Results for 'promises'

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Bibliography: Promises in Normative Ethics
  1. Promises and Trust.Daniel Friedrich & Nicholas Southwood - 2011 - In Hanoch Sheinman (ed.), Promises and Agreement: Philosophical Essays. Oxford University Press.
    In this article we develop and defend what we call the “Trust View” of promissory obligation, according to which making a promise involves inviting another individual to trust one to do something. In inviting her trust, and having the invitation accepted (or at least not rejected), one incurs an obligation to her not to betray the trust that one has invited. The distinctive wrong involved in breaking a promise is a matter of violating this obligation. We begin by explicating the (...)
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  2.  80
    We Make No Promises.Elinor Mason - 2004 - Philosophical Studies 123 (1-2):33-46.
    I discuss three views of promising: the view is that promising is a social practice, and that our obligation to keep promises is related to the practice in some way; Scanlon’s non-practice view, and Wallace and Kolodny’s “hybrid view”. I shall argue that none of these accounts is satisfactory, and propose a fourth view: deflationism. Deflationism is the view that saying “I promise” merely adds emphasis and does not incur any extra obligation.
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  3. Hume On Is and Ought: Logic, Promises and the Duke of Wellington.Charles Pigden - forthcoming - In Paul Russell (ed.), Oxford Handbook on David Hume. Oxford University Press.
    Hume seems to contend that you can’t get an ought from an is. Searle professed to prove otherwise, deriving a conclusion about obligations from a premise about promises. Since (as Schurz and I have shown) you can’t derive a substantive ought from an is by logic alone, Searle is best construed as claiming that there are analytic bridge principles linking premises about promises to conclusions about obligations. But we can no more derive a moral obligation to pay up (...)
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  4.  32
    Promises and Material Conditionals.Mark T. Nelson - 1993 - Teaching Philosophy 16 (2):155-156.
    Some beginning logic students find it hard to understand why a material conditional is true when its antecedent is false. I draw an analogy between conditional statements and conditional promises (especially between true conditional statements and unbroken conditional promises) that makes this point of logic less counter-intuitive.
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  5.  28
    Directed Obligations and the Trouble with Deathbed Promises.Ashley Dressel - 2015 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 18 (2):323-335.
    On some popular accounts of promissory obligation, a promise creates an obligation to the person to whom the promise is made . On such accounts, the wrong involved in breaking a promise is a wrong committed against a promisee. I will call such accounts ‘directed obligation’ accounts of promissory obligation. While I concede that directed obligation accounts make good sense of many of our promissory obligations, I aim to show that directed obligation accounts, at least in their current forms, cannot (...)
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  6. Oaths, Promises, and Compulsory Duties: Kant's Response to Mendelssohn's Jerusalem.J. Colin McQuillan - 2014 - Journal of the History of Ideas 75 (4):581-604.
    This article argues that Kant's essay on enlightenment responds to Moses Mendelssohn's defense of the freedom of conscience in Jerusalem. While Mendelssohn holds that the freedom of conscience as an inalienable right, Kant argues that the use of one's reason may be constrained by oaths. Kant calls such a constrained use of reason the private use of reason. While he also defends the unconditional freedom of the public use of reason, Kant believes that one makes oneself a part of the (...)
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  7.  57
    Promises, Morals, and Law.P. S. Atiyah - 1981 - Clarendon Press.
    Chapter Promising in Law and Morals Promissory and contractual obligations raise many issues of common interest to philosophers and lawyers. ...
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  8. Promises Beyond Assurance.Nicholas Southwood & Daniel Friedrich - 2009 - Philosophical Studies 144 (2):261 - 280.
    Breaking a promise is generally taken to involve committing a certain kind of moral wrong, but what (if anything) explains this wrong? According to one influential theory that has been championed most recently by T.M. Scanlon, the wrong involved in breaking a promise is a matter of violating an obligation that one incurs to a promisee in virtue of giving her assurance that one will perform or refrain from performing certain acts. In this paper, we argue that the “Assurance View”, (...)
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  9. Sidgwick on Promises.David Phillips - 2011 - In Hanoch Sheinman (ed.), Promises and Agreements: Philosophical Essays. Oxford University Press.
