Results for 'propensity score'

999 found
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  1.  19
    Using Propensity Score‐Based Weighting in the Evaluation of Health Management Programme Effectiveness.Ariel Linden & John L. Adams - 2010 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 16 (1):175-179.
  2.  7
    Combining Propensity Score-Based Stratification and Weighting to Improve Causal Inference in the Evaluation of Health Care Interventions.Ariel Linden - 2014 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 20 (6):1065-1071.
  3.  30
    Applying a Propensity Score‐Based Weighting Model to Interrupted Time Series Data: Improving Causal Inference in Programme Evaluation.Ariel Linden & John L. Adams - 2011 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 17 (6):1231-1238.
  4.  4
    Combining Machine Learning and Propensity Score Weighting to Estimate Causal Effects in Multivalued Treatments.Ariel Linden & Paul R. Yarnold - 2016 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 22 (6):875-885.
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  5.  9
    Evaluating Health Management Programmes Over Time: Application of Propensity Score‐Based Weighting to Longitudinal Data.Ariel Linden & John L. Adams - 2010 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 16 (1):180-185.
  6.  22
    Propensity Score Weighting for Causal Inference with Clustered Data.Shu Yang - 2018 - Journal of Causal Inference 6 (2).
    Propensity score weighting is a tool for causal inference to adjust for measured confounders in observational studies. In practice, data often present complex structures, such as clustering, which make propensity score modeling and estimation challenging. In addition, for clustered data, there may be unmeasured cluster-level covariates that are related to both the treatment assignment and outcome. When such unmeasured cluster-specific confounders exist and are omitted in the propensity score model, the subsequent propensity (...) adjustment may be biased. In this article, we propose a calibration technique for propensity score estimation under the latent ignorable treatment assignment mechanism, i. e., the treatment-outcome relationship is unconfounded given the observed covariates and the latent cluster-specific confounders. We impose novel balance constraints which imply exact balance of the observed confounders and the unobserved cluster-level confounders between the treatment groups. We show that the proposed calibrated propensity score weighting estimator is doubly robust in that it is consistent for the average treatment effect if either the propensity score model is correctly specified or the outcome follows a linear mixed effects model. Moreover, the proposed weighting method can be combined with sampling weights for an integrated solution to handle confounding and sampling designs for causal inference with clustered survey data. In simulation studies, we show that the proposed estimator is superior to other competitors. We estimate the effect of School Body Mass Index Screening on prevalence of overweight and obesity for elementary schools in Pennsylvania. (shrink)
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  7.  20
    Combining the Regression Discontinuity Design and Propensity Score‐Based Weighting to Improve Causal Inference in Program Evaluation.Ariel Linden & John L. Adams - 2012 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (2):317-325.
  8.  24
    Improving Participant Selection in Disease Management Programmes: Insights Gained From Propensity Score Stratification.Ariel Linden & John L. Adams - 2008 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 14 (5):914-918.
  9.  5
    Propensity Score Analysis with Survey Weighted Data.Greg Ridgeway, Stephanie Ann Kovalchik, Beth Ann Griffin & Mohammed U. Kabeto - 2015 - Journal of Causal Inference 3 (2).
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  10.  10
    Chasing Balance and Other Recommendations for Improving Nonparametric Propensity Score Models.Beth Ann Griffin, Daniel F. McCaffrey, Daniel Almirall, Lane F. Burgette & Claude Messan Setodji - 2017 - Journal of Causal Inference 5 (2).
    :In this article, we carefully examine two important implementation issues when estimating propensity scores using generalized boosted models, a promising machine learning technique. First, we examine which of the following methods for tuning GBM lead to better covariate balance and inferences about causal effects: pursuing covariate balance between the treatment groups or tuning the propensity score model on the basis of a model fit criterion. Second, we examine how well GBM can handle irrelevant covariates that are included (...)
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  11.  11
    A Comparison of Propensity Score-Based Approaches to Health Service Evaluation: A Case Study of a Preoperative Physician-Led Clinic for High-Risk Surgical Patients.Clarabelle T. Pham, Catherine L. Gibb, Murthy N. Mittinty, Robert A. Fitridge, Villis R. Marshall & Jonathan D. Karnon - 2016 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 22 (5):761-770.
