Results for 'psilocybin'

40 found
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  1.  1
    Psilocybin-Assisted Compassion Focused Therapy for Depression.Wendy Pots & Farid Chakhssi - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13.
    Psilocybin-assisted psychotherapy, i.e., psilocybin treatment with psychological support, has demonstrated the efficacy of psilocybin to reduce depressive symptoms. However, in clinical trials, the structure of psilocybin-assisted psychotherapy is primarily based on preparation, navigation, and integration. For psychotherapeutic guidance, the application of this structure is favored over the usage of theoretical models. The applied psychotherapeutic models may be of critical importance if the effects are augmented due to the psychologically insightful experiences during the navigation and integration sessions. (...)
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  2. Psilocybin, LSD, Mescaline and Drug-Induced Synesthesia.Dimitria Electra Gatzia & Berit Brogaard - 2016 - In Victor R. Preedy (ed.), Neuropathology of Drug Addictions and Substance Misuse (Vol. 2). Amsterdam: Academic Press-Elsevier (pp. 890-905). Elsevier. pp. 890-905.
    Studies have shown that both serotonin and glutamate receptor systems play a crucial role in the mechanisms underlying drug-induced synesthesia. The specific nature of these mechanisms, however, continues to remain elusive. Here we propose two distinct hypotheses for how synesthesia triggered by hallucinogens in the serotonin-agonist family may occur. One hypothesis is that the drug-induced destabilization of thalamic projections via GABAergic neuronal circuits from sensory areas leads to a disruption of low-level, spontaneous integration of multisensory stimuli. This sort of integration (...)
     
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  3.  26
    Ethics and Ego Dissolution: The Case of Psilocybin.William R. Smith & Dominic Sisti - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (12):807-814.
    Despite the fact that psychedelics were proscribed from medical research half a century ago, recent, early-phase trials on psychedelics have suggested that they bring novel benefits to patients in the treatment of several mental and substance use disorders. When beneficial, the psychedelic experience is characterized by features unlike those of other psychiatric and medical treatments. These include senses of losing self-importance, ineffable knowledge, feelings of unity and connection with others and encountering ‘deep’ reality or God. In addition to symptom relief, (...)
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  4.  16
    Commentary: Effects of Psilocybin on Time Perception and Temporal Control of Behavior in Humans.Katarina L. Shebloski & James M. Broadway - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  5.  39
    The Phenomenology and Potential Religious Import of States of Consciousness Facilitated by Psilocybin.William A. Richards - 2008 - Archive for the Psychology of Religion 30 (1):189-199.
    Accompanying the resumption of human research with the entheogen , psilocybin, the range of states of consciousness reported during its action, including both nonmystical and mystical forms of experience, is surveyed and defined. The science and art of facilitating mystical experiences is discussed on the basis of research experience. The potential religious import of these states of consciousness is noted in terms of recognizing the reality of the spiritual, in better understanding the biochemistry of revelation, and in exploring the (...)
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  6.  17
    Intensity of Mystical Experiences Occasioned by 5-MeO-DMT and Comparison With a Prior Psilocybin Study.Joseph Barsuglia, Alan K. Davis, Robert Palmer, Rafael Lancelotta, Austin-Marley Windham-Herman, Kristel Peterson, Martin Polanco, Robert Grant & Roland R. Griffiths - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  7.  19
    The Phenomenology and Potential Religious Import of States of Consciousness Facilitated by Psilocybin.William A. Richards - 2008 - Archive for the Psychology of Religion / Archiv für Religionspychologie 30 (1):189-199.
  8.  8
    More Realistic Forecasting of Future Life Events After Psilocybin for Treatment-Resistant Depression.Taylor Lyons & Robin Lester Carhart-Harris - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  9.  74
    Entheogens, Mysticism, and Neuroscience.Ron Cole-Turner - 2014 - Zygon 49 (3):642-651.
    Entheogens or psychedelic drugs such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and psilocybin are associated with mystical states of experience. Drug laws currently limit research, but important new work is under way at major biomedical research facilities showing that entheogens reliably occasion mystical experiences and thereby allow research into brain states during these experiences. Are drug-occasioned mystical experiences neurologically the same as more traditional mystical states? Are there phenomenological and theological differences? As this research goes forward and the public becomes (...)
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  10. Philosophy of Psychedelics.Chris Letheby - 2021 - Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    Recent clinical trials show that psychedelics such as LSD and psilocybin can be given safely in controlled conditions, and can cause lasting psychological benefits with one or two administrations. Supervised psychedelic sessions can reduce symptoms of anxiety, depression, and addiction, and improve well-being in healthy volunteers, for months or even years. But these benefits seem to be mediated by "mystical" experiences of cosmic consciousness, which prompts a philosophical concern: do psychedelics cause psychological benefits by inducing false or implausible beliefs (...)
