Results for 'procreation'

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  1. The procreation asymmetry, improvable-life avoidance and impairable-life acceptance.Elliott Thornley - 2023 - Analysis 83 (3):517-526.
    Many philosophers are attracted to a complaints-based theory of the procreation asymmetry, according to which creating a person with a bad life is wrong (all else equal) because that person can complain about your act, whereas declining to create a person who would have a good life is not wrong (all else equal) because that person never exists and so cannot complain about your act. In this paper, I present two problems for such theories: the problem of impairable-life acceptance (...)
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  2. Procreation is Immoral on Environmental Grounds.Chad Vance - 2024 - The Journal of Ethics 28 (1):101-124.
    Some argue that procreation is immoral due to its negative environmental impact. Since living an “eco-gluttonous” lifestyle of excessive resource consumption is wrong in virtue of the fact that it increases greenhouse gas emissions and environmental impact, then bringing another human being into existence must also be wrong, for exactly this same reason. I support this position. It has recently been the subject of criticism, however, primarily on the grounds that such a position (1) is guilty of “double-counting” environmental (...)
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  3.  96
    Procreation, Adoption and the Contours of Obligation.Travis N. Rieder - 2014 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 32 (3):293-309.
    The goal of this article is to evaluate the defensibility of wide-spread beliefs concerning the moral value of procreating. Very many of us are ‘pro-natal’ — that is, we have a positive moral view of making more people — but pro-natalism is under serious threat. In particular, I argue that combining several arguments in procreative ethics generates a powerful case for the Anti-Natal Pro-Adoption View, or the view that we are obligated not to procreate, but instead to satisfy any parenting (...)
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  4. How Procreation Generates Parental Rights and Obligations.Michael Cholbi - 2016 - In Jaime Ahlberg & Michael Cholbi (eds.), Procreation, Parenthood, and Educational Rights: Ethical and Philosophical Issues. Routledge.
    Philosophical defenses of parents’ rights typically appeal to the interests of parents, the interests of children, or some combination of these. Here I propose that at least in the case of biological, non-adoptive parents, these rights have a different normative basis: namely, these rights should be accorded to biological parents because of the compensatory duties such parents owe their children by virtue of having brought them into existence. Inspried by Seana Shiffrin, I argue that procreation inevitably encumbers the wills (...)
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  5. Debating Procreation: Is It Wrong to Reproduce?David Benatar & David Wasserman (eds.) - 2015 - New York: Oxford University Press USA.
    While procreation is ubiquitous, attention to the ethical issues involved in creating children is relatively rare. In Debating Procreation, David Benatar and David Wasserman take opposing views on this important question. David Benatar argues for the anti-natalist view that it is always wrong to bring new people into existence. He argues that coming into existence is always a serious harm and that even if it were not always so, the risk of serious harm is sufficiently great to make (...)
  6. Procreation and parenthood: the ethics of bearing and rearing children.David Archard & David Benatar (eds.) - 2010 - New York: Oxford University Press.
    Procreation and Parenthood offers new and original essays by leading philosophers on some of the main ethical issues raised by these activities.
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  7.  80
    Rethinking Procreation: Why it Matters Why We Have Children.Mianna Lotz - 2011 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 28 (2):105-121.
    Attempts to explain the intuitive wrongfulness in alleged ‘wrongful life’ cases commonly do so by attributing harmful wrongdoing to the procreators in question. Such an approach identifies the resulting child as having been, in some sense, culpably harmed by their coming into existence. By contrast, and enlarging on work elsewhere, this paper explores the relevance of procreative motivation, rather than harm, for determining the morality of procreative conduct. I begin by reviewing the main objection to the harm-based approach, which arises (...)
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  8.  15
    Universal Procreation Rights and Future Generations.Tim Campbell, Martin Kolk & Julia Mosquera - forthcoming - Journal of Applied Philosophy.
    It is often acknowledged that public policies can constrain people's procreative opportunities, in some cases even infringing their procreative rights. However, a topic that is not often discussed is how the procreative choices of one generation can affect the procreative opportunities of later generations. In this article, we argue that the demographic fact that childbearing above the replacement fertility level is eventually unsustainable supports two constraints on universal procreation rights: a compossibility constraint and an egalitarian constraint. We explore the (...)
