Results for 'protective measurement'

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  1. Protective Measurement and the Meaning of the Wave Function.Shan Gao - 2011
    This article analyzes the implications of protective measurement for the meaning of the wave function. According to protective measurement, a charged quantum system has mass and charge density proportional to the modulus square of its wave function. It is shown that the mass and charge density is not real but effective, formed by the ergodic motion of a localized particle with the total mass and charge of the system. Moreover, it is argued that the ergodic motion (...)
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  2.  24
    Protective Measurement: A Paradigm Shift in Understanding Quantum Mechanics.Shan Gao - unknown
    This article introduces the method of protective measurement and discusses its deep implications for the foundations of quantum mechanics.
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  3. Protective Measurement and the de Broglie-Bohm Theory.Shan Gao - manuscript
    We investigate the implications of protective measurement for de Broglie-Bohm theory, mainly focusing on the interpretation of the wave function. It has been argued that the de Broglie-Bohm theory gives the same predictions as quantum mechanics by means of quantum equilibrium hypothesis. However, this equivalence is based on the premise that the wave function, regarded as a Ψ-field, has no mass and charge density distributions. But this premise turns out to be wrong according to protective measurement; (...)
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  4.  18
    Does Protective Measurement Imply the Reality of the Wave Function?Shan Gao - unknown
    Recently the first protective measurement has been realized in experiment [Nature Phys. 13, 1191 ], which can measure the expectation value of an observable from a single quantum system. This raises an important and pressing issue of whether protective measurement implies the reality of the wave function. If the answer is yes, this will improve the influential PBR theorem [Nature Phys. 8, 475 ] by removing auxiliary assumptions, and help settle the issue about the nature of (...)
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  5.  61
    An Empirical Reply to Empiricism: Protective Measurement Opens the Door for Quantum Realism.Michael Dickson - 1995 - Philosophy of Science 62 (1):122-140.
    Quantum mechanics has sometimes been taken to be an empiricist (vs. realist) theory. I state the empiricist's argument, then outline a recently noticed type of measurement--protective measurement--that affords a good reply for the realist. This paper is a reply to scientific empiricism (about quantum mechanics), but is neither a refutation of that position, nor an argument in favor of scientific realism. Rather, my aim is to place realism and empiricism on an even score in regards to quantum (...)
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  6.  9
    Why Protective Measurement Implies the Reality of the Wave Function: Further Consolidation.Shan Gao - unknown
    The existing psi-ontology theorems are based on a simplified assumption of the ontological models framework, according to which when a measurement is performed the behaviour of the measuring device is determined by the ontic state of the measured system immediately before the measurement. In this paper, I give an argument for the reality of the wave function in terms of protective measurements under a more reasonable assumption, according to which the behaviour of the measuring device during a (...)
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  7.  14
    Why Protective Measurement Establishes the Reality of the Wave Function.Shan Gao - unknown
    It has been debated whether protective measurement implies the reality of the wave function. In this paper, I present a new analysis of the relationship between protective measurement and the reality of the wave function. First, I briefly introduce protective measurements and the ontological models framework for them. Second, I give a simple proof of Hardy's theorem in terms of protective measurements. It shows that when assuming the ontic state of the protected system keeps (...)
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  8. Does Protective Measurement Tell Us Anything About Quantum Reality?Amit Hagar - manuscript
    An analysis of the two routes through which one may disentangle a quantum system from a measuring apparatus, hence protect the state vector of a single quantum system from being disturbed by the measurement, reveals several loopholes in the argument from protective measurement to the reality of the state vector of a single quantum system.