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  11.  98
    Naturalistic Entheogenics.Chris Letheby - 2022 - Philosophy and the Mind Sciences 3.
    In this précis I summarise the main ideas of my book Philosophy of Psychedelics. The book discusses philosophical issues arising from the therapeutic use of “classic” psychedelic drugs such as psilocybin and LSD. The book is organised around what I call the Comforting Delusion Objection to psychedelic therapy: the concern that this novel and promising treatment relies essentially on the induction of non-naturalistic metaphysical beliefs, rendering it epistemically objectionable. I begin the précis by summarizing material from chapters two and (...)
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  12.  99
    Naturalizing Psychedelic Spirituality.Chris Letheby - 2017 - Zygon 52 (3):623-642.
    A pressing philosophical problem is how to respond to the existential, anxiety and disenchantment resulting from a naturalistic worldview that eschews transcendent foundations for meaning and value. This problem is becoming more urgent as the popularization of neuroscientific findings renders a disenchanted conception of human beings ever more vivid, compelling, and widespread. I argue that the study of transformative experiences occasioned by classic psychedelic drugs such as lysergic acid diethylamide and psilocybin may reveal the nature of a viable practical (...)
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  13.  23
    Dissolving the Self.George Deane - 2020 - Philosophy and the Mind Sciences 1 (I):1-27.
    Psychedelic drugs such as psilocybin, LSD and DMT are known to induce powerful alterations in phenomenology. Perhaps of most philosophical and scientific interest is their capacity to disrupt and even “dissolve” one of the most primary features of normal experience: that of being a self. Such “peak” or “mystical” experiences are of increasing interest for their potentially transformative therapeutic value. While empirical research is underway, a theoretical conception of the mechanisms underpinning these experiences remains elusive. In the following paper, (...)
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  14. Psychedelics, Meditation, and Self-Consciousness.Raphaël Millière, Robin L. Carhart-Harris, Leor Roseman, Fynn-Mathis Trautwein & Aviva Berkovich-Ohana - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
    In recent years, the scientific study of meditation and psychedelic drugs has seen remarkable developments. The increased focus on meditation in cognitive neuroscience has led to a cross-cultural classification of standard meditation styles validated by functional and structural neuroanatomical data. Meanwhile, the renaissance of psychedelic research has shed light on the neurophysiology of altered states of consciousness induced by classical psychedelics, such as psilocybin and LSD, whose effects are mainly mediated by agonism of serotonin receptors. Few attempts have been (...)
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  15. Psychedelics and Environmental Virtues.Nin Kirkham & Chris Letheby - forthcoming - Philosophical Psychology:1-25.
    The urgent need for solutions to critical environmental challenges is well attested, but often environmental problems are understood as fundamentally collective action problems. However, to solve to these problems, there is also a need to change individual behavior. Hence, there is a pressing need to inculcate in individuals the environmental virtues — virtues of character that relate to our environmental place in the world. We propose a way of meeting this need, by the judicious, safe, and controlled administration of “classic” (...)
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  16. Moral Transhumanism: The Next Step.M. N. Tennison - 2012 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 37 (4):405-416.
    Although transhumanism offers hope for the transcendence of human biological limitations, it generates many intrinsic and consequential ethical concerns. The latter include issues such as the exacerbation of social inequalities and the exponentially increasing technological capacity to cause harm. To mitigate these risks, many thinkers have initiated investigations into the possibility of moral enhancement that could limit the power disparities facilitated by biotechnological enhancement. The arguments often focus on whether moral enhancement is morally permissible, or even obligatory, and remain largely (...)
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  17. Psychedelic Therapy for Body Dysmorphic Disorder.Shevaugn Johnson & Chris Letheby - forthcoming - Journal of Psychedelic Studies.
    In this opinion piece we propose the investigation of psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy for the treatment of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). BDD is a psychiatric disorder characterised by appearance-based preoccupations and accompanying compulsions. While safe and effective treatments for BDD exist, non-response and relapse rates remain high. Therefore, there is a need to investigate promising new treatment options for this highly debilitating condition. Preliminary evidence suggests safety, feasibility, and potential efficacy of psychedelic treatments in disorders that share similar psychopathological mechanisms with BDD. (...)