    Sidgwick believes that his own proto-utilitarian axioms satisfy criteria for self-evidence, while the principles of common sense morality, including the principle requiring fidelity to promises, do not. I articulate Sidgwick's argument for this claim, in Book III of the Methods, but suggest that it fails: its official version is vulnerable to a charge of unfairness, and its unofficial version cannot establish Sidgwick's view against Ross's.
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  10. Promises and Practices Revisited.Niko Kolodny & R. Jay Wallace - 2003 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 31 (2):119-154.
    Promising is clearly a social practice or convention. By uttering the formula, “I hereby promise to do X,” we can raise in others the expectation that we will in fact do X. But this succeeds only because there is a social practice that consists (inter alia) in a disposition on the part of promisers to do what they promise, and an expectation on the part of promisees that promisers will so behave. It is equally clear that, barring special circumstances of (...)
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  11. Neurolaw and Neuroprediction: Potential Promises and Perils.Walter Sinnott‐Armstrong Thomas Nadelhoffer - 2012 - Philosophy Compass 7 (9):631-642.
    Neuroscience has been proposed for use in the legal system for purposes of mind reading, assessment of responsibility, and prediction of misconduct. Each of these uses has both promises and perils, and each raises issues regarding the admissibility of neuroscientific evidence.
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  12.  5
    Promises Schmomises.Heidi M. Hurd - forthcoming - Law and Philosophy:1-65.
    In this piece, I argue that promises need not be kept just because they were made. This is not to say, however, that unwise, unhappy, and unfortunate promises do not generate obligations. When broken promises will result either in wrongful gains to promisors or wrongful losses to promisees, obligations of corrective justice will demand that such promises be kept if their breach cannot be fully repaired. Thus, when a broken promise will constitute a deliberate loss transfer (...)
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  13.  11
    The Promises of Moral Foundations Theory.Bert Musschenga - 2013 - Journal of Moral Education 42 (3):330-345.
    In this article I examine whether Moral Foundations Theory can fulfil the promises that Haidt claims for the theory: that it will help in developing new approaches to moral education and to the moral conflicts that divide our diverse society. I argue that, first, the model that Haidt suggests for understanding the plurality of moralities?a shared foundation underlying diverse moralities?does not help to overcome conflicts. A better understanding of the nature and background of moral conflicts can lead to a (...)
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  14.  52
    Scientific World-Conceptions as Promises of Science and Problems of Philosophy of Science.Thomas Mormann - manuscript -
    The aim of this paper is to show that global scientific promises aka “scientific world-conceptions” have an interesting history that should be taken into account also for contemporary debates. I argue that the prototypes of many contemporary philosophical positions concerning the role of science in society can already be found in the philosophy of science of the 1920s and 1930s. First to be mentioned in this respect is the Scientific World-Conception of the Vienna Circle (The Manifesto) that promised to (...)
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  15.  55
    Is There a Reason to Keep Promises.Joseph Raz - manuscript -
    If promises are binding there must be a reason to do as one promised. The paper is motivated by belief that there is a difficulty in explaining what that reason is. It arises because the reasons that promising creates are content-independent. Similar difficulties arise regarding other content-independent reasons, though their solution need not be the same. -/- Section One introduces an approach to promises, and outlines an account of them that I have presented before. It forms the backdrop (...)
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  16.  66
    Is an Agreement an Exchange of Promises?Margaret Gilbert - 1993 - Journal of Philosophy 60 (12):627-649.
    This paper challenges the common assumption that an agreement is an exchange of promises. Proposing that the performance obligations of some typical agreements are simultaneous, interdependent, and unconditional, it argues that no promise-exchange has this structure of obligations. In addition to offering general considerations in support of this claim, it examines various types of promise-exchange, showing that none satisfy the criteria noted. Two forms of conditional promise are distinguished and both forms are discussed. A positive account of agreements as (...)
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  17.  61
    Neurolaw and Neuroprediction: Potential Promises and Perils.Thomas Nadelhoffer & Walter Sinnott-Armstrong - 2012 - Philosophy Compass 7 (9):631-642.
