Results for 'psychiatric nosology'

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  1.  29
    Whose Disorder?: A Constructive MacIntyrean Critique of Psychiatric Nosology.W. A. Kinghorn - 2011 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 36 (2):187-205.
    The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) has for decades been a locus of dispute between ardent defenders of its scientific validity and vociferous critics who charge that it covertly cloaks disputed moral and political judgments in scientific language. This essay explores Alasdair MacIntyre's tripartite typology of moral reasoning—"encyclopedia," "genealogy," and "tradition"—as an analytic lens for appreciation and critique of these debates. The DSM opens itself to corrosive neo-Nietzschean "genealogical" critique, such an analysis holds, (...)
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  2. Philosophical Issues in Psychiatry Iv: Psychiatric Nosology.Kenneth S. Kendler & Josef Parnas (eds.) - 2017 - Oxford University Press.
    The revisions of both DSM-IV and ICD-10 have again focused the interest of the field of psychiatry and clinical psychology on the questions of nosology. This book reviews issues within psychiatric nosology from clinical, historical and particularly philosophical perspectives. It brings together an interdisciplinary group of distinguished authors.
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  3.  18
    Gene Maps, Brain Scans, and Psychiatric Nosology.Jason Scott Robert - 2007 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 16 (2):209-218.
    Neuroethics to date has tended to focus on social and ethical implications of developments in brain science, especially in functional neuroimaging. Within clinical neuroethics, the emphasis has been on ethical issues in clinical neuroscience practice, including informed consent to neuroimaging; the development of ethical research protocols for functional magnetic resonance imaging especially, and especially in children; and the ethical clinical management of incidental findings. Within normative neuroethics, we have witnessed the more philosophical and/or social scientific study of the meanings of (...)
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  4.  1
    Ontological Assumptions, a Biopsychosocial Approach, and Patient Participation: Moving Toward an Ethically Legitimate Science of Psychiatric Nosology.Porter Douglas - 2017 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 24 (3):223-226.
    Important philosophical work has gone into debunking thoroughly entrenched positivist notions that objective science proceeds in a value neutral manner. Dr. Tamara Kayali Browne's article "A Role for Philosophers, Sociologists, and Bioethicists in Revising the DSM" admirably takes the next step. Given the evaluative elements that permeate, in this case, the science of nosology—how do we deal responsibly with those evaluative elements? She correctly, in my opinion, concludes that dealing with evaluative issues responsibly is tantamount to dealing with them (...)
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  5.  14
    Epistemic Iteration as a Historical Model for Psychiatric Nosology: Promises and Limitations.Kenneth S. Kendler - 2012 - In Kenneth S. Kendler & Josef Parnas (eds.), Philosophical Issues in Psychiatry Ii: Nosology. Oxford University Press. pp. 305.
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  6. The Incredible Insecurity of Psychiatric Nosology.Kenneth S. Kendler & Peter Zachar - 2008 - In Kenneth S. Kendler & Josef Parnas (eds.), Philosophical Issues in Psychiatry: Explanation, Phenomenology, and Nosology. Johns Hopkins University Press.
  7.  10
    The Challenge of Psychiatric Nosology and Diagnosis.Drozdstoj Stoyanov, Peter K. Machamer, Kenneth F. Schaffner & Rayito Rivera‐Hernández - 2012 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (3):704-709.
  8.  4
    Recent Criticism of Psychiatric Nosology: A Review.Jennifer Radden - 1994 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 1 (3):193-200.
  9.  7
    Anthropological Perspectives in Psychiatric Nosology.Juan J. López-Ibor Jr & María-Inés López-Ibor - 2008 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 15 (3):259-263.
  10. Tive Approach to Elucidating the Mechanism of Organic Behavior Changes is More Likely to Clarify the Basis of Functional Psychosis, by Analogy, Than the Current Procrustean Application of Psychiatric Nosology.Temporal Lobe Epilepsy - 1979 - In Michael S. Gazzaniga (ed.), Handbook of Behavioral Neurobiology. , Volume 2. pp. 78.
     
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  11.  18
    Philosophical Issues in Psychiatry Ii: Nosology.Kenneth S. Kendler & Josef Parnas (eds.) - 2012 - Oxford University Press.
    Psychiatry has long struggled with the nature of its diagnoses. This book brings together established experts in the wide range of disciplines that have an interest in psychiatric nosology. The contributors include philosophers, psychologists, psychiatrists, historians and representatives of the efforts of DSM-III, DSM-IV and DSM-V.