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  12.  19
    Are They Efficient in the Middle? Using Propensity Score Estimation for Modeling Middlemen in Indian Corporate Corruption.Malay Biswas - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 141 (3):563-586.
    Corrupt regulatory environment encourages firms to deploy middlemen for speedy and assured acquisition of different services from regulatory agencies. Using a World Bank dataset of 2210 Indian manufacturing firms, this article examines how firms with middlemen deal with corrupt governmental agencies for its operational efficiency. Our results demonstrate that deployment of middlemen by the firms is often accompanied by a substantial increase in operational delay, relatively trigger more consumption of senior management’s time on regulatory disentanglement, enhance the likelihood/tendency to pay (...)
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  13.  3
    Continuum of Maternal Health Care Services and its Impact on Child Immunization in India: An Application of the Propensity Score Matching Approach.Mohd Usman, Enu Anand, Laeek Siddiqui & Sayeed Unisa - forthcoming - Journal of Biosocial Science:1-20.
    Continuum of care throughout pregnancy, delivery and post-delivery has proved to be a critical health intervention for improving the health of mothers and their newborn children. Using data from the fourth wave of the National Family Health Survey conducted in 2015–16, this study examined the correlates of utilization of maternal health care services and child immunization following the continuum of care approach in India. The study also assessed whether the continuity in utilizing maternal health care services affects the immunization of (...)
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  14.  4
    Erratum to Revisiting a Discrepant Result: A Propensity Score Analysis, the Paired Availability Design for Historical Controls, and a Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials [J Causal Inference DOI: 10.1515/Jci-2013-0005]. [REVIEW]Stuart G. Baker & Karen S. Lindeman - 2014 - Journal of Causal Inference 2 (1).
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  15.  8
    Estimating Causal Effects for Survival Outcomes by Combining Classification Tree Analysis and Propensity Score Weighting.Ariel Linden & Paul R. Yarnold - 2018 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 24 (2):380-387.
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  16.  9
    Improving Causal Inference with a Doubly Robust Estimator That Combines Propensity Score Stratification and Weighting.Ariel Linden - 2017 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 23 (4):697-702.
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  17.  5
    Association Between Early Advanced Life Support and Good Neurological Outcome in Out of Hospital Cardiac Arrest: A Propensity Score Analysis.Laurianne Michelland, Fréderic Adnet, Joséphine Escutnaire, Chloe Baker, Hervé Hubert & Sylvie Chevret - 2020 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 26 (3):1013-1021.
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  18.  20
    Comprehensive Support for Family Caregivers of Post-9/11 Veterans Increases Veteran Utilization of Long-Term Services and Supports: A Propensity Score Analysis. [REVIEW]Megan Shepherd-Banigan, Valerie A. Smith, Karen M. Stechuchak, Katherine E. M. Miller, Susan Nicole Hastings, Gilbert Darryl Wieland, Maren K. Olsen, Margaret Kabat, Jennifer Henius, Margaret Campbell-Kotler & Courtney Harold Van Houtven - 2018 - Inquiry: The Journal of Health Care Organization, Provision, and Financing 55:004695801876291.
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  19.  1
    Patients' Perspectives on a New Delivery Model in Primary Care: A Propensity Score Matched Analysis of Patient‐Reported Outcomes in a Dutch Cohort Study.Esther H. A. van den Bogaart, Marieke D. Spreeuwenberg, Mariëlle E. A. L. Kroese, Sofie J. M. van Hoof, Niels Hameleers & Dirk Ruwaard - forthcoming - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice.
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  20.  54
    Moral Reasoning in Computer-Based Task Environments: Exploring the Interplay Between Cognitive and Technological Factors on Individuals' Propensity to Break Rules. [REVIEW]Jeffrey A. Roberts & David M. Wasieleski - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 110 (3):355-376.
    This study examines the relationship between cognitive moral development (CMD), productivity features of information technology (IT) and unethical behavior or misconduct. Using an experimental design that randomly assigns subjects to one of four unique technology conditions, we assess the relationship between a subjects' predominant level of CMD and ethical misconduct on IT-oriented work tasks. Our results show that both higher levels of CMD and increased levels of IT productivity features at one's disposal have a significant role to play in explaining (...)