     
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  9. Protective Measurement and the PBR Theorem.Guy Hetzroni - 2014 - In Shan Gao (ed.), Protective Measurement and Quantum Reality: Towards a New Understanding of Quantum Mechanics. Cambridge, UK:
    Protective measurements illustrate how Yakir Aharonov's fundamental insights into quantum theory yield new experimental paradigms that allow us to test quantum mechanics in ways that were not possible before. As for quantum theory itself, protective measurements demonstrate that a quantum state describes a single system, not only an ensemble of systems, and reveal a rich ontology in the quantum state of a single system. We discuss in what sense protective measurements anticipate the theorem of Pusey, Barrett, and (...)
     
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  10.  11
    Book Review of S. Gao "Protective Measurement and Quantum Reality". [REVIEW]Valia Allori - 2017 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science:x-y.
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  11.  69
    The Meaning of Protective Measurements.Yakir Aharonov, Jeeva Anandan & Lev Vaidman - 1996 - Foundations of Physics 26 (1):117-126.
    Protective measurement, which we have introduced recently, allows one to observe properties of the state of a single quantum system and even the Schrödinger wave itself. These measurements require a protection, sometimes due to an additional procedure and sometimes due to the potential of the system itself The analysis of the protective measurements is presented and it is argued, contrary to recent claims, that they observe the quantum state and not the protective potential. Some other misunderstandings (...)
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  12.  23
    On Uffink's Criticism of Protective Measurements.Shan Gao - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 44 (4):513-518.
    Protective measurement is a new measuring method introduced by Aharonov, Vaidman, and Anandan, with the aim of measuring the expectation value of an observable on a single quantum system, even if the system is initially not in an eigenstate of the measured observable. According to these authors, this feature of protective measurements favors a realistic interpretation of the wave function. These claims were challenged by Uffink. He argued that only observables that commute with the system's Hamiltonian can (...)
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  13.  70
    On Uffink's Alternative Interpretation of Protective Measurements.Shan Gao - unknown
    Protective measurement is a new measuring method introduced by Aharonov, Anandan and Vaidman. By a protective measurement, one can measure the expectation value of an observable on a single quantum system, even if the system is initially not in an eigenstate of the measured observable. This remarkable feature of protective measurements was challenged by Uffink. He argued that only observables that commute with the system's Hamiltonian can be protectively measured, and a protective measurement (...)
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  14.  93
    Comment on "How to Protect the Interpretation of the Wave Function Against Protective Measurements" by Jos Uffink.Shan Gao - 2011
    It is shown that Uffink's attempt to protect the interpretation of the wave function against protective measurements fails due to several errors in his arguments.
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  15.  27
    Measurement and Metaphysics.Peter J. Lewis - unknown
    Protective measurement might be taken to put the last nail in the coffin of ensemble interpretations of the quantum state. My goal here is to show that even though ensemble interpretations face formidable obstacles, protective measurements don't lead to any additional difficulties. Rather, they provide us with a nice illustration of a conclusion for which we had considerable indirect evidence already, namely that quantum mechanics leads to a blurring of the distinction between the intrinsic properties of a (...)
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  16.  27
    Reply to Gao’s ”Comment on ”How to Protect the Interpretation of the Wave Function Against Protective Measurements”.Jos Uffink - unknown
    Shan Gao recently presented a critical reconsideration of a paper I wote on the subject of protective measurement. Here, I take the occasion to reply to his objections.
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  17.  31
    Reply to Gao's “On Uffink's Criticism of Protective Measurements”.Jos Uffink - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 44 (4):519-523.
    Gao presents a critical reconsideration of a paper I wrote on the subject of protective measurement. Here, I take the occasion to reply to his objections. In particular, I retract my previous claim to have proven that in a protective measurement, the observable being measured on a system must commute with the system's Hamiltonian. However, I do maintain the viability of the interpretation I offered for protective measurements, as well as my analysis of a thought (...)
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  18.  8
    Protective Measurements and the Reality of the Wave Function.Shan Gao - forthcoming - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science:axaa004.