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  12.  52
    A Brief Historicity of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Issues and Implications for the Future of Psychiatric Canon and Practice. [REVIEW]Shadia Kawa & James Giordano - 2012 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 7 (1):1-9.
    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) of the American Psychiatric Association, currently in its fourth edition and considered the reference for the characterization and diagnosis of mental disorders, has undergone various developments since its inception in the mid-twentieth century. With the fifth edition of the DSM presently in field trials for release in 2013, there is renewed discussion and debate over the extent of its relative successes - and shortcomings - at iteratively incorporating scientific evidence on the often ambiguous (...)
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  13.  35
    Biological Psychiatry and Normative Problems: From Nosology to Destigmatization Campaigns.Romain Schneckenburger - 2011 - Medicine Studies 3 (1):9-17.
    Psychiatry is becoming a cognitive neuroscience. This new paradigm not only aims to give new ways for explaining mental diseases by naturalizing them, but also to have an influence on different levels of psychiatric norms. We tried here to verify whether a biological paradigm is able to fulfill this normative goal. We analyzed three main normative assumptions that is to say the will of giving psychiatry a valid nosology, a rigorous definition of what is a mental disease, and (...)
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  14. Philosophical Issues in Psychiatry: Explanation, Phenomenology, and Nosology.Kenneth S. Kendler & Josef Parnas (eds.) - 2008 - Johns Hopkins University Press.
    This multidisciplinary collection explores three key concepts underpinning psychiatry -- explanation, phenomenology, and nosology -- and their continuing relevance in an age of neuroimaging and genetic analysis. An introduction by Kenneth S. Kendler lays out the philosophical grounding of psychiatric practice. The first section addresses the concept of explanation, from the difficulties in describing complex behavior to the categorization of psychological and biological causality. In the second section, contributors discuss experience, including the complex and vexing issue of how (...)
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  15.  99
    The Six Most Essential Questions in Psychiatric Diagnosis: A Pluralogue Part 2: Issues of Conservatism and Pragmatism in Psychiatric Diagnosis. [REVIEW]James Phillips, Allen Frances, Michael A. Cerullo, John Chardavoyne, Hannah S. Decker, Michael B. First, Nassir Ghaemi, Gary Greenberg, Andrew C. Hinderliter, Warren A. Kinghorn, Steven G. LoBello, Elliott B. Martin, Aaron L. Mishara, Joel Paris, Joseph M. Pierre, Ronald W. Pies, Harold A. Pincus, Douglas Porter, Claire Pouncey, Michael A. Schwartz, Thomas Szasz, Jerome C. Wakefield, G. Waterman, Owen Whooley & Peter Zachar - 2012 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 7 (1):8-.
    In face of the multiple controversies surrounding the DSM process in general and the development of DSM-5 in particular, we have organized a discussion around what we consider six essential questions in further work on the DSM. The six questions involve: 1) the nature of a mental disorder; 2) the definition of mental disorder; 3) the issue of whether, in the current state of psychiatric science, DSM-5 should assume a cautious, conservative posture or an assertive, transformative posture; 4) the (...)
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  16.  1
    The Absent Body in Psychiatric Diagnosis, Treatment, and Research.Catherine Stinson - forthcoming - Synthese.
    Discussions of psychiatric nosology focus on a few popular examples of disorders, and on the validity of diagnostic criteria. Looking at Anorexia Nervosa, an example rarely mentioned in this literature, reveals a new problem: the DSM has a strict taxonomic structure, which assumes that disorders can only be located on one branch. This taxonomic assumption fails to fit the domain of psychopathology, resulting in obfuscation of cross-category connections. Poor outcomes for treatment of Anorexia may be due to it (...)
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  17.  2
    Collectively Ill: A Preliminary Case That Groups Can Have Psychiatric Disorders.A. Hoffman Ginger - forthcoming - Synthese:1-25.
    In the 2000s, several psychiatrists cited the lack of relational disorders in the DSM-IV as one of the two most glaring gaps in psychiatric nosology, and campaigned for their inclusion in the DSM-5. This campaign failed, however, presumably in part due to serious “ontological concerns” haunting such disorders. Here, I offer a path to quell such ontological concerns, adding to previous conceptual work by Jerome Wakefield and Christian Perring. Specifically, I adduce reasons to think that collective disorders are (...)
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  18.  9
    Crazy Like a Fox: Validity and Ethics of Animal Models of Human Psychiatric Disease.Michael Rollin & Bernard Rollin - 2014 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 23 (2):140-151.