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  18.  56
    Healing with Plant Intelligence: A Report From Ayahuasca.Richard Doyle - 2012 - Anthropology of Consciousness 23 (1):28-43.
    Numerous and diverse reports indicate the efficacy of shamanic plant adjuncts (e.g., iboga, ayahuasca, psilocybin) for the care and treatment of addiction, post-traumatic stress disorder, cancer, cluster headaches, and depression. This article reports on a first-person healing of lifelong asthma and atopic dermatitis in the shamanic context of the contemporary Peruvian Amazon and the sometimes digital ontology of online communities. The article suggests that emerging language, concepts, and data drawn from the sciences of plant signaling and behavior regarding “plant (...)
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  19.  23
    Compassionate Use of Psychedelics.Martin Šurkala & Adam Greif - 2020 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 23 (3):485-496.
    In the present paper, we discuss the ethics of compassionate psychedelic psychotherapy and argue that it can be morally permissible. When talking about psychedelics, we mean specifically two substances: psilocybin and MDMA. When administered under supportive conditions and in conjunction with psychotherapy, therapies assisted by these substances show promising results. However, given the publicly controversial nature of psychedelics, compassionate psychedelic psychotherapy calls for ethical justification. We thus review the safety and efficacy of psilocybin- and MDMA-assisted therapies and claim (...)
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  20. Self Unbound: Ego Dissolution in Psychedelic Experience.Chris Letheby & Philip Gerrans - 2017 - Neuroscience of Consciousness 3:1-11.
    Users of psychedelic drugs often report that their sense of being a self or ‘I’ distinct from the rest of the world has diminished or altogether dissolved. Neuroscientific study of such ‘ego dissolution’ experiences offers a window onto the nature of self-awareness. We argue that ego dissolution is best explained by an account that explains self-awareness as resulting from the integrated functioning of hierarchical predictive models which posit the existence of a stable and unchanging entity to which representations are bound. (...)
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  21. Entheogens in Christian Art: Wasson, Allegro and the Psychedelic Gospels.Jerry Brown & Julie M. Brown - 2019 - Journal of Psychedelic Studies 3 (2):142-163.
    In light of new historical evidence regarding ethnomycologist R. Gordon Wasson’s correspondence with art historian Erwin Panofsky, this article provides an in-depth analysis of the presence of entheogenic mushroom images in Christian art within the context of the controversy between Wasson and philologist John Marco Allegro over the identification of a Garden of Eden fresco in the 12th century Chapel of Plaincourault in France. It reveals a compelling financial motive for Wasson’s refusal to acknowledge that this fresco represents Amanita muscaria, (...)
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  22. Psychedelics and Meditation: A Neurophilosophical Perspective.Chris Letheby - forthcoming - In Rick Repetti (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of the Philosophy of Meditation.
    Psychedelic ingestion and meditative practice are both ancient methods for altering consciousness that became widely known in Western society in the second half of the 20th century. Do the similarities begin and end there, or do these methods – as many have claimed over the years – share some deeper common elements? In this chapter I take a neurophilosophical approach to this question and argue that there are, indeed, deeper commonalities. Recent empirical studies show that psychedelics and meditation modulate overlapping (...)
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  23.  78
    Here and Now: Discovering the Sacred with Entheogens.William A. Richards - 2014 - Zygon 49 (3):652-665.
    Renewed research with entheogens (psychedelic substances) has been able to facilitate the occurrence of mystical forms of consciousness in healthy volunteers with a high degree of reliability. This article explores the potential significance of this development for religious scholars, especially those interested in the study of mysticism. The definition of “mystical consciousness” employed in this research is presented and differentiated from visionary/archetypal and other types of alternative mental states. The ways in which entheogens may be employed with skill and maximum (...)
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  24.  76
    A Systems Model of Altered Consciousness: Integrating Natural and Drug-Induced Psychoses.Franz X. Vollenweider & Mark A. Geyer - 2001 - Brain Research Bulletin. Special Issue 56 (5):495-507.
  25. Time Scales of Observation and Ontological Levels of Reality.Alexey Alyushin - 2010 - Axiomathes 20 (4):439-460.
    My goal is to conceive how the reality would look like for hypothetical creatures that supposedly perceive on time scales much faster or much slower than that of us humans. To attain the goal, I propose modelling in two steps. At step one, we have to single out a unified parameter that sets time scale of perception. Changing substantially the value of the parameter would mean changing scale. I argue that the required parameter is duration of discrete perceptive frames, or (...)
