Philanthropic Giving: Evidence From China.Xingqiang Du, Wei Jian, Yingjie Du, Wentao Feng & Quan Zeng - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 123 (2):1-22.
    Using a sample of Chinese listed firms for the period of 2004–2010, this study examines the impact of religion on corporate philanthropic giving. Based on hand-collected data of religion and corporate philanthropic giving, we provide strong and robust evidence that religion is significantly positively associated with Chinese listed firms’ philanthropic giving. This finding is consistent with the view that religiosity has remarkable effects on individual thinking and behavior, and can serve as social norms to influence corporate philanthropy. Moreover, religion (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   8 citations  
  10.  17
    Significance Testing, P-Values and the Principle of Total Evidence.Bengt Autzen - 2016 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 6 (2):281-295.
    The paper examines the claim that significance testing violates the Principle of Total Evidence. I argue that p-values violate PTE for two-sided tests but satisfy PTE for one-sided tests invoking a sufficient test statistic independent of the preferred theory of evidence. While the focus of the paper is to evaluate a particular claim about the relationship of significance testing and PTE, I clarify the reading of this methodological principle along the way.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  11.  66
    Conspiracy Theories on the Basis of the Evidence.Matthew Dentith - 2017 - Synthese:1-19.
    Conspiracy theories are often portrayed as unwarranted beliefs, typically supported by suspicious kinds of evidence. Yet contemporary work in Philosophy argues provisional belief in conspiracy theories is at the very least understandable---because conspiracies occur---and that if we take an evidential approach, judging individual conspiracy theories on their particular merits, belief in such theories turns out to be warranted in a range of cases. -/- Drawing on this work, I examine the kinds of evidence typically associated with conspiracy theories, (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  12. Iconoclast or Creed? Objectivism, Pragmatism, and the Hierarchy of Evidence.Maya J. Goldenberg - 2009 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 52 (2):168-187.
    Because “evidence” is at issue in evidence-based medicine (EBM), the critical responses to the movement have taken up themes from post-positivist philosophy of science to demonstrate the untenability of the objectivist account of evidence. While these post-positivist critiques seem largely correct, I propose that when they focus their analyses on what counts as evidence, the critics miss important and desirable pragmatic features of the evidence-based approach. This article redirects critical attention toward EBM’s rigid hierarchy of (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   9 citations  
  13.  24
    Epistemology, Research Methodology and Rule 702 of the Federal Rules of Evidence Versus Eva®.Stanley Paulo - 2003 - Journal of Business Ethics 44 (4):327 - 341.
    This article questions the continued use and application of EVA® (economic value added) because it is epistemologically a non-sequitur, fails to satisfy the requirements of sound research methodology in terms of being a reliable and valid metric, and is unlikely to satisfy the requirements of Rule 702 of the Federal Rules of Evidence. In the light of these insufficiencies, the continued use of EVA® is ethically questionable, and moreover in time is likely to result in class actions.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  14.  23
    The Structure of Causal Evidence Based on Eliminative Induction.Wolfgang Pietsch - 2014 - Topoi 33 (2):421-435.
    It is argued that in deterministic contexts evidence for causal relations states whether a boundary condition makes a difference or not to a phenomenon. In order to substantiate the analysis, I show that this difference/indifference making is the basic type of evidence required for eliminative induction in the tradition of Francis Bacon and John Stuart Mill. To this purpose, an account of eliminative induction is proposed with two distinguishing features: it includes a method to establish the causal irrelevance (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  15.  84
    The Contextual Character of Causal Evidence.Mauricio Suárez - 2014 - Topoi 33 (2):397-406.
    I argue for the thesis that causal evidence is context-dependent. The same causal claim may be warranted by the same piece of evidence in one context but not another. I show this in particular for the type of causal evidence characteristic of the manipulability theory defended by Woodward (Making things happen: a theory of causal explanation. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2003). My thesis, however, generalises to other theories—and at the end of the paper I outline the generalization (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  16.  34
    The Epistemology of Scientific Evidence.Douglas Walton & Nanning Zhang - 2013 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 21 (2):173-219.