    Neuroscience has been proposed for use in the legal system for purposes of mind reading, assessment of responsibility, and prediction of misconduct. Each of these uses has both promises and perils, and each raises issues regarding the admissibility of neuroscientific evidence.
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  18.  9
    What Would John Dewey Do? The Promises and Perils of Pragmatic Bioethics.Christopher Tollefsen - 2000 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 25 (1):77 – 106.
    Recent work done at the intersection of classical American pragmatism and bioethics promises much: a clarified self-understanding for bioethics, a modus vivendi for progress, and liberation from misguided and misguiding theories and principles. The revival of pragmatism outside bioethics in the past twenty years, however, has been of a distinctly anti-realist orientation. Richard Rorty, for example, has urged that there is no objective truth or good for philosophy to be concerned with. I ask whether the work in Pragmatic Bioethics (...)
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  19.  79
    A Plethora of Promises — or None at All.Michael Cholbi - 2014 - American Philosophical Quarterly 51 (3):261-272.
    Utilitarians are supposed to have difficulty accounting for our obligation to keep promises. But utilitarians also face difficulties concerning our obligation to make promises. Consider any situation in which the options available to me are acts A, B, C… n, and A is utility maximizing. Call A+ the course of action consisting of A plus my promising to perform A. Since there appear to be a wide range of instances in which A+ has greater net utility then A, (...)
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  20.  14
    Promises to Keep: Speech Acts and the Value of Reflective Knowledge.John Turri - 2011 - Logos and Episteme 2 (3):583-590.
    This paper offers a new account of reflective knowledge’s value, building on recent work on the epistemic norms of speech acts. Reflective knowledge is valuable because it licenses us to make guarantees and promises.
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  21. The Promises and Perils of Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation.Jan-Hendrik Heinrichs - 2012 - International Journal of Law and Psychiatry 35:121-129.
    Non-invasive brain stimulation promises innovative experimental possibilities for psychology and neurosci- ence as well as new therapeutic and palliative measures in medicine. Because of its good risk–benefit ratio, non-invasiveness and reversibility as well as its low effort and cost it has good chances of becoming a wide- spread tool in science, medicine and even in lay use. While most issues in medical and research ethics such as informed consent, safety, and potential for misuse can be handled with manageable effort, (...)
     
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  22.  34
    Privacy by Design: Delivering the Promises[REVIEW]Peter Hustinx - 2010 - Identity in the Information Society 3 (2):253-255.
    An introductory message from Peter Hustinx, European Data Protection Supervisor, delivered at Privacy by Design: The Definitive Workshop. This presentation looks back at the origins of Privacy by Design, notably the publication of the first report on “Privacy Enhancing Technologies” by a joint team of the Information and Privacy Commissioner of Ontario, Canada and the Dutch Data Protection Authority in 1995. It looks ahead and adresses the question of how the promises of these concepts could be delivered in practice.
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  23.  15
    Pitfalls and Promises: The Use of Secondary Data Analysis in Educational Research.Emma Smith - 2008 - British Journal of Educational Studies 56 (3):323-339.
    This paper considers the use of secondary data analysis in educational research. It addresses some of the promises and potential pitfalls that influence its use and explores a possible role for the secondary analysis of numeric data in the 'new' political arithmetic tradition of social research. Secondary data analysis is a relatively under-used technique in Education and in the social sciences more widely, and it is an approach that is not without its critics. Here we consider two main objections (...)
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  24.  35
    Understanding Conditional Promises and Threats.Dr Sieghard Beller, Andrea Bender & Gregory Kuhnm - 2005 - Thinking and Reasoning 11 (3):209 – 238.
    Conditional promises and threats are speech acts that are used to manipulate other people's behaviour. Studies on human reasoning typically use propositional logic to analyse what people infer from such inducements. While this approach is sufficient to uncover conceptual features of inducements, it fails to explain them. To overcome this limitation, we propose a multilevel analysis integrating motivational, linguistic, deontic, behavioural, and emotional aspects. Commonalities and differences between conditional promises and threats on various levels were examined in two (...)
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  25.  86
    Hume on Promises and the Peculiar Act of the Mind.Rachel Cohon - 2006 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 44 (1):25-45.