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  21.  64
    Thoughts on the Evaluation of Corporate Social Performance Through Projects.José Salazar, Bryan W. Husted & Markus Biehl - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 105 (2):175-186.
    Corporate social performance (CSP) has become a widely applied concept, discussed in most large firms’ corporate reports and the academic literature alike. Unfortunately, CSP has largely been employed as a way of demonstrating corporate social responsibility (CSR) in practice, or to justify the business case for CSR in academia by relating some measure of CSP to some measure of financial performance. In this article, we discuss multiple shortcomings to these approaches. We argue that (1) CSR activities need to be managed (...)
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  22.  43
    Using Balance Statistics to Determine the Optimal Number of Controls in Matching Studies.Ariel Linden & Steven J. Samuels - 2013 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 19 (5):968-975.
  23.  26
    Executive Compensation and Corporate Fraud in China.Martin J. Conyon & Lerong He - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 134 (4):669-691.
    This study investigates the relation between CEO compensation and corporate fraud in China. We document a significantly negative correlation between CEO compensation and corporate fraud using data on publicly traded firms between 2005 and 2010. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that firms penalize CEOs for fraud by lowering their pay. We also find that CEO compensation is lower in firms that commit more severe frauds. Panel data fixed effects and propensity score methods are used to demonstrate (...)
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  24.  13
    Do Chief Sustainability Officers Make Companies Greener? The Moderating Role of Regulatory Pressures.Jorge Rivera & Patricia Kanashiro - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 155 (3):687-701.
    We draw from upper echelons theory to investigate whether the presence of a chief sustainability officer is associated with better corporate environmental performance in highly polluting industries. Such firms are under strong pressure to remediate environmental damage, to comply with regulations, and to even exceed environmental standards. CSOs in these firms are likely to be hired as legitimate agents to lead and successfully implement environmental strategy aimed at reducing pollution levels. Interestingly and contrary to our expectations, we found that the (...)
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  25.  13
    Female CEOs and Core Earnings Quality: New Evidence on the Ethics Versus Risk-Aversion Puzzle.Alaa Mansour Zalata, Collins Ntim, Ahmed Aboud & Ernest Gyapong - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 160 (2):515-534.
    The question of whether females tend to act more ethically or risk-averse compared to males is an interesting ethical puzzle. Using a large sample of US firms over the 1992–2014 period, we investigate the effect that the gender of a chief executive officer has on earnings management using classification shifting. We find that the pre-Sarbanes–Oxley Act period was characterized by high levels of classification shifting by both female and male CEOs, but the magnitude of such practices is, surprisingly, significantly higher (...)
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  26.  15
    Women’s Leadership and Firm Performance: Family Versus Nonfamily Firms.Mehdi Nekhili, Héla Chakroun & Tawhid Chtioui - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 153 (2):291-316.
    We evaluate the relationship between the appointment of women to CEO or Chair positions and firm performance, and shed light on the differences between family and nonfamily firms. By using a propensity score matching approach on a sample of 394 French firms over the period 2001–2010, we find major discordances between women’s leadership style and family business expectations relative to firm performance, as measured by return on assets and Tobin’s q. Notably, our results support the conjecture that family (...)
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  27.  8
    Is There Informational Value in Corporate Giving?Kiyoung Chang, Hoje Jo & Ying Li - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 151 (2):473-496.
    In this article, we propose that giving in cash and non-cash differ in their relation with the giving firm’s future corporate financial performance and only cash giving is associated with future CFP. Using a novel dataset from ASSET4 that differentiates corporate giving over a sample period of 2002–2012, we examine three competing hypotheses: agency cost hypothesis that cash giving reflects agency cost and destroys value for shareholders, investment hypothesis that cash giving is an investment by management that aims for better (...)
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  28.  22
    Environmental Pressure and the Performance of Foreign Firms in an Emerging Economy.Nahyun Kim, Jon J. Moon & Haitao Yin - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 137 (3):475-490.
    Does environmental management help foreign firms outperform local firms in emerging economies? While existing research suggests that environmental management may or may not benefit firm performance, the question is particularly under-investigated in the emerging economy context. Using the data on foreign investment into China, this study explores whether foreign firms that are under greater environmental pressure, at home or at the host, outperform comparable local firms in an emerging host country. In making this comparison, we use propensity-score matching (...)