    In place of the traditional epistemological view of knowledge as justified true belief we argue that artificial intelligence and law needs an evidence-based epistemology according to which scientific knowledge is based on critical analysis of evidence using argumentation. This new epistemology of scientific evidence (ESE) models scientific knowledge as achieved through a process of marshaling evidence in a scientific inquiry that results in a convergence of scientific theories and research results. We show how a dialogue interface (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  17.  22
    Objectivity and Subjectivity in Epistemology: A Defense of the Phenomenal Conception of Evidence.Logan Paul Gage - 2014 - Dissertation, Baylor University
    We all have an intuitive grasp of the concept of evidence. Evidence makes beliefs reasonable, justifies jury verdicts, and helps resolve our disagreements. Yet getting clear about what evidence is is surprisingly difficult. Among other possibilities, evidence might consist in physical objects like a candlestick found at the crime scene, propositions like ‘a candlestick was found at the crime scene,’ or experiences like the experience of witnessing a candlestick at the crime scene. This dissertation is a (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  18.  41
    Imperfect Epistemic Duties and the Justificational Fecundity of Evidence.Scott Stapleford - 2013 - Synthese 190 (18):4065-4075.
    Mark Nelson argues that we have no positive epistemic duties. His case rests on the evidential inexhaustibility of sensory and propositional evidence—what he calls their ‘infinite justificational fecundity’. It is argued here that Nelson’s reflections on the richness of sensory and propositional evidence do make it doubtful that we ever have an epistemic duty to add any particular beliefs to our belief set, but that they fail to establish that we have no positive epistemic duties whatsoever. A theory (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   3 citations  
  19. God, Fine-Tuning, and the Problem of Old Evidence.Bradley Monton - 2006 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 57 (2):405-424.
    The fundamental constants that are involved in the laws of physics which describe our universe are finely-tuned for life, in the sense that if some of the constants had slightly different values life could not exist. Some people hold that this provides evidence for the existence of God. I will present a probabilistic version of this fine-tuning argument which is stronger than all other versions in the literature. Nevertheless, I will show that one can have reasonable opinions such that (...)
    Direct download (15 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   11 citations  
  20.  41
    Moral Darwinism: Ethical Evidence for the Descent of Man. [REVIEW]Robert T. Pennock - 1995 - Biology and Philosophy 10 (3):287-307.
    Could an ethical theory ever play a substantial evidential role in a scientific argument for an empirical hypothesis? InThe Descent of Man, Darwin includes an extended discussion of the nature of human morality, and the ethical theory which he sketches is not simply developed as an interesting ramification of his theory of evolution, but is used as a key part of his evidence for human descent from animal ancestors. Darwin must rebut the argument that, because of our moral nature, (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  21. The Real World Failure of Evidence-Based Medicine.Donald W. Miller & Clifford Miller - 2011 - International Journal of Person Centered Medicine 1 (2):295-300.
    As a way to make medical decisions, Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) has failed. EBM's failure arises from not being founded on real-world decision-making. EBM aspires to a scientific standard for the best way to treat a disease and determine its cause, but it fails to recognise that the scientific method is inapplicable to medical and other real-world decision-making. EBM also wrongly assumes that evidence can be marshaled and applied according to an hierarchy that is determined in an argument by (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  22. On Evidence and Evidence-Based Medicine: Lessons From the Philosophy of Science.Maya J. Goldenberg - 2006 - Social Science and Medicine 62 (11):2621-2632.
    The evidence-based medicine (EBM) movement is touted as a new paradigm in medical education and practice, a description that carries with it an enthusiasm for science that has not been seen since logical positivism flourished (circa 1920–1950). At the same time, the term ‘‘evidence-based medicine’’ has a ring of obviousness to it, as few physicians, one suspects, would claim that they do not attempt to base their clinical decision-making on available evidence. However, the apparent obviousness of EBM (...)
    Direct download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   19 citations  
  23.  37
    Improving the Quality of Medical Care: The Normativity of Evidence-Based Performance Standards.Sandra Tanenbaum - 2012 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 33 (4):263-277.