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  26.  36
    A Companion to Velmans, M. (Ed.) (2018) Consciousness (Critical Concepts in Psychology) Volume 4: New Directions: Psychogenesis, Transformations of Consciousness, and Non-Reductive Integrative Theories, Major Works Series, London: Routledge, Pp. 572.Max Velmans - manuscript
    This is the fourth of four online Companions to Velmans, M. (ed.) (2018) Consciousness (Critical Concepts in Psychology), a 4-volume collection of Major Works on Consciousness commissioned by Routledge, London. -/- The Companion (and Volume) begins with a review of mental influences on states of the body and brain (psychogenesis), which are often thought of as theoretically problematic for conventional materialist theories of mind. The evidence is nevertheless extensive, for example in psychosomatic illnesses and studies of the physiological consequences of (...)
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  27. The Epistemic Innocence of Psychedelic States.Chris Letheby - 2016 - Consciousness and Cognition 39:28-37.
    One recent development in epistemology, the philosophical study of knowledge, is the notion of ‘epistemic innocence’ introduced by Bortolotti and colleagues. This concept expresses the idea that certain suboptimal cognitive processes may nonetheless have epistemic (knowledge-related) benefits. The idea that delusion or confabulation may have psychological benefits is familiar enough. What is novel and interesting is the idea that such conditions may also yield significant and otherwise unavailable epistemic benefits. I apply the notion of epistemic innocence to research on the (...)
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  28.  1
    Consenting to Consent.Zoë Fritz - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (12):777-778.
    Both ethicists and lawyers accept that a provider – be it a researcher or a clinician – should provide sufficient information for a reasonable person to make an informed decision about whether they wish to go ahead with the proposed intervention or treatment.1 They are bound to do so both because they have an ethical responsibility to preserve the individual’s autonomous decision making, and, in many countries, because the law obliges them to. In this month’s issue of the JME, three (...)
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  29.  1
    Death Risk: Lack of Movement: The Ignored Pandemic of Digitalization Escalates the COVID-19 Crisis.Lucas Pawlik - 2021 - Technoetic Arts 19 (1):139-152.
    Data analysis from diverse medical fields suggests that we have reached a tipping point in the digitalization dynamic through the ongoing COVID-19 crisis, leading to an escalation of physical inactivity and related diseases. The lack of prioritization of physical activity designed to intervene against obesity, diabetes, loneliness, depression, anxiety disorders and suicide risk could destabilize our current global health system beyond rehabilitation. To counteract this, the author outlines the basis for a sustainable solution to best integrate physical activity into work, (...)
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  30.  1
    Virtual Reality as a Moderator of Psychedelic-Assisted Psychotherapy.Agnieszka D. Sekula, Luke Downey & Prashanth Puspanathan - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13.
    Psychotherapy with the use of psychedelic substances, including psilocybin, lysergic acid diethylamide, ketamine, and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, has demonstrated promise in treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, addiction, and treatment-resistant depression. Psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy represents a unique psychopharmacological model that leverages the profound effects of the psychedelic experience. That experience is characterized by strong dependency on two key factors: participant mindset and the therapeutic environment. As such, therapeutic models that utilize psychedelics reflect the need for careful design that promotes an open, flexible, (...)
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  31. Philosophy and Classic Psychedelics: A Review of Some Emerging Themes.Chris Letheby & Jaipreet Mattu - forthcoming - Journal of Psychedelic Studies.
    Serotonergic (or “classic”) psychedelics have struck many researchers as raising significant philosophical questions that, until recently, were largely unexplored by academic philosophers. This paper provides an overview of four emerging lines of research at the intersection of academic philosophy and psychedelic science that have gained considerable traction in the last decade: selfless consciousness, psychedelic epistemology, psychedelic ethics, and spiritual/religious naturalism. In this paper, we highlight philosophical questions concerning (i) psychedelics, self-consciousness, and phenomenal consciousness, (ii) the epistemic profile of the psychedelic (...)
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  32. The Varieties of Psychedelic Epistemology.Chris Letheby - 2019 - In Nikki Wyrd, David Luke, Aimee Tollan, Cameron Adams & David King (eds.), Psychedelicacies: more food for thought from Breaking Convention.
    Recent scientific research suggests that altered states of consciousness induced by classic psychedelic drugs can cause durable psychological benefits in both healthy and patient populations. The phenomenon of ‘psychedelic transformation’ has many philosophically provocative aspects, not least of which is the claim commonly made by psychedelic subjects that their transformation is centrally due to some kind of learning or knowledge gain. Can psychedelic experiences really be a source of knowledge? From the vantage point of philosophical materialism or naturalism, a negative (...)