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  29.  13
    What’s in a Surname? The Effect of Auditor-CEO Surname Sharing on Financial Misstatement.Xingqiang Du - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 158 (3):849-874.
    This study examines the influence of auditor-CEO surname sharing on financial misstatement and further investigates whether the above effect depends on hometown relationship and the rarity of surnames, respectively. Using hand-collected data from China, the findings show that ACSS is significantly positively related to financial misstatement, suggesting that the auditor-CEO ancestry membership elicits the collusion and increases the likelihood of financial misstatement. Moreover, ACSS based upon hometown relationship leads to significantly higher likelihood of financial misstatement, compared with ACSS without hometown (...)
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  30.  4
    Corporate Social Responsibility and Financial Fraud: The Moderating Effects of Governance and Religiosity.Xing Li, Jeong-Bon Kim, Haibin Wu & Yangxin Yu - forthcoming - Journal of Business Ethics.
    This study investigates how managers in firms that have committed fraud strategically use socially responsible activities in coordination with their fraudulent financial reporting practices. Using propensity score matching to select control firms that have a similar probability of fraud in the pre-fraud benchmark period, we find that the corporate social responsibility performance of fraudulent firms in the fraud-committing period is significantly higher compared with the CSR performance of non-fraudulent control firms during this period, and compared with that during (...)
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  31.  1
    Corporate Social Responsibility and Financial Fraud: The Moderating Effects of Governance and Religiosity.Xing Li, Jeong-Bon Kim, Haibin Wu & Yangxin Yu - forthcoming - Journal of Business Ethics:1-20.
    This study investigates how managers in firms that have committed fraud strategically use socially responsible activities in coordination with their fraudulent financial reporting practices. Using propensity score matching to select control firms that have a similar probability of fraud in the pre-fraud benchmark period, we find that the corporate social responsibility performance of fraudulent firms in the fraud-committing period is significantly higher compared with the CSR performance of non-fraudulent control firms during this period, and compared with that during (...)
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  32.  12
    Competitive Research Grants and Their Impact on Career Performance.Carter Bloch, Ebbe Krogh Graversen & Heidi Skovgaard Pedersen - 2014 - Minerva 52 (1):77-96.
    The role of competitive funds as a source of funding for academic research has increased in many countries. For the individual researcher, the receipt of a grant can influence both scientific production and career paths. This paper focuses on the importance of the receipt of a research grant for researchers’ academic career paths utilizing a mixed methods approach that combines econometric analysis with in-depth qualitative interviews. The analysis has novel elements both in terms of its subject (impact of funding grants (...)
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  33.  20
    Diabetic Patients with Prior Specialist Care Have Better Glycaemic Control Than Those with Prior Primary Care.Baiju R. Shah, Janet E. Hux, Andreas Laupacis, Bernard Zinman Mdcm, Peter C. Austin & Carl van Walraven - 2005 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 11 (6):568-575.
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  34.  1
    Two Wrongs Make a ‘Right’? Exploring the Ethical Calculus of Earnings Management Before Large Labor Dismissals.Ionela Andreicovici, Nava Cohen, Silvia Ferramosca & Alessandro Ghio - forthcoming - Journal of Business Ethics:1-27.
    This paper examines whether firms strategically legitimize large labor dismissals by performing ex-ante downward earnings management. We further assess whether the effect is larger under stakeholder pressure and whether these practices influence the external perception of firms’ behavior. As laying off employees without an economic reason is perceived as a breach of the social contract, stakeholders pressure firms to provide economic justification for LLDs. We argue that firms strategically legitimize LLDs by artificially worsening their financial performance through downward earnings management. (...)
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  35.  18
    Do LGBT-Supportive Corporate Policies Improve Credit Ratings? An Instrumental-Variable Analysis.Pandej Chintrakarn, Sirimon Treepongkaruna, Pornsit Jiraporn & Sang Mook Lee - 2020 - Journal of Business Ethics 162 (1):31-45.
    We investigate the effect of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender -supportive corporate policies on credit ratings. To the extent that LGBT-friendly policies are beneficial to the firm and therefore improve its expected cash flows, credit rating agencies should assign more favorable credit ratings to the firm. To alleviate endogeneity concerns, we exploit the variations in the LGBT populations across the states in the U.S. as our instrument. Our instrumental-variable analysis reveals that firms that adopt LGBT-supportive corporate policies enjoy better credit (...)