    Poor quality medical care is sometimes attributed to physicians’ unwillingness to act on evidence about what works best. Evidence-based performance standards (EBPSs) are one response to this problem, and they are increasingly employed by health care regulators and payers. Evidence in this instance is judged according to the precepts of evidence-based medicine (EBM); it is probabilistic, and the randomized controlled trial (RCT) is the gold standard. This means that EBPSs suffer all the infirmities of EBM generally—well (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  24.  9
    Toward a More Objective Understanding of the Evidence of Carcinogenic Risk.Deborah G. Mayo - 1988 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1988:489 - 503.
    I argue that although the judgments required to reach statistical risk assessments may reflect policy values, it does not follow that the task of evaluating whether a given risk assessment is warranted by the evidence need also be imbued with policy values. What has led many to conclude otherwise, I claim, stems from misuses of the statistical testing methods involved. I set out rules for interpreting what specific test results do and do not say about the extent of a (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  25.  8
    Ruse's Treatment of the Evidence for Evolution: A Reconsideration.Alexander Rosenberg - 1980 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1980:83 - 93.
    It is argued that the assessment of the strength of the evidence for the Darwinian theory of evolution by natural selection offered by Michael Ruse in the Philosophy of Biology is in one respect too weak and in the other too strong. His claim that artificial selection provides at best analogical evidence for the theory is shown to rest on a spurious distinction between artificial and natural selection. His argument that Darwinian theory, unlike its competitors, accounts for the (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  26.  54
    An Interpretation of Probability in the Law of Evidence Based on Pro-Et-Contra Argumentation.Lennart Åqvist - 2007 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 15 (4):391-410.
    The purpose of this paper is to improve on the logical and measure-theoretic foundations for the notion of probability in the law of evidence, which were given in my contributions Åqvist [ (1990) Logical analysis of epistemic modality: an explication of the Bolding–Ekelöf degrees of evidential strength. In: Klami HT (ed) Rätt och Sanning (Law and Truth. A symposium on legal proof-theory in Uppsala May 1989). Iustus Förlag, Uppsala, pp 43–54; (1992) Towards a logical theory of legal evidence: (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  27.  35
    The Criminal Trial, the Rule of Law and the Exclusion of Unlawfully Obtained Evidence.Hock Lai Ho - 2016 - Criminal Law and Philosophy 10 (1):109-131.
    If the criminal trial is aimed simply at ascertaining the truth of a criminal charge, it is inherently problematic to prevent the prosecution from adducing relevant evidence on the ground of its unlawful provenance. This article challenges the starting premise by replacing the epistemic focus with a political perspective. It offers a normative justification for the exclusion of unlawfully obtained evidence that is rooted in a theory of the criminal trial as a process of holding the executive to (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  28.  38
    How Probabilistic Causation Can Account for the Use of Mechanistic Evidence.Erik Weber - 2009 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 23 (3):277-295.
    In a recent article in this journal, Federica Russo and Jon Williamson argue that an analysis of causality in terms of probabilistic relationships does not do justice to the use of mechanistic evidence to support causal claims. I will present Ronald Giere's theory of probabilistic causation, and show that it can account for the use of mechanistic evidence (both in the health sciences—on which Russo and Williamson focus—and elsewhere). I also review some other probabilistic theories of causation (of (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   9 citations  
  29.  70
    The Fine-Tuning Argument and the Requirement of Total Evidence.Peter Fisher Epstein - 2017 - Philosophy of Science 84 (4):639-658.
    According to the Fine-Tuning Argument, the existence of life in our universe confirms the Multiverse Hypothesis. A standard objection to FTA is that it violates the Requirement of Total Evidence. I argue that RTE should be rejected in favor of the Predesignation Requirement, according to which, in assessing the outcome of a probabilistic process, we should only use evidence characterizable in a manner available before observing the outcome. This produces the right verdicts in some simple cases in which (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  30.  64
    Those Who Have the Gold Make the Evidence: How the Pharmaceutical Industry Biases the Outcomes of Clinical Trials of Medications. [REVIEW]Joel Lexchin - 2012 - Science and Engineering Ethics 18 (2):247-261.