    It has been debated whether protective measurement implies the reality of the wave function. In this article, I present a new analysis of the relationship between protective measurements and the reality of the wave function. First, I briefly introduce protective measurements and the ontological models framework for them. Second, I give a simple proof of Hardy’s theorem in terms of protective measurements. Third, I analyse two suggested ψ -epistemic models of a protective measurement. (...)
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  19.  18
    Protective Measurements and Relativity of Worlds.Shan Gao - unknown
    It is a fundamental and widely accepted assumption that a measurement result exists universally, and in particular, it exists for every observer, independently of whether the observer makes the measurement or knows the result. In this paper, we will argue that, based on an analysis of protective measurements, this assumption is rejected by the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics, and worlds, if they indeed exist according to the interpretation, can only exist relative to systems which are decoherent (...)
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  20. Protective Security or Protection Rackets? War and Sovereignty.Mary Kaldor - 2008 - In Kaushik Basu & Ravi Kanbur (eds.), Arguments for a Better World: Essays in Honor of Amartya Sen: Volume I: Ethics, Welfare, and Measurement and Volume Ii: Society, Institutions, and Development. Oxford University Press.
     
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  21.  28
    Visual Communication to Children in the Supermarket Context: Health Protective or Exploitive? [REVIEW]Brent Berry & Taralyn McMullen - 2008 - Agriculture and Human Values 25 (3):333-348.
    In light of growing concerns about obesity, Winson (2004, Agriculture and Human Values 21(4): 299–312) calls for more research into the supermarket foodscape as a point of connection between consumers and food choice. In this study, we systematically examine the marketing of ready-to-eat breakfast cereals to children in Toronto, Ontario supermarkets. The supermarket cereal aisle is a relatively unstudied visual collage of competing brands, colors, spokes-characters, and incentives aimed at influencing consumer choice. We found that breakfast cereal products with higher-than-average (...)
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  22. Creative Adaptability: Conceptual Framework, Measurement, and Outcomes in Times of Crisis.Hod Orkibi - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    This article presents the framework and explores the measurement, correlates, and outcomes of creative adaptability, proposed here as the cognitive–behavioral-emotional ability to respond creatively and adaptively to stressful situations. Data collection was in April 2020, during the peak of the outbreak of the Coronavirus pandemic in Israel. In Study 1, a sample of 310 adults completed the newly developed CA scale, as well as spontaneity, openness to experience, creative self-efficacy, and well-being measurements. The results of exploratory and confirmatory factor (...)
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  23. Meaning of the Wave Function.Shan Gao - 2010
    We investigate the meaning of the wave function by analyzing the mass and charge density distributions of a quantum system. According to protective measurement, a charged quantum system has effective mass and charge density distributing in space, proportional to the square of the absolute value of its wave function. In a realistic interpretation, the wave function of a quantum system can be taken as a description of either a physical field or the ergodic motion of a particle. The (...)
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  24.  3
    Psychometric Properties of the Resilience Scale for Adolescents (READ) and Measurement Invariance Across Two Different German-Speaking Samples.Clarissa Janousch, Frederick Anyan, Odin Hjemdal & Carmen Nadja Hirt - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    The Resilience Scale for Adolescents is a highly rated scale for measuring protective factors of resilience. Even though the READ has been validated in several different cultural samples, no studies have validated the READ across samples in German from Switzerland and Germany. The purpose of this study was to explore the construct validity of the German READ version in two samples from two different countries and to test the measurement invariance between those two samples. A German sample and (...)
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  25.  6
    Human Flourishing and Population Health: Meaning, Measurement, and Implications.Jeff Levin - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (3):401-419.
    In recent decades, social and behavioral scientists have begun to explore how and why human beings thrive or flourish and to consider whether traits indicative of thriving or flourishing may themselves influence physical well-being. This stands in contrast to the historical tendency in these fields to focus on pathology: mental illness, psychological dysfunction, deviant behavior, social problems, and so on. In epidemiology, too, the influence of pathology is seen in a tacit emphasis on risk factors for disease outcomes and for (...)