    Animal models of human disease play a central role in modern biomedical science. Developing animal models for human mental illness presents unique practical and philosophical challenges. In this article we argue that existing animal models of psychiatric disease are not valid, attempts to model syndromes are undermined by current nosology, models of symptoms are rife with circular logic and anthropomorphism, any model must make unjustified assumptions about subjective experience, and any model deemed valid would be inherently unethical, for (...)
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  19.  10
    Perspectivity in Psychiatric Research: The Psychopathology of Schizophrenia in Postwar Germany. [REVIEW]Yazan Abu Ghazal - 2014 - Medicine Studies 4 (1-4):103-111.
    The reorganization of psychiatric knowledge at the turn of the twentieth century derived from Emil Kraepelin’s clinical classification of psychoses. Surprisingly, within just few years, Kraepelin’s simple dichotomy between dementia praecox and manic-depressive psychosis succeeded in giving psychiatry a new framework that is still used until the present day. Unexpectedly, Kraepelin’s simple clinical scheme based on the dichotomy replaced the significantly more differentiated nosography that dominated psychiatric research in the last three decades of the nineteenth century. Moreover, although (...)
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  20. The Nature of Disease.Lawrie Reznek - 1987 - Routledge & Kegan Paul.
  21.  67
    A Note on the Dynamics of Psychiatric Classification.José Eduardo Porcher - 2014 - Minerva - An Internet Journal of Philosophy 18:27-47.
    The question of how psychiatric classifications are made up and to what they refer has attracted the attention of philosophers in recent years. In this paper, I review the claims of authors who discuss psychiatric classification in terms referring both to the philosophical tradition of natural kinds and to the sociological tradition of social constructionism — especially those of Ian Hacking and his critics. I examine both the ontological and the social aspects of what it means for something (...)
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  22. Phenomenology and Dimensional Approaches to Psychiatric Research and Classification.Anthony Vincent Fernandez - forthcoming - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology.
    The classification of mental illness—enshrined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)—has historically followed a categorial model of disorder. However, in light of psychiatry’s failure to validate the DSM categories, psychiatrists have developed dimensional models for understanding and classifying disorders, such as the National Institute of Mental Health’s Research Domain Criteria initiative (RDoC). While some philosophers have recently contributed to the literature on dimensional approaches to psychiatric research and classification, no sustained engagement has yet been offered (...)
     
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  23.  1
    Comment: Disorders of Agency in Psychiatric Syndromes.Kenneth S. Kendler - 2008 - In Kenneth S. Kendler & Josef Parnas (eds.), Philosophical Issues in Psychiatry: Explanation, Phenomenology, and Nosology. Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 16--3.
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  24. Real Kinds but No True Taxonomy : An Essay in Psychiatric Systematics.Peter Zachar - 2008 - In Kenneth S. Kendler & Josef Parnas (eds.), Philosophical Issues in Psychiatry: Explanation, Phenomenology, and Nosology. Johns Hopkins University Press.
     
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  25.  7
    A Philosophical Overview of the Problems of Validity for Psychiatric Disorders.Kenneth F. Schaffner - 2012 - In Kenneth S. Kendler & Josef Parnas (eds.), Philosophical Issues in Psychiatry Ii: Nosology. Oxford University Press. pp. 169.
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  26.  3
    What is Psychiatric Disease? A Commentary on Dr Ghaemi's Paper.Derek Bolton - 2012 - In Kenneth S. Kendler & Josef Parnas (eds.), Philosophical Issues in Psychiatry Ii: Nosology. Oxford University Press. pp. 54.
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  27.  1
    The Nature of the Psychiatric Object and Classification.Josef Parnas - 2012 - In Kenneth S. Kendler & Josef Parnas (eds.), Philosophical Issues in Psychiatry Ii: Nosology. Oxford University Press. pp. 118.
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  28.  1
    Seeing Sense in Psychiatric Diagnoses.Paul R. McHugh - 2012 - In Kenneth S. Kendler & Josef Parnas (eds.), Philosophical Issues in Psychiatry Ii: Nosology. Oxford University Press. pp. 213.
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  29. Is Psychiatric Classification a Good Thing?Rachel Cooper - 2012 - In Kenneth S. Kendler & Josef Parnas (eds.), Philosophical Issues in Psychiatry Ii: Nosology. Oxford University Press.
  30. Comment: Psychiatric Diagnosis.M. D. JosefParnas - 2008 - In Kenneth S. Kendler & Josef Parnas (eds.), Philosophical Issues in Psychiatry: Explanation, Phenomenology, and Nosology. Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 383.
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  31. Comments: Seeing Sense in Psychiatric Diagnoses.Paul R. McHugh - 2012 - In Kenneth S. Kendler & Josef Parnas (eds.), Philosophical Issues in Psychiatry Ii: Nosology. Oxford University Press.