    Pharmaceutical companies fund the bulk of clinical research that is carried out on medications. Poor outcomes from these studies can have negative effects on sales of medicines. Previous research has shown that company funded research is much more likely to yield positive outcomes than research with any other sponsorship. The aim of this article is to investigate the possible ways in which bias can be introduced into research outcomes by drawing on concrete examples from the published literature. Poorer methodology in (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   11 citations  
  31. Philosophical Controversies in the Evaluation of Medical Treatments : With a Focus on the Evidential Roles of Randomization and Mechanisms in Evidence-Based Medicine.Alexander Mebius - 2015 - Dissertation, KTH Royal Institute of Technology
    This thesis examines philosophical controversies surrounding the evaluation of medical treatments, with a focus on the evidential roles of randomised trials and mechanisms in Evidence-Based Medicine. Current 'best practice' usually involves excluding non-randomised trial evidence from systematic reviews in cases where randomised trials are available for inclusion in the reviews. The first paper challenges this practice and evaluates whether adding of evidence from non-randomised trials might improve the quality and precision of some systematic reviews. The second paper (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  32.  99
    The Book of Evidence.Peter Achinstein - 2001 - Oxford University Press.
    What is required for something to be evidence for a hypothesis? In this fascinating, elegantly written work, distinguished philosopher of science Peter Achinstein explores this question, rejecting typical philosophical and statistical theories of evidence. He claims these theories are much too weak to give scientists what they want--a good reason to believe--and, in some cases, they furnish concepts that mistakenly make all evidential claims a priori. Achinstein introduces four concepts of evidence, defines three of them by reference (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   40 citations  
  33.  20
    De Gravitatione Reconsidered: The Changing Significance of Experimental Evidence for Newton's Metaphysics of Space.Zvi Biener - 2017 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 55 (4):583-608.
    newton's commitment to absolute space—the immobile, eternal arena in which all things exist—is well known.1 Before 1962, it was studied through three main sources: the scholium to the definitions of the Principia, the General Scholium, and the Leibniz-Clarke correspondence. Other historical evidence was scarce.2 In 1962, A. Rupert Hall and Marie Boas Hall published a previously unknown Newtonian manuscript they titled by its incipit De Gravitatione et aequipondio fluidorum et solidorum in fluidis.3 The work begins as a synthetic treatment (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  34.  33
    An Evidence-Based Study of the Evolutionary Behavioral Sciences.E. Machery & K. Cohen - 2012 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 63 (1):177-226.
    The disagreement between philosophers about the scientific worth of the evolutionary behavioral sciences (evolutionary psychology, human behavioral ecology, etc.) is in part due to the fact that critics and advocates of these sciences characterize them very differently. In this article, by analyzing quantitatively the citations made in the articles published in Evolution & Human Behavior between January 2000 and December 2002, we provide some evidence that undermines the characterization of the evolutionary behavioral sciences put forward by their critics.
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  35.  84
    The Quantitative Problem of Old Evidence.EC Barnes - 1999 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 50 (2):249-264.
    The quantitative problem of old evidence is the problem of how to measure the degree to which e confirms h for agent A at time t when A regards e as justified at t. Existing attempts to solve this problem have applied the e-difference approach, which compares A's probability for h at t with what probability A would assign h if A did not regard e as justified at t. The quantitative problem has been widely regarded as unsolvable primarily (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   6 citations  
  36.  58
    Model, Theory, and Evidence in the Discovery of the DNA Structure.Samuel Schindler - 2008 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 59 (4):619-658.
    In this paper, I discuss the discovery of the DNA structure by Francis Crick and James Watson, which has provoked a large historical literature but has yet not found entry into philosophical debates. I want to redress this imbalance. In contrast to the available historical literature, a strong emphasis will be placed upon analysing the roles played by theory, model, and evidence and the relationship between them. In particular, I am going to discuss not only Crick and Watson's well-known (...)
    Direct download (11 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   3 citations  
  37.  7
    Explorationism, Evidence Logic and the Question of the Non-Necessity of All Belief Systems.Don Faust - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 13:31-38.