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  26. An Exceptionally Simple Argument Against the Many-Worlds Interpretation.Shan Gao - 2011
    It is shown that the superposed wave function of a measuring device, in each branch of which there is a definite measurement result, does not correspond to many mutually unobservable but equally real worlds, as the superposed wave function can be observed in our world by protective measurement.
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  27. Why the de Broglie-Bohm Theory is Probably Wrong.Shan Gao - manuscript
    We investigate the validity of the field explanation of the wave function by analyzing the mass and charge density distributions of a quantum system. It is argued that a charged quantum system has effective mass and charge density distributing in space, proportional to the square of the absolute value of its wave function. This is also a consequence of protective measurement. If the wave function is a physical field, then the mass and charge density will be distributed in (...)
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  28.  40
    The Reality in Bohmian Quantum Mechanics or Can You Kill with an Empty Wave Bullet?Lev Vaidman - 2005 - Foundations of Physics 35 (2):299-312.
    Several situations, in which an empty wave causes an observable effect, are reviewed. They include an experiment showing ‘‘surrealistic trajectories’’ proposed by Englert et al. and protective measurement of the density of the quantum state. Conditions for observable effects due to empty waves are derived. The possibility (in spite of the existence of these examples) of minimalistic interpretation of Bohmian quantum mechanics in which only Bohmian positions supervene on our experience is discussed.
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  29. Derivation of the Meaning of the Wave Function.Shan Gao - 2011
    We show that the physical meaning of the wave function can be derived based on the established parts of quantum mechanics. It turns out that the wave function represents the state of random discontinuous motion of particles, and its modulus square determines the probability density of the particles appearing in certain positions in space.
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  30. Notes on the Reality of the Quantum State.Shan Gao - 2014
    Based on an analysis of protective measurements, we show that the quantum state represents the physical state of a single quantum system. This result is more definite than the PBR theorem [Pusey, Barrett, and Rudolph, Nature Phys. 8, 475 (2012)].
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  31.  16
    Problems of the De Broglie-Bohm Theory.Shan Gao - unknown
    It is shown that the de Broglie-Bohm theory has a potential problem concerning the mass and charge distributions of a quantum system such as an electron. According to the de Broglie-Bohm theory, the mass and charge of an electron are localized in a position where its Bohmian particle is. However, protective measurement indicates that they are not localized in one position but distributed throughout space, and the mass and charge density of the electron in each position is proportional (...)
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  32.  20
    Why the De Broglie-Bohm Theory Goes Astray.Shan Gao - unknown
    We show that the de Broglie-Bohm theory is inconsistent with the established parts of quantum mechanics concerning its physical content. According to the de Broglie-Bohm theory, the mass and charge of an electron are localized in a position where its Bohmian particle is. However, protective measurement implies that they are not localized in one position but distributed throughout space, and the mass and charge density of the electron in each position is proportional to the modulus square of its (...)
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  33.  51
    Psychological Well-Being and Physical Health: Associations, Mechanisms, and Future Directions.Rosalba Hernandez, Sarah M. Bassett, Seth W. Boughton, Stephanie A. Schuette, Eva W. Shiu & Judith T. Moskowitz - 2018 - Emotion Review 10 (1):18-29.
    A paradigm shift in public health and medicine has broadened the field from a singular focus on the ill effects of negative states and psychopathology to an expanded view that examines protective psychological assets that may promote improved physical health and longevity. We summarize recent evidence of the link between psychological well-being and physical health, with particular attention to outcomes of mortality and chronic disease incidence and progression. Within this evolving discipline there remain controversies and lessons to be learned. (...)
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  34.  30
    An Analysis of the Aharonov-Anandan-Vaidman Model.Partha Ghose & Dipankar Home - 1995 - Foundations of Physics 25 (7):1105-1109.