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  33.  88
    Psychedelics, Mysticism and Morality.Ralph J. Tapia - 1970 - Thought: Fordham University Quarterly 45 (2):235-252.
    A theologian answers the question: What is the relationship between the hallucinogenic drugs, such as hashish, marihuana, mescaline, psilocybin, LSD, and both mysticism and morality?
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  34. The Philosophy of Psychedelic Transformation.Chris Letheby - 2015 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 22 (9-10):170-193.
    Recent scientific research into the therapeutic potential and mechanisms of psychedelic drugs raises intriguing and hitherto largely unexplored philosophical questions. A brief overview of the relevant science is given before addressing these questions. It is argued that psychedelic transformation is a distinctive psycho- pharmacological intervention because its mechanism of action ineliminably involves conscious mental representations, and thus is more transparent to the subject than the mechanisms of other drug therapies. This argument connects with issues in the philosophy of (cognitive) scientific (...)
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  35.  1
    Psychedelic-Assisted Psychotherapy for the Treatment of Major Depression: A Synthesis of Phenomenological Explanations.Riccardo Miceli McMillan & Christopher Jordens - 2022 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 25 (2):225-237.
    Psychedelic-assisted Psychotherapy combines the use of psychedelic compounds, such as psilocybin, with psychotherapy. PAP has shown some promise as a novel treatment for Major Depressive Disorder, and empirical research suggests that its efficacy turns on the altered states induced by psychedelic compounds. In this paper we draw on the literature of phenomenology to explain the therapeutic potential of psychedelic experiences. Svenaeus characterises mental illness as a form of suffering that entails three distinct but related experiences of alienation or “unhomelike (...)
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  36.  90
    Sacred Plants and Visionary Consciousness.José Luis Díaz - 2010 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 9 (2):159-170.
    Botanical preparations used by shamans in rituals for divination, prophecy, and ecstasy contain widely different psychoactive compounds, which are incorrectly classified under a single denomination such as “hallucinogens,” “psychedelics,” or “entheogens.” Based on extensive ethnopharmacological search, I proposed a psychopharmacological classification of magic plants in 1979. This paper re-evaluates this taxonomy in the context of consciousness research. Several groups of psychodysleptic magic plants are proposed: (1) hallucinogens—psilocybin mushrooms, mescaline cacti, dimethyltryptamine snuffs, and the synthetic ergoline lysergic acid diethylamide induce (...)
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  37.  2
    The Mushroom, the Frog, and the Rainbow of Desire: A Participatory-Psychedelic Spiritual Emergence.G. Lahood - 2022 - International Journal of Transpersonal Studies 38 (2).
    This article will explore a spiritual emergency through a myth or fairy tale that emerged at the same time I had a frightening brush with death. Two days before the accident I had ingested psilocybin mushrooms. Michael Washburn, among other transpersonal theorists, will be used to interpret, amplify and re-frame this potential ‘psychotic episode’ with ‘borderline features’ into something more, perhaps, on the threshold of a shamanic initiation in a liminal state. The mythic sequence in my story anticipates the (...)
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  38. Psychedelics Alter Metaphysical Beliefs.Christopher Timmermann, Hannes Kettner, Chris Letheby, Leor Roseman, Fernando E. Rosas & Robin L. Carhart-Harris - 2021 - Scientific Reports 22166 (11):1-13.
    Can the use of psychedelic drugs induce lasting changes in metaphysical beliefs? While it is popularly believed that they can, this question has never been formally tested. Here we exploited a large sample derived from prospective online surveying to determine whether and how beliefs concerning the nature of reality, consciousness, and free‑will, change after psychedelic use. Results revealed significant shifts away from ‘physicalist’ or ‘materialist’ views, and towards panpsychism and fatalism, post use. With the exception of fatalism, these changes endured (...)
     
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  39. Psychedelics, Atheism, and Naturalism: Myth and Reality.Chris Letheby - forthcoming - Journal of Consciousness Studies.
    An emerging body of research suggests that psychedelic experiences can change users’ religious or metaphysical beliefs. Here I explore issues concerning psychedelic-induced belief change via a critique of some recent arguments by Wayne Glausser. Two scientific studies seem to show that psychedelic experiences can convert atheists to belief in God, but Glausser holds that academic and popular discussions of these studies are misleading. I offer a different analysis of the relevant findings, attempting to preserve the insights of Glausser’s critique while (...)
     
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  40. Philosophical Perspectives on the Psychedelic Renaissance.Chris Letheby & Philip Gerrans (eds.) - forthcoming - Oxford University Press.
     
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