    Explorationism (see www.bu.edu/wcp/Papers/Logi/LogiFaus.htm, WCP XX, “Conflict without Contradiction”) is a perspective concerning human knowledge: as yet, our ignorance of the Real World remains great. With this perspective, all our knowledge is so far only partial and tentative. Evidence Logic (EL) (see “The Concept of Evidence”, INTER. JOURNAL OF INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS 15 (2000), 477‐493) provides an example of a reasonable Base Logic for Explorationism:EL provides machinery for the representation and processing of gradational evidential predications. Syntactically, for any evidence (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  38.  5
    Alfred Weber's Essay `The Civil Servant' and Kafka's `In the Penal Colony': The Evidence of an Influence.Austin Harrington - 2007 - History of the Human Sciences 20 (3):41-63.
    In 1977 a German literary scholar, Astrid Lange-Kirchheim, published an article announcing an astonishing discovery: credible evidence exists to suggest that Kafka's famous disturbing short story, `In the Penal Colony', published in 1919 but first written in 1914, echoes and reworks, in several of its key images and turns of phrase, elements of an essay published in 1910 in the German literary magazine, Die neue Rundschau, bearing the title `Der Beamte' (`The Civil Servant', or `The Official' or `The Functionary') (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  39.  4
    The Character of Galilean Evidence.Joseph C. Pitt - 1986 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1986:125 - 134.
    We examine Galileo's theory of evidence as presented in his Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems. It is argued that for Galileo evidence not only had to be tied to the senses, but, that for purposes of evidential relevance, epistemologically significant experience is only of terrestrial objects and events. This account forms the first part of an argument for understanding Galileo as an instrumentalist. The second part of the argument consists in examining Galileo's views on the limits (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  40. Evidence for Use: Causal Pluralism and the Role of Case Studies in Political Science Research.S. Crasnow - 2011 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 41 (1):26-49.
    Most contemporary political science researchers are advocates of multimethod research, however, the value and proper role of qualitative methodologies, like case study analysis, is disputed. A pluralistic philosophy of science can shed light on this debate. Methodological pluralism is indeed valuable, but does not entail causal pluralism. Pluralism about the goals of science is relevant to the debate and suggests a focus on the difference between evidence for warrant and evidence for use. I propose that case study research (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  41. Is Meta-Analysis the Platinum Standard of Evidence?Jacob Stegenga - 2011 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 42 (4):497-507.
    An astonishing volume and diversity of evidence is available for many hypotheses in the biomedical and social sciences. Some of this evidence—usually from randomized controlled trials (RCTs)—is amalgamated by meta-analysis. Despite the ongoing debate regarding whether or not RCTs are the ‘gold-standard’ of evidence, it is usually meta-analysis which is considered the best source of evidence: meta-analysis is thought by many to be the platinum standard of evidence. However, I argue that meta-analysis falls far short (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   11 citations  
  42.  17
    Continuing the Evidence‐Based Health Care Debate in 2006. The Progress and Price of EBM.Andrew Miles & Michael Loughlin - 2006 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 12 (4):385-398.
  43.  2
    The Cognitive‐Evolutionary Model of Surprise: A Review of the Evidence[REVIEW]Reisenzein Rainer, Horstmann Gernot & Schützwohl Achim - forthcoming - Topics in Cognitive Science.
    Research on surprise relevant to the cognitive-evolutionary model of surprise proposed by Meyer, Reisenzein, and Schützwohl is reviewed. The majority of the assumptions of the model are found empirically supported. Surprise is evoked by unexpected events and its intensity is determined by the degree if schema-discrepancy, whereas the novelty and the valence of the eliciting events probably do not have an independent effect. Unexpected events cause an automatic interruption of ongoing mental processes that is followed by an attentional shift and (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  44.  84
    Social Values and Scientific Evidence: The Case of the HPV Vaccines.Kristen Intemann & Inmaculada de Melo-Martín - 2010 - Biology and Philosophy 25 (2):203-213.
    Several have argued that the aims of scientific research are not always independent of social and ethical values. Yet this is often assumed only to have implications for decisions about what is studied, or which research projects are funded, and not for methodological decisions or standards of evidence. Using the case of the recently developed HPV vaccines, we argue that the social aims of research can also play important roles in justifying decisions about (1) how research problems are defined (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   7 citations  
  45.  29
    Clues to the Puzzle of Scientific Evidence.Susan Haack - 2010 - Principia: An International Journal of Epistemology 5 (1):253-281.