     
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  32. Comments: The Nature of the Psychiatric Object and Classification.Josef Parnas - 2012 - In Kenneth S. Kendler & Josef Parnas (eds.), Philosophical Issues in Psychiatry Ii: Nosology. Oxford University Press.
     
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  33.  2
    Valid Ethics Versus Probable Histories.Miller Gavin - 2017 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 24 (3):219-221.
    Tamara Kayali Browne's proposal for an Ethics Review Panel for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders conceives of a state-sponsored panel of academic experts—philosophers, sociologists, and bioethicists—dealing in a reflective, systematic, and standardized manner with the "value judgements" that are an "integral and unavoidable part of psychiatric nosology". The panel would consider existing and new diagnostic categories, and issue authoritative vetoes and/or modifications as appropriate. Browne asserts that, "it should not be necessary to have protests and (...)
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  34. Toward a Biology of Personality and Emotion.Richard J. Davidson - unknown
    For most of this past century, scholarship on the topics of personal- ity and emotion has emerged from the humanities and social sciences. In the past decade, a remarkable change has occurred in the influence of neuro- science on the conceptualization and study of these phenomena. This article ar- gues that the categories that have emerged from psychiatric nosology and descriptive personality theory may be inadequate, and that new categories and dimensions derived from neuroscience research may produce a (...)
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  35.  27
    Syndrome Stabilization in Psychiatry: Pathological Gambling as a Case Study.Don Ross - unknown
    Murphy (2006) criticizes psychiatric nosology from the perspective of the philosophy of science, arguing that the model of pathology as encapsulated in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders reflects a folk conception of the mental, and of malfunctioning, that is inadequately integrated with cognitive and behavioral neuroscience. The present paper supports this view through a case study of research on pathological gambling. It argues that recent modeling based on fMRI studies and behavioral genetics suggests a stipulative, (...)
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  36.  21
    Understanding the Symptoms of “Schizophrenia” in Evolutionary Terms.Martin Brüne - 2004 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (6):857-857.
    An evolutionary theory of schizophrenia needs to address all symptoms associated with the condition. Burns' framework could be extended in a way embracing behavioural signs such as catatonia. Burns' theory is, however, not specific to schizophrenia. Since no one single symptom exists that is pathognomonic for “schizophrenia,” an evolutionary proposal of psychiatric disorders raises the question whether our anachronistic psychiatric nosology warrants revision.
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  37.  16
    Sexual Modification Therapies: Ethical Controversies, Philosophical Disputes, and Theological Reflections.A. A. Howsepian - 2004 - Christian Bioethics 10 (2-3):117-136.
    Knowing, either by the light of natural reason or by the light of Christian revelation, that homosexuality is a disordered condition is not sufficient for its being ethically permissible to direct self-identified homosexual persons toward just any treatment that aims to modify sexual orientation. For example, such an undertaking would be morally impermissible in cases where the available “treatments” are known to be both futile and potentially damaging to persons undertaking them. I, therefore, introduce this edition of Christian Bioethics by (...)
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  38. Browne's External DSM Ethical Review Panel: That Dog Won't Hunt.Pouncey Claire & F. Merz Jon - 2017 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 24 (3):227-230.
    Before we respond to Tamara Browne's proposal for an external ethics advisory review panel to oversee content in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, we wish to introduce ourselves. One of us is a professor of bioethics, a lawyer, and a doctor of public policy, and one of us is a philosopher of psychiatry who studies psychiatric nosology, and who has done bioethics work for two congressional advisory agencies. Based on our backgrounds, we flatter ourselves that (...)
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  39.  10
    Psychiatry's Catch 22, Need for Precision, and Placing Schools in Perspective.A. R. Singh - 2013 - Mens Sana Monographs 11 (1):42.
    The catch 22 situation in psychiatry is that for precise diagnostic categories/criteria, we need precise investigative tests, and for precise investigative tests, we need precise diagnostic criteria/categories; and precision in both diagnostics and investigative tests is nonexistent at present. The effort to establish clarity often results in a fresh maze of evidence. In finding the way forward, it is tempting to abandon the scientific method, but that is not possible, since we deal with real human psychopathology, not just concepts to (...)
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  40. Are Psychiatric Kinds Real?Helen Beebee & Nigel Sabbarton-Leary - 2010 - European Journal of Analytic Philosophy 6 (1):11-27.