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  36.  1
    The Effect of Large Corporate Donors on Non-Profit Performance.Andrew R. Finley, Curtis Hall, Erica Harris & Stephen J. Lusch - forthcoming - Journal of Business Ethics.
    Using a dataset of corporate philanthropic gifts of $1 million or more, we examine the influence of corporate donors on the performance of recipient non-profit organizations. We find that corporate donors positively influence NPO performance, specifically in the form of higher revenues per employee, program ratios, and fundraising returns. We find little evidence that large foundation or individual donors similarly enhance organizational performance. In additional analysis, we find that large corporate donations matter when the corporation is more likely to have (...)
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  37.  12
    ISO 14001 Certification and Corporate Technological Innovation: Evidence From Chinese Firms.Wenlong He & Rui Shen - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 158 (1):97-117.
    While a growing body of literature has examined the link between green activities and firm innovation, little attention has been paid to the underlying mechanisms through which green activities take effect. This paper leverages the context of ISO 14001 certification among Chinese listed firms to investigate how the certification of environmental management system to ISO 14001 shapes corporate technological innovation. Drawing from the resource-based view and the resource management perspective, we argue that EMS certification to ISO 14001 facilitates corporate technological (...)
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  38.  4
    Covariate Balancing Inverse Probability Weights for Time-Varying Continuous Interventions.Curtis Huffman & Edwin van Gameren - 2018 - Journal of Causal Inference 6 (2).
    In this paper we present a continuous extension for longitudinal analysis settings of the recently proposed Covariate Balancing Propensity Score methodology. While extensions of the CBPS methodology to both marginal structural models and general treatment regimes have been proposed, these extensions have been kept separately. We propose to bring them together using the generalized method of moments to estimate inverse probability weights such that after weighting the association between time-varying covariates and the treatment is minimized. A simulation analysis (...)
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  39.  4
    Government–Business Partnerships for Radical Eco-Innovation.Haiying Lin - 2019 - Business and Society 58 (3):533-573.
    This study assessed whether and how government–business partnerships offer a unique platform that targets profound environmental impacts via the promotion of radical eco-innovation. It applied transactional cost and complementary logics to explain the rationale of GBP formation for radical eco-innovation, and further assessed the operation of GBPs from governance, learning, and rulemaking aspects. This study applied propensity score matching technique to empirically test these theoretical associations using 225 observations representing 166 U.S. firms’ participation in 192 environmental alliances between (...)
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  40.  4
    Corporate Governance and Supplemental Environmental Projects: A Restorative Justice Approach.Muhammad Nadeem - forthcoming - Journal of Business Ethics:1-20.
    Firms have traditionally responded to environmental violations by increasing information disclosure and/or communication to manage stakeholder perceptions. As such, these approaches may be symbolic in nature, with no genuine intention to improve the environment. We draw from restorative justice grounded in stakeholder theory and explore a relatively new approach in the form of supplemental environmental projects aimed at restoring the environment, and empirically examine the role of corporate governance in firms’ decisions to undertake reparative actions. Using environmental violations and SEPs (...)
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  41.  7
    Royal Institute of Philosophy.Joanna North Source - 2003 - Philosophy 78 (3):1-19.
    OBJECTIVE: Following two randomized controlled trials that demonstrated reduced mortality and better neurological outcome in cardiac arrest patients, mild therapeutic hypothermia was implemented in many intensive care units. Up to now, no large observational studies have confirmed the beneficial effects of mild therapeutic hypothermia. DESIGN: Internet-based survey combined with a retrospective, observational study. PATIENTS: All patients admitted to an intensive care unit in The Netherlands after cardiac arrest from January 1, 1999 until January 1, 2009. DATA SOURCE: Dutch National Intensive (...)
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  42.  7
    Loan Guarantees, Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure and Audit Fees: Evidence from China.Fangjun Wang, Luying Xu, Fei Guo & Junrui Zhang - 2020 - Journal of Business Ethics 166 (2):293-309.
    This paper examines the relationship between loan guarantees and audit fees as well as the moderating effect of corporate social responsibility. We find that guaranteeing another entity’s debt significantly increases firms’ own audit fees. However, the disclosure of CSR information attenuates the fee-increasing effects of loan guarantees. A closer examination reveals that the role of CSR is attributable to the information effect rather than the signal effect. Our results are robust to the use of a quasi-natural experiment, a propensity (...)