    The evidence with respect to scientific claims is like empirical eviderwe generally — only more so: more complex, more dependent on instruments, etc., and usually a shared resource. Warranted scientific claims are always warranted by somebody's, or somebodies', experience, and somebody's or, somebodies', reasoning; so a theory of warrant must begin with the personal and then move to the social before it can get to grips with the impersonal sense in which we speak of a well-warranted claim or ill-founded (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  46. The ‘Extendedness’ of Scientific Evidence.Eric Kerr & Axel Gelfert - 2014 - Philosophical Issues 24 (1):253-281.
    In recent years, the idea has been gaining ground that our traditional conceptions of knowledge and cognition are unduly limiting, in that they privilege what goes on inside the ‘skin and skull’ of an individual reasoner. Instead, it has been argued, knowledge and cognition need to be understood as embodied, situated, and extended. Whether these various interrelations and dependencies are ‘merely’ causal, or are in a more fundamental sense constitutive of knowledge and cognition, is as much a matter of controversy (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  47. Bardaisan of Edessa: A Reassessment of the Evidence and a New Interpretation.Ilaria Ramelli - 2009 - Gorgias Press.
    This groundbreaking monograph on Bardaisan, his relation to Origen, and his Middle Platonic framework has argued, through a painstaking analysis of all evidence, that Bardaisan was a Christian Middle Platonist, a philosophical theologian who built a Logos Christology, possibly the first supporter of apokatastasis, and there is a close relation between Origen, Bardaisan, their thought, and their traditions [further proofs in an edition with essays: Mohr Siebeck, forthcoming]. This monograph (and a related HTR essay) was received far beyond the (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  48. The Conflict of Evidence and Coherence.Alex Worsnip - forthcoming - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research.
    For many epistemologists, and for many philosophers more broadly, it is axiomatic that rationality requires you to take the doxastic attitudes that your evidence supports. Yet there is also another current in our talk about rationality. On this usage, rationality is a matter of the right kind of coherence between one's mental attitudes. Surprisingly little work in epistemology is explicitly devoted to answering the question of how these two currents of talk are related. But many implicitly assume that (...) -responsiveness guarantees coherence, so that the rational impermissibility of incoherence will just fall out of the putative requirement to take the attitudes that one's evidence supports, and so that coherence requirements do not need to be theorized in their own right, apart from evidential reasons. In this paper, I argue that this is a mistake, since coherence and evidence -responsiveness can in fact come into conflict. More specifically, I argue that in cases of misleading higher-order evidence, there can be a conflict between believing what one's evidence supports and satisfying a requirement that I call “inter-level coherence ”. This illustrates why coherence requirements and evidential reasons must be separated and theorized separately. (shrink)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   4 citations  
  49. The Multiplicity of Self: Neuropsychological Evidence and its Implications for the Self as a Construct in Psychological Research.Stan Klein & Cynthia Gangi - 2010 - Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1191:1-15.
    This paper examines the issue ofwhat the self is by reviewing neuropsychological research,which converges on the idea that the selfmay be more complex and differentiated than previous treatments of the topic have suggested. Although some aspects of self-knowledge such as episodic recollection may be compromised in individuals, other aspects—for instance, semantic trait summaries—appear largely intact. Taken together, these findings support the idea that the self is not a single, unified entity. Rather, it is a set of interrelated, functionally independent systems. (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   4 citations  
  50.  53
    The Social and Environmental Responsibilities of Multinationals: Evidence From the Brent Spar Case. [REVIEW]Stelios C. Zyglidopoulos - 2002 - Journal of Business Ethics 36 (1-2):141 - 151.
    This paper argues that multinational corporations face levels of environmental and social responsibility higher than their national counterparts. Drawing on the literatures of stakeholder salience, corporate reputation management, and evidence from the confrontation between Shell and Greenpeace over the Brent Spar, in 1995, two mechanisms – international reputation side effects, and foreign stakeholder salience – are identified and their contribution in creating an environment more restrictive, in terms of environmental and social responsibility, is elaborated on. The paper concludes with (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   21 citations  
1 — 50 / 1000