    We argue that the Aharonov-Anandan-Vaidman model, by using the notion of so-called “protective measurements,” cannot claim to have dispensed with the ldcollapse of the wave function,” because it does not succeed in avoiding the quantum measurement problem. Its claim to be able to distinguish between two nonorthogonal states is also critically examined.
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  35.  27
    Realistic Experiments for Measuring the Wave Function of a Single Particle.S. Nussinov - 1998 - Foundations of Physics 28 (6):865-880.
    We suggest scattering experiments which implement the concept of “protective measurements” allowing the measurement of the complete wave function even when only one quantum system (rather than an ensemble) is available. Such scattering experiments require massive, slow, projectiles with kinetic energies lower than the first excitation of the system in question. The results of such experiments can have a (probabilistic) distribution (as is the case when the Born approximation for the scattering is valid) or be deterministic (in a (...)
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  36.  3
    Prolonged COVID 19 Outbreak and Psychological Response of Nurses in Italian Healthcare System: Cross-Sectional Study.Jessica Ranieri, Federica Guerra, E. Perilli, Domenico Passafiume, D. Maccarone, C. Ferri & Dina Di Giacomo - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    Aim of the study was to analyze the posttraumatic stress disorder risk nurses, detecting the relationship between distress experience and personality dimensions in Italian COVID-19 outbreak. A cross-sectional study was conducted based on 2 data detection. Mental evaluation was carried out in Laboratory of Clinical Psychology on n.69 nurses in range age 22–64 years old. Measurement was focused on symptoms anxiety, personality traits, peritraumatic dissociation and post-traumatic stress for all participants. No online screening was applied. Comparisons within the various (...)
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  37. Measuring Resilience Across Participating Regions in the UPRIGHT EU Horizon 2020 Project: Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of the Resilience Scale for Adolescents.Frederick Anyan, Roxanna Morote, Carlota Las Hayas, Silvia Gabrielli, Iwona Mazur, Dora Gudrun Gudmundsdottir, Nerea González, Anna Królicka-Deregowska, Antoni Zwiefka, Anna S. Olafsdottir & Odin Hjemdal - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    Resilience is the process and outcome of healthy adaptation despite significant adversity. Proliferation of research on the resilience construct has led to scientific concerns about the operationalization and measurement of resilience for assessment science and practice. Various studies that have investigated the psychometric properties and construct validity of the Resilience Scale for Adolescents have yielded inconsistent findings, which could partly be due to variations in the methodological approaches. This study investigated the factor structure and construct validity of the READ (...)
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  38.  49
    An Exceptionally Simple Argument Against the Many-Worlds Interpretation: Further Consolidations.Shan Gao - unknown
    It is argued that the components of the superposed wave function of a measuring device, each of which represents a definite measurement result, do not correspond to many worlds, one of which is our world, because all components of the wave function can be measured in our world by a serious of protective measurements, and they all exist in this world.
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  39.  63
    The Meaning of the Wave Function: In Search of the Ontology of Quantum Mechanics. [REVIEW]Mario Hubert - 2017 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews:00-00.
    What is the meaning of the wave-function? After almost 100 years since the inception of quantum mechanics, is it still possible to say something new on what the wave-function is supposed to be? Yes, it is. And Shan Gao managed to do so with his newest book. Here we learn what contemporary physicists and philosophers think about the wave-function; we learn about the de Broglie-Bohm theory, the GRW collapse theory, the gravity-induced collapse theory by Roger Penrose, and the famous PBR (...)
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  40. Measurement Theory.Fred S. Roberts (ed.) - 1985 - Cambridge University Press.
    This book provides an introduction to measurement theory for non-specialists and puts measurement in the social and behavioural sciences on a firm mathematical foundation. Results are applied to such topics as measurement of utility, psychophysical scaling and decision-making about pollution, energy, transportation and health. The results and questions presented should be of interest to both students and practising mathematicians since the author sets forth an area of mathematics unfamiliar to most mathematicians, but which has many potentially significant (...)