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  43.  53
    Addressing Confounding Errors When Using Non-Experimental, Observational Data to Make Causal Claims.Andrew Ward & Pamela Jo Johnson - 2008 - Synthese 163 (3):419-432.
    In their recent book, Is Inequality Bad for Our Health?, Daniels, Kennedy, and Kawachi claim that to “act justly in health policy, we must have knowledge about the causal pathways through which socioeconomic (and other) inequalities work to produce differential health outcomes.” One of the central problems with this approach is its dependency on “knowledge about the causal pathways.” A widely held belief is that the randomized clinical trial (RCT) is, and ought to be the “gold standard” of evaluating the (...)
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  44.  8
    Effectiveness of Interferon Beta Treatment in Relapsing‐Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: An Italian Cohort Study.Pierluigi Russo, Andrea Paolillo, Luciano Caprino, Stefano Bastianello & Placido Bramanti - 2004 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 10 (4):511-518.
  45.  26
    Deduction From If-Then Personality Signatures.Jean-François Bonnefon - 2010 - Thinking and Reasoning 16 (3):157-171.
    Personality signatures are sets of if-then rules describing how a given person would feel or act in a specific situation. These rules can be used as the major premise of a deductive argument, but they are mostly processed for social cognition purposes; and this common usage is likely to leak into the way they are processed in a deductive reasoning context. It is hypothesised that agreement with a Modus Ponens argument featuring a personality signature as its major premise is affected (...)
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  46. Habitual Routines and Automatic Tendencies Differential Roles in Alcohol Misuse Among Undergraduates.Florent Wyckmans, Armand Chatard, Mélanie Saeremans, Charles Kornreich, Nemat Jaafari, Carole Fantini-Hauwel & Xavier Noël - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    There is a debate over whether actions that resist devaluation are primarily habit- or goal-directed. The incentive habit account of compulsive actions has received support from behavioral paradigms and brain imaging. In addition, the self-reported Creature of Habit Scale has been proposed to capture inter-individual differences in habitual tendencies. It is subdivided into two dimensions: routine and automaticity. We first considered a French version of this questionnaire for validation, based on a sample of 386 undergraduates. The relationship between two dimensions (...)
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  47. The Propensity Interpretation of Fitness.Susan K. Mills & John H. Beatty - 1979 - Philosophy of Science 46 (2):263-286.
    The concept of "fitness" is a notion of central importance to evolutionary theory. Yet the interpretation of this concept and its role in explanations of evolutionary phenomena have remained obscure. We provide a propensity interpretation of fitness, which we argue captures the intended reference of this term as it is used by evolutionary theorists. Using the propensity interpretation of fitness, we provide a Hempelian reconstruction of explanations of evolutionary phenomena, and we show why charges of circularity which have (...)
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  48. The Propensity Interpretation of Probability.Karl R. Popper - 1959 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 10 (37):25-42.
  49.  66
    The Propensity Interpretation of Fitness and the Propensity Interpretation of Probability.Isabelle Drouet & Francesca Merlin - 2015 - Erkenntnis 80 (S3):457-468.
    The paper provides a new critical perspective on the propensity interpretation of fitness, by investigating its relationship to the propensity interpretation of probability. Two main conclusions are drawn. First, the claim that fitness is a propensity cannot be understood properly: fitness is not a propensity in the sense prescribed by the propensity interpretation of probability. Second, this interpretation of probability is inessential for explanations proposed by the PIF in evolutionary biology. Consequently, interpreting the probabilistic dimension (...)
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  50.  47
    Propensity, Probability, and Quantum Theory.Leslie E. Ballentine - 2016 - Foundations of Physics 46 (8):973-1005.
    Quantum mechanics and probability theory share one peculiarity. Both have well established mathematical formalisms, yet both are subject to controversy about the meaning and interpretation of their basic concepts. Since probability plays a fundamental role in QM, the conceptual problems of one theory can affect the other. We first classify the interpretations of probability into three major classes: inferential probability, ensemble probability, and propensity. Class is the basis of inductive logic; deals with the frequencies of events in repeatable experiments; (...)
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