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  9.  90
    Heavenly Procreation.Blake Hereth - 2022 - Faith and Philosophy 39 (1):100-123.
    Kenneth Einar Himma (2009, 2016) argues that the existence of Hell renders procreation impermissible. Jason Marsh (2015) contends that problems of evil motivate anti-natalism. Anti-natalism is principally rejected for its perceived conflict with reproductive rights. I propose a theistic solution to the latter problem. Universalism says that all persons will, postmortem, eventually be eternally housed in Heaven, a superbly good place wherein harm is fully absent. The acceptance of universalism is now widespread, but I offer further reason to embrace (...)
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  10. Pessimism and procreation.Daniel Pallies - 2023 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 108 (3):751-771.
    The pessimistic hypothesis is the hypothesis that life is bad for us, in the sense that we are worse off for having come into existence. Suppose this hypothesis turns out to be correct — existence turns out to be more of a burden than a gift. A natural next thought is that we should stop having children. But I contend that this is a mistake; procreation would often be permissible even if the pessimistic hypothesis turned out to be correct. (...)
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  11.  77
    Procreation, Parenthood, and Educational Rights: Ethical and Philosophical Issues.Jaime Ahlberg & Michael Cholbi (eds.) - 2016 - Routledge.
    _Procreation, Parenthood, and Educational Rights_ explores important issues at the nexus of two burgeoning areas within moral and social philosophy: procreative ethics and parental rights. Surprisingly, there has been comparatively little scholarly engagement across these subdisciplinary boundaries, despite the fact that parental rights are paradigmatically ascribed to individuals responsible for procreating particular children. This collection thus aims to bring expert practitioners from these literatures into fruitful and innovative dialogue around questions at the intersection of procreation and parenthood. Among these (...)
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  12.  52
    Wrongful Procreation, Factory Farming, and the Afterlife.Dustin Crummett - 2021 - Faith and Philosophy 38 (3):337-358.
    Sometimes, I can affect whether an individual is created, but not how their life goes if they’re created. If their life will be bad enough, I apparently wrong them by allowing their creation. But sometimes, popular religious views imply that the created individual is guaranteed to have an infinitely good existence on balance. Since, I argue, I don’t wrong someone by allowing their creation when it’s infinitely good for them on balance, these views apparently have unacceptable implications for procreation (...)
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  13.  49
    Procreation and Projects.Elizabeth Brake - 2016 - The Philosophers' Magazine 75:89-94.
    A short essay for a general readership on the morality of procreation.
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  14. The Immorality of Procreation.Jimmy Alfonso Licon - 2012 - Think 11 (32):85-91.
    In this paper, I argue the practice of procreation is immoral regardless of the consequences of human presence such as climate change and overpopulation; the lack of consent, interests and moral desert on the part of nonexistent individuals means someone could potentially suffer in the absence of moral justification. Procreation is only morally justified if there is some method for acquiring informed consent from a non-existent person; but that is impossible; therefore, procreation is immoral.
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  15.  38
    Procreation machines: Ectogenesis as reproductive enhancement, proper medicine or a step towards posthumanism?Johanna Eichinger & Tobias Eichinger - 2020 - Bioethics 34 (4):385-391.
    Full ectogenesis as the complete externalization of human reproduction by bypassing the bodily processes of gestation and childbirth can be considered the culmination of genetic and reproductive technologies. Despite its still being a hypothetical scenario, it has been discussed for decades as the ultimate means to liberate women from their reproductive tasks in society and hence finally end fundamental gender injustices generally. In the debate about the application of artificial wombs to achieve gender equality, one aspect is barely mentioned but (...)
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  16. Procreation and value can ethics deal with futurity problems?David Heyd - 1988 - Philosophia 18 (2-3):151-170.
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  17.  70
    Environmentalism, procreation, and the principle of fairness.Paula Casal - 1999 - Public Affairs Quarterly 13 (4):363-376.
  18. A portable defense of the Procreation Asymmetry.Jake Earl - 2017 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 47 (2-3):178-199.