    : Hume's account of the virtue of fidelity to promises contains two surprising claims: 1) Any analysis of fidelity that treats it as a natural (nonconventional) virtue is incorrect because it entails that in promising we perform a "peculiar act of the mind," an act of creating obligation by willing oneself to be obligated. No such act is possible. 2) Though the obligation of promises depends upon social convention, not on such a mental act, we nonetheless "feign" that (...)
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  26. Promises and Rule-Consequentialism.Brad Hooker - unknown -
    The duty to keep promises has many aspects associated with deontological moral theories. The duty to keep promises is non-welfarist, in that the obligation to keep a promise need not be conditional on there being a net benefit from keeping the promise—indeed need not be conditional on there being at least someone who would benefit from its being kept. The duty to keep promises is more closely connected to autonomy than directly to welfare: agents have moral powers (...)
     
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  27.  35
    Self-Creation, Identity and Authenticity: A Study of "A History of Violence" and "Eastern Promises".Daniel Moseley - 2012 - In Simon Riches (ed.), The Philosophy of David Cronenberg. University Press of Kentucky.
    This essay explores philosophical questions about practical identity that emerge in David Cronenberg's films, "A History of Violence" and "Eastern Promises." I distinguish the metaphysical problems of personal identity from the practical problems and contend that the latter are of central importance to the topic of authenticity. Central scenes from both films are examined with an eye to their engagement with the issues of authenticity and self-creation.
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  28.  4
    The Promises and Perils of Pragmatism: Commentary on Fins, Bacchetta, and Miller.Rosemarie Tong - 1997 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 7 (2):147-152.
    : Fins, Bacchetta, and Miller's clinical pragmatism has several appealing features: an emphasis on dialogue, a commitment to consensus, a focus on particular individuals rather than persons in general, and a strong interest in the process as well as the product of moral decision making. Nevertheless, for all its protests to the contrary, clinical pragmatism has a tendency to privilege medical facts over nonmedical values, to conflate appropriate medical decisions with right moral decisions, and to conceive problems at the bedside (...)
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  29.  26
    Rationalizations and Promises in Games.Johan van Benthem - unknown -
    Understanding human behaviour involves "why"'s as well as "how"'s. Rational people have good reasons for acting, but it can be hard to find out what these were and how they worked. In this Note, we discuss a few ways in which actions, preferences, and expectations are intermingled. This mixture is especially clear with the well-known solution procedure for extensive games called 'Backward Induction'. In particular, we discuss three scenarios for analyzing behaviour in a game. One can rationalize given moves as (...)
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  30.  28
    Dynamic Appraisals: A Paper with Promises.Nico H. Frijda - 2005 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (2):205-206.
    The proposed dynamic systems model of emotion generation indeed appears considerably more plausible and descriptively adequate than traditional linear models. It also comes much closer to the complex interactions observed in neurobiological research. The proposals regarding self-organization in emerging appraisal-emotion interactions are thought-provoking and attractive. Yet, at this point they are more in the nature of promises than findings, and are clearly in need of corroborating psychological evidence or demonstrated theoretical desirability.
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  31.  21
    Skilled Coping And Sport: Promises Of Phenomenology.Bryan Hogeveen - 2011 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 5 (3):245 - 255.
    Phenomenology holds much potential to make meaningful contributions to research on sport. In this paper, I argue that concepts such as equipment, habit and readiness-at-hand will help to uncover heretofore unexamined strands of athletic embodiment. Through an examination of the work of Edmund Husserl, Martin Heidegger, Maurice Merleau-Ponty and Hubert Dreyfus I take some initial steps towards outlining not only the promises of phenomenology for the study of sport, but also what such an undertaking might entail. In conclusion I (...)
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  32.  30
    Promises, Social Acts, and Reid's First Argument for Moral Liberty.Gideon Yaffe - 2007 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 45 (2):267-289.
    This paper is concerned to bring out the philosophical contribution that Thomas Reid makes in his discussions of promising. Reid discusses promising in two contexts: he argues that the practice of promising presupposes the belief that the promisor is endowed with what he calls 'active power' , and he argues against Hume's claim that the very act of promising—and the obligation to do as one promised—are "artificial," or the products of human convention . In addition to explaining what Reid says (...)