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  41. Abstract Measurement Theory.Louis Narens (ed.) - 1985 - MIT Press.
    The need for quantitative measurement represents a unifying bond that links all the physical, biological, and social sciences. Measurements of such disparate phenomena as subatomic masses, uncertainty, information, and human values share common features whose explication is central to the achievement of foundational work in any particular mathematical science as well as for the development of a coherent philosophy of science. This book presents a theory of measurement, one that is "abstract" in that it is concerned with highly (...)
     
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  42.  18
    The Protective Effects of Brief Mindfulness Meditation Training.Jonathan B. Banks, Matthew S. Welhaf & Alexandra Srour - 2015 - Consciousness and Cognition 33:277-285.
  43.  13
    Measurement of Sensory Intensity.Richard M. Warren - 1981 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (2):175-189.
  44. Basic Measurement Theory.Patrick Suppes & Joseph Zinnes - 1963 - In D. Luce & Robert Bush (eds.), Handbook of mathematical psychology, Volume I. John Wiley & Sons.. pp. 1-76.
  45. Protective Truthfulness: The Chinese Way of Safeguarding Patients in Informed Treatment Decisions.M. C. Pang - 1999 - Journal of Medical Ethics 25 (3):247-253.
    The first part of this paper examines the practice of informed treatment decisions in the protective medical system in China today. The second part examines how health care professionals in China perceive and carry out their responsibilities when relaying information to vulnerable patients, based on the findings of an empirical study that I had undertaken to examine the moral experience of nurses in practice situations. In the Chinese medical ethics tradition, refinement [jing] in skills and sincerity [cheng] in relating (...)
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  46.  45
    Measurement Issues in Environmental Corporate Social Responsibility (ECSR): Toward a Transparent, Reliable, and Construct Valid Instrument. [REVIEW]Noushi Rahman & Corinne Post - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 105 (3):307-319.
    One of the major roadblocks in conducting Environmental Corporate Social Responsibility (ECSR) research is operationalization of the construct. Existing ECSR measurement tools either require primary data gathering or special subscriptions to proprietary databases that have limited replicability. We address this deficiency by developing a transparent ECSR measure, with an explicit coding scheme, that strictly relies on publicly available data. Our ECSR measure tests favorably for internal consistency and inter-rater reliability, as well as convergent and discriminant validity.
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  47. Measurement Accuracy Realism.Paul Teller - 2013
    This paper challenges “traditional measurement-accuracy realism”, according to which there are in nature quantities of which concrete systems have definite values. An accurate measurement outcome is one that is close to the value for the quantity measured. For a measurement of the temperature of some water to be accurate in this sense requires that there be this temperature. But there isn’t. Not because there are no quantities “out there in nature” but because the term ‘the temperature of (...)
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  48.  66
    Measurement in Science.Eran Tal - 2015 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  49.  31
    Can Delusions Play a Protective Role?Rachel Gunn & Lisa Bortolotti - 2018 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 17 (4):813-833.
    After briefly reviewing some of the empirical and philosophical literature suggesting that there may be an adaptive role for delusion formation, we discuss the results of a recent study consisting of in-depth interviews with people experiencing delusions. We analyse three such cases in terms of the circumstances preceding the development of the delusion; the effects of the development of the delusion on the person’s situation; and the potential protective nature of the delusional belief as seen from the first-person perspective. (...)
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  50. Models, Measurement and Computer Simulation: The Changing Face of Experimentation.Margaret Morrison - 2009 - Philosophical Studies 143 (1):33-57.
    The paper presents an argument for treating certain types of computer simulation as having the same epistemic status as experimental measurement. While this may seem a rather counterintuitive view it becomes less so when one looks carefully at the role that models play in experimental activity, particularly measurement. I begin by discussing how models function as “measuring instruments” and go on to examine the ways in which simulation can be said to constitute an experimental activity. By focussing on (...)
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