    The Procreation Asymmetry holds that we have strong moral reasons not to create miserable people for their own sakes, but no moral reasons to create happy people for their own sakes. To defend this conjunction against an argument that it leads to inconsistency, I show how recognizing ‘creation’ as a temporally extended process allows us to revise the conjuncts in a way that preserves their intuitive force. This defense of the Procreation Asymmetry is preferable to others because it (...)
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  19. Overconsumption and procreation: Are they morally equivalent?Thomas Young - 2001 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 18 (2):183–192.
    I argue it is inconsistent to believe that overconsumption is wrong or bad yet believe that having children is morally permissible, insofar as they produce comparable environmental impacts, are voluntary choices, and arise from similar desires. This presents a dilemma for "mainstream environmentalists": they do not want to abandon either of those fundamental beliefs, yet must give up one of them. I present an analogical argument supporting that conclusion. After examining four attempts to undermine the analogy, I conclude that none (...)
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  20.  44
    The Procreation Asymmetry Destabilized: Analogs and Acting for People's Sake.Jonas H. Aaron - 2022 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 60 (3):326-352.
    Is there a pro tanto moral reason to create a life merely because it would be good for the person living it? Proponents of the procreation asymmetry claim there is not. Defending this controversial no reason claim, some have suggested that it is well in line with other phenomena in the moral realm: there is no reason to give a promise merely because one would keep it, and there is no reason to procreate merely to increase the extent of (...)
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  21.  16
    Public goods and procreation.Jonathan Anomaly - 2014 - Monash Bioethics Review 32 (3-4):172-188.
    Procreation is the ultimate public goods problem. Each new child affects the welfare of many other people, and some (but not all) children produce uncompensated value that future people will enjoy. This essay addresses challenges that arise if we think of procreation and parenting as public goods. These include whether individual choices are likely to lead to a socially desirable outcome, and whether changes in laws, social norms, or access to genetic engineering and embryo selection might improve the (...)
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  22. Beneficence and procreation.Molly Gardner - 2016 - Philosophical Studies 173 (2):321-336.
    Consider a duty of beneficence towards a particular individual, S, and call a reason that is grounded in that duty a “beneficence reason towards S.” Call a person who will be brought into existence by an act of procreation the “resultant person.” Is there ever a beneficence reason towards the resultant person for an agent to procreate? In this paper, I argue for such a reason by appealing to two main premises. First, we owe a pro tanto duty of (...)
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  23. Procreation, Footprint and Responsibility for Climate Change.Felix Pinkert & Martin Sticker - 2020 - The Journal of Ethics 25 (3):293-321.
    Several climate ethicists have recently argued that having children is morally equivalent to over-consumption, and contributes greatly to parents’ personal carbon footprints. We show that these claims are mistaken, for two reasons. First, including procreation in parents’ carbon footprints double-counts children’s consumption emissions, once towards their own, and once towards their parents’ footprints. We show that such double-counting defeats the chief purpose of the concept of carbon footprint, namely to measure the sustainability and equitability of one’s activities and choices. (...)
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  24.  89
    The procreation asymmetry asymmetry.Adam Lerner - 2023 - Philosophical Studies 180 (4):1169-1195.
    According to the procreation asymmetry, we have strong pro tanto reason to do what prevents someone from coming into a miserable existence—an existence so bad that it would be rational to prefer having never been born—solely because it prevents them from coming into a miserable existence, but we do not have strong pro tanto reason to do what allows someone to come into a happy existence solely because it allows them to come into a happy existence. At best, the (...)
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  25.  4
    Procreation.Laura Shanner - 1998 - In Alison M. Jaggar & Iris Marion Young (eds.), A companion to feminist philosophy. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell. pp. 429–437.
    Because women gestate pregnancies while men do not, and because reproductive decisions have an enormous impact on the health, economic security, and social status of women, it is not surprising that procreation is an early and frequent subject of feminist scholarship. In recent decades, rapidly evolving technologies in infertility treatment, prenatal diagnosis, fetal tissue use, and genetics have made woman‐centered analysis of reproduction particularly urgent. Responding to evolving technology requires an interdisciplinary approach, incorporating medical technology assessment, law, health policy, (...)