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  33.  13
    Context Matters: Promises and Concerns Regarding Nanotechnologies for Water and Food Applications. [REVIEW]Haico te Kulve, Kornelia Konrad, Carla Alvial Palavicino & Bart Walhout - 2013 - NanoEthics 7 (1):17-27.
    Expectations in the form of promises and concerns contribute to the sense-making and valuation of emerging nanotechnologies. They add up to what we call ‘de facto assessments’ of novel socio-technical options. We explore how de facto assessments of nanotechnologies differ in the application domains of water and food by examining promises and concerns, and their relations in scientific discourse. We suggest that domain characteristics such as prior experiences with emerging technologies, specific discursive repertoires and user-producer relationships, play a (...)
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  34.  27
    Assurance and Scanlon's Theory of Promises.Richard Parkhill - 2008 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 108 (1pt3):385-392.
    I offer a reading of the first clause of T. M. Scanlon's principle of fidelity to assurances. A circularity problem is created by his way of differentiating promises from other assurances which comply with this principle. When the clause is read in the way here proposed, all assurances complying with the principle are promises, and so this problem no longer arises.
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  35.  16
    Game Strategies, Promises, and Rational Choice.Jan van Eijck - unknown -
    We will study game trees as representations of rational choice and as representations of player preferences, and promises as public announcements of genuine intentions. Promises in a game change what players know about the preferences of other players. They can be modelled as operations that change a given game into a different game where players know more about the effects of their strategies.
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  36.  14
    Blurred Promises: Ethical Consequences of Fine Print Policies in Insurance. [REVIEW]Øyvind Kvalnes - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 103 (S1):77-86.
    The insurance industry’s practice of producing comprehensive insurance policies can have unforeseen and negative ethical consequences. Insurance policies express promises from the insurer to the insured, to the effect that the insurer should be trusted to appropriately assist the insured in case of accident. The relation is seriously undermined when the content of the promise is blurred, containing clauses and condition which are ambiguous or hidden in fine print. This paper contains an investigation of (1) the sources of the (...)
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  37.  6
    Can Libertarians Make Promises?Alfred Mele - 2004 - In John Hyman & Helen Steward (eds.), Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement. Cambridge University Press. pp. 217-241.
    Libertarians hold that free action and moral responsibility are incompatible with determinism and that some human beings occasionally act freely and are morally responsible for some of what they do. Can libertarians who know both that they are right and that they are free make sincere promises? Peter van Inwagen, a libertarian, contends that they cannot—at least when they assume that should they do what they promise to do, they would do it freely. Probably, this strikes many readers as (...)
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  38.  4
    Some Features of Promises and Their Obligations.Michael G. Pratt - 2014 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 52 (3):382-402.
    Promises raise two main philosophical problems, one moral and the other conceptual. The moral problem concerns the normative significance of promising: what is the nature and basis of the obligations and rights to which promises typically give rise? The conceptual problem is to say what a promise is: what is involved in making a promise? In this paper I defend three controversial claims about promising. One is about the moral problem of promising, one is about the conceptual problem, (...)
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  39.  1
    My Kingdom for a Horse: On Incredible Promises and Unpersuasive Warnings.Alejandro López-Rousseau, Gil Diesendruck & Avi Benozio - 2011 - Pragmatics and Cognitionpragmatics and Cognition 19 (3):399-421.
    Promising and warning are speech acts that have to be credible to be persuasive. The question is: When does a promise become incredible and a warning unpersuasive? Whereas credibility has been researched from a social persuasion perspective, this article answers that question empirically, from an adaptive heuristics perspective. First, we present a satisficing algorithm that discriminates conditional promises, threats, advices, and warnings by pragmatic cues. Then, we discuss an alternative model of this algorithm that further accounts for the credibility (...)
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  40. Can Libertarians Make Promises?: Alfred Mele.Alfred Mele - 2004 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 55:217-241.
    Libertarians hold that free action and moral responsibility are incompatible with determinism and that some human beings occasionally act freely and are morally responsible for some of what they do. Can libertarians who know both that they are right and that they are free make sincere promises? Peter van Inwagen, a libertarian, contends that they cannot—at least when they assume that should they do what they promise to do, they would do it freely. Probably, this strikes many readers as (...)