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  26.  13
    Procreating in an Overpopulated World: Role Moralities and a Climate Crisis.Craig Stanbury - forthcoming - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry:1-13.
    It is an open question when procreation is justified. Antinatalists argue that bringing a new individual into the world is morally wrong, whereas pronatalists say that creating new life is morally good. In between these positions lie attempts to provide conditions for when taking an anti or pronatal stance is appropriate. This paper is concerned with developing one of these attempts, which can be called qualified pronatalism. Qualified pronatalism typically claims that while procreation can be morally permissible, there (...)
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  27.  6
    Assisted procreation: too little consideration for the babies?Carlo Bellieni & Giuseppe Buonocore - 2006 - Ethics and Medicine 22 (2).
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  28. Assisted Procreation: Fertility in Mourning and the Perspectives of the Couple.Claudine Bourg - 1998 - Human Reproduction and Genetic Ethics 4 (2):29-32.
     
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  29.  58
    Procreation vs. Consumption.Kalle Grill - 2023 - Environmental Ethics 45 (3):265-286.
    Recently, it has been argued by several scholars that we have moral reasons to limit our procreation due to the harmful environmental consequences it entails. These calls for procreative restraint are typically made in relation to other lifestyle choices, such as minimizing driving and air travel. In such comparisons, it is assumed that the environmental impact of procreation encompasses the lifetime consumption of the child created, and potentially that of further descendants. After an overview of these arguments, I (...)
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  30.  50
    Procreation and Consumption in the Real World.Philip Cafaro - 2023 - Environmental Ethics 45 (3):295-306.
    The cause of global environmental decline is clear: an immense and rapidly growing human economy. In response, environmentalists should advocate policies leading to fewer people, lower per capita consumption, and less harmful technologies. All three of these must be addressed, not just one instead of the others. That is our best remaining hope to create sustainable societies and preserve what global biodiversity remains. Sharing Earth justly with other species and protecting it for future human generations are achievable goals, but only (...)
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  31.  19
    Procréation sans rapport sexuel et fantasmes de scène primitive. Réflexions issues d’une approche clinique de l’homoparentalité.Despina Naziri - 2017 - Dialogue: Families & Couples 1 (1):65-78.
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  32.  43
    Is Procreation Special?Ingrid Robeyns - 2022 - Journal of Value Inquiry 56 (4):643-661.
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  33. La procréation. Ce qu'en sait le Livre de la Sagesse.M. Gilbert - 1989 - Nouvelle Revue Théologique 111 (6):824-841.
     
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  34. Procreation, Power and Personal Autonomy: Feminist Reflections.Anne Donchin - manuscript
    Anne Donchin attended graduate school while raising four children, received her doctorate from the University of Texas in 1970, taught for 18 years in Texas and New York, then joined the philosophy department at Indiana University–Purdue University Indianapolis in 1982. Here she developed a Women’s Studies program, specialized and in numerous ways pioneered in feminist bioethics, and won two prestigious grants. She co-edited two books, published some forty articles, and co-founded and co-ordinated The International Network on Feminist Approaches to Bioethics. (...)
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  35. Marriage, Procreation, and Same-Sex Unions.Patrick Lee - 2008 - The Monist 91 (3-4):422-438.
  36. Conditional Reasons and the Procreation Asymmetry.Johann Frick - 2020 - Philosophical Perspectives 34 (1):53-87.
    This paper sketches a theory of the reason‐giving force of well‐being that allows us to reconcile our intuitions about two of the most recalcitrant problem cases in population ethics: Jan Narveson's Procreation Asymmetry and Derek Parfit's Non‐Identity Problem. I show that what has prevented philosophers from developing a theory that gives a satisfactory account of both these problems is their tacit commitment to a teleological conception of well‐being, as something to be ‘promoted’. Replacing this picture with one according to (...)