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  41. Promises, Morals and Law.P. S. Atiyah - 1983 - Oxford University Press UK.
     
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  42. How Psychology Can Keep its Promises: A Response to Lana.Henry D. Schlinger - 2004 - Journal of Mind and Behavior 25 (4):277-286.
    In my article, “Why Psychology Hasn’t Kept Its Promises” , I argued that psychology hasn’t become the science its practitioners had hoped because psychologists continue to focus on mentalistic constructs and they adhere to a methodology that emphasizes statistical inference over experimental analysis. I concluded that in order to better keep their promise of a psychological science, psychologists should return to studying the relationship between observed behavior and its context with the type of experimental analysis that characterizes the other (...)
     
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  43. Promises, Oaths, and Vows: On the Psychology of Promising.Herbert J. Schlesinger - 2008 - Routledge.
    Considering that getting along in civil society is based on the expectation that people will do what they say they will do, i.e., essentially live up to their explicit or implicit promises, it is amazing that so little scientific attention has been given to the act of promising. A great deal of research has been done on the moral development of children, for example, but not on the child’s ability to make and keep a promise, one of the highest (...)
     
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  44. Contract, Covenant and Class-Consciousness: Gerrard Winstanley and the Broken Promises of the English Revolution.D. Webb - 2003 - History of Political Thought 24 (4):577-598.
    This article explores the link between Winstanley's analysis of the broken promises of the English Revolution and his attempt to mobilize the class- consciousness of the labouring poor. It suggests that his communalist reading of the promises made by Parliament to the people of England, and especially his interpretation of the Solemn League and Covenant, stretched the boundaries of language and logic to breaking point. It argues, however, that Winstanley's peculiar interpretation of the Covenant was significant because it (...)
     
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  45. Promises Under Fire.John Deigh - 2002 - Ethics 112 (3):483-506.
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  46.  14
    Emerging Neurotechnologies for Lie-Detection: Promises and Perils.Paul Root Wolpe, Kenneth R. Foster & Daniel D. Langleben - 2005 - American Journal of Bioethics 5 (2):39-49.
    Detection of deception and confirmation of truth telling with conventional polygraphy raised a host of technical and ethical issues. Recently, newer methods of recording electromagnetic signals from the brain show promise in permitting the detection of deception or truth telling. Some are even being promoted as more accurate than conventional polygraphy. While the new technologies raise issues of personal privacy, acceptable forensic application, and other social issues, the focus of this paper is the technical limitations of the developing technology. Those (...)
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  47.  28
    Emerging Neurotechnologies for Lie-Detection: Promises and Perils.Daniel D. Langleben, Kenneth R. Foster & Paul Root Wolpe - 2010 - American Journal of Bioethics 10 (10):40-48.
    Detection of deception and confirmation of truth telling with conventional polygraphy raised a host of technical and ethical issues. Recently, newer methods of recording electromagnetic signals from the brain show promise in permitting the detection of deception or truth telling. Some are even being promoted as more accurate than conventional polygraphy. While the new technologies raise issues of personal privacy, acceptable forensic application, and other social issues, the focus of this paper is the technical limitations of the developing technology. Those (...)
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  48. Immoral, Conflicting and Redundant Promises.Seana Valentine Shiffrin - 2011 - In R. Jay Wallace, Rahul Kumar & Samuel Freeman (eds.), Reasons and Recognition: Essays on the Philosophy of T.M. Scanlon. Oxford University Press.
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  49. A Libertarian Theory or Contract: Title Transfer, Binding Promises, and Inalienability.N. Stephan K_insella - 2003 - Journal of Libertarian Studies 17 (2):11-37.
     
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  50. Evidence-Based Policy: Promises and Challenges.Mark Colyvan & Adam La Caze - unknown -
    Evidence-based policy is gaining support in many areas of government and in public affairs more generally. In this paper we outline what evidence—based policy is then discuss its strengths and weaknesses. In particular, we argue that it faces a serious challenge to provide a plausible account of evidence. This account needs to be at least in the spirit of the hierarchy of evidence subscribed to by evidence-based medicine (from which evidence—based policy derives its name and inspiration). Yet evidence-based policy’s hierarchy (...)
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