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  37. Procreation and Obligation.Yvette E. Pearson - 2002 - Dissertation, University of Miami
    This dissertation explores the notion of a right to reproduce in the context of assisted reproductive technologies and argues that there are no good arguments supporting the notion of a genuine, independent right to reproduce. Although it is generally believed to be self-evident that there is a right to reproduce, I question this line of thinking and expose the fact that there is no adequate demonstration of a right to reproduce. Once I point out that there is no adequate basis (...)
     
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  38. Procreation and Parenthood: The Ethics of Bearing and Rearing Children, by David Archard and David Benatar (eds).N. Richards - 2012 - Mind 121 (483):773-776.
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  39.  2
    Human procreation in civilized society.H. G. Classen - 1961 - The Eugenics Review 52 (4):251.
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  40.  26
    Debating Procreation: Is It Wrong to Reproduce?Allen Thompson - 2016 - Analysis 76 (4):556-558.
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  41.  24
    Debating Procreation: Is It Wrong to Reproduce? By David Benatar and David Wasserman.Raymond Dennehy - 2016 - International Philosophical Quarterly 56 (2):253-256.
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  42.  24
    Assisted Procreation and its Relationship to Genetics and Eugenics.Mariella Ricci - 2009 - Human Reproduction and Genetic Ethics 15 (1):9-29.
  43. Procreation, Carbon Tax, and Poverty: An Act-Consequentialist Climate-Change Agenda.Ben Eggleston - 2020 - In Dale E. Miller & Ben Eggleston (eds.), Moral Theory and Climate Change: Ethical Perspectives on a Warming Planet. London, UK: Routledge. pp. 58–77.
    A book chapter (about 9,000 words, plus references) presenting an act-consequentialist approach to the ethics of climate change. It begins with an overview of act consequentialism, including a description of the view’s principle of rightness (an act is right if and only if it maximizes the good) and a conception of the good focusing on the well-being of sentient creatures and rejecting temporal discounting. Objections to act consequentialism, and replies, are also considered. Next, the chapter briefly suggests that act consequentialism (...)
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  44.  51
    Embryo Loss in Natural Procreation and Stem Cell Research.James J. Delaney - 2012 - The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 12 (3):461-476.
    John Harris argues that opponents of human embryonic stem cell research, Catholics specifically, suffer an inconsistency in their moral thinking, opposing it on the basis that the sacrifice of an embryo is impermissible even for the good of curing disease. They have no objection to natural procreation, however, which results in many early miscarriages. Harris contends that Catholics tacitly endorse these miscarriages as a permissible sacrifice for the good of producing other, healthy children. This paper offers a response to (...)
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  45.  10
    Procréation sans rapport sexuel et fantasmes de scène primitive. Réflexions issues d’une approche clinique de l’homoparentalité.Despina Naziri - 2017 - Dialogue: Families & Couples 1:65-78.
  46.  82
    Procreation and parenthood: The ethics of bearing and rearing children * edited by David Archard and David Benatar.N. Holtug - 2012 - Analysis 72 (2):401-402.
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  47. Public Goods and Procreation.Jonny Anomaly - 2014 - Monash Bioethics Review 32 (3-4):172-188.
  48. The Ethics of Procreation and Adoption.Tina Rulli - 2016 - Philosophy Compass 11 (6):305-315.
    It is widely assumed that people have a moral right to procreate. This article explores recent arguments in opposition to procreation in some or all contexts. Some such views are concerned with the risks and harms of life that procreation imposes on non-consenting children. Others articulate concerns for third parties – the environmental damage or opportunity costs that procreation poses to already existing people. The article then surveys arguments that favor procreation despite the risks to the (...)
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  49.  26
    Beneficence, Numbers, and the Procreation Asymmetry.Jason Hanna - 2021 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 18 (6):597-619.
    According to the Weak Procreation Asymmetry, there are weighty reasons not to create miserable people and only weaker reasons to create happy people. This view has several advantages over the Strong Procreation Asymmetry, which holds that there are no reasons to create happy people. Nonetheless, it faces a serious problem: according to some critics, it suggests that our reasons to create lives are as strong as our reasons to save lives. In response, this essay draws on the intuition (...)
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  50.  15
    Procréation et philosophie.Jacques Bels - 1986 - Revue Philosophique De Louvain 84 (4):445-459.
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