    The paper considers whether psychiatric kinds can be natural kinds and concludes that they can. This depends, however, on a particular conception of ‘natural kind’. We briefly describe and reject two standard accounts – what we call the ‘stipulative account’ (according to which apparently a priori criteria, such as the possession of intrinsic essences, are laid down for natural kindhood) and the ‘Kripkean account’ (according to which the natural kinds are just those kinds that obey Kripkean semantics). We then (...)
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  41.  12
    The Virtuous Psychiatrist: Character Ethics in Psychiatric Practice.Jennifer Radden - 2010 - Oxford University Press.
    Psychiatric ethics as professional and biomedical ethics -- The distinctiveness of the psychiatric setting -- Psychiatric ethics as virtue ethics -- Elements of a gender-sensitive ethics for psychiatry -- Some virtues for psychiatrists -- Character and social role -- Case studies in psychiatric virtues.
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  42. Taking the Long View: An Emerging Framework for Translational Psychiatric Science.Bill Fulford, Lisa Bortolotti & Matthew Broome - 2014 - World Psychiatry 13 (2):110-117.
    Understood in their historical context, current debates about psychiatric classification, prompted by the publication of the DSM-5, open up new opportunities for improved translational research in psychiatry. In this paper, we draw lessons for translational research from three time slices of 20th century psychiatry. From the first time slice, 1913 and the publication of Jaspers’ General Psychopathology, the lesson is that translational research in psychiatry requires a pluralistic approach encompassing equally the sciences of mind (including the social sciences) and (...)
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  43. Psychiatric Ethics.Sidney Bloch & Stephen A. Green (eds.) - 2009 - Oxford University Press.
    Ethical issues are pivotal to the practice of psychiatry. Anyone involved in psychiatric practice and mental healthcare has to be aware of the range of ethical issues relevant to their profession. An increased professional commitment to accountability, in parallel with a growing "consumer" movement has paved the way for a creative engagement with the ethical movement. The bestselling 'Psychiatric Ethics' has carved out a niche for itself as the major comprehensive text and core reference in the field, covering (...)
     
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  44.  21
    Psychiatric Comorbidity: Fact or Artifact?Hanna M. Van Loo & Jan-Willem Romeijn - 2015 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 36 (1):41-60.
    The frequent occurrence of comorbidity has brought about an extensive theoretical debate in psychiatry. Why are the rates of psychiatric comorbidity so high and what are their implications for the ontological and epistemological status of comorbid psychiatric diseases? Current explanations focus either on classification choices or on causal ties between disorders. Based on empirical and philosophical arguments, we propose a conventionalist interpretation of psychiatric comorbidity instead. We argue that a conventionalist approach fits well with research and clinical (...)
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  45.  46
    Ethical Fairness and Human Rights: The Treatment of Employees with Psychiatric Disabilities.Lizabeth A. Barclay & Karen S. Markel - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 85 (3):333-345.
    Extant business research has not addressed the ethical treatment of individuals with psychiatric disabilities. This article will describe previous research on individuals with psychiatric disabilities drawn from rehabilitation, psychological, managerial, legal, as well as related business ethics writings before presenting a framework that illustrates the dynamics of (un)ethical behavior in relation to the employment of such individuals. Individuals with psychiatric disabilities often evoke negative reactions from those in their environment. Lastly, we provide recommendations for how employees and (...)
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  46.  50
    DSM-5 and Psychiatry's Second Revolution: Descriptive Vs. Theoretical Approaches to Psychiatric Classification.Jonathan Y. Tsou - 2015 - In Steeves Demazeux & Patrick Singy (eds.), The DSM-5 in Perspective: Philosophical Reflections on the Psychiatric Babel. Springer. pp. 43-62.
    A large part of the controversy surrounding the publication of DSM-5 stems from the possibility of replacing the purely descriptive approach to classification favored by the DSM since 1980. This paper examines the question of how mental disorders should be classified, focusing on the issue of whether the DSM should adopt a purely descriptive or theoretical approach. I argue that the DSM should replace its purely descriptive approach with a theoretical approach that integrates causal information into the DSM’s descriptive diagnostic (...)
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  47.  60
    Psychiatric Disorders Qua Natural Kinds: The Case of the “Apathetic Children”.Marion Godman - 2013 - Biological Theory 7 (2):144-152.
    In this article I examine some of the issues involved in taking psychiatric disorders as natural kinds. I begin by introducing a permissive model of natural kind-hood that at least prima facie seems to allow psychiatric disorders to be natural kinds. The model, however, hinges on there in principle being some grounding that is shared by all members of a kind, which explain all or most of the additional shared projectible properties. This leads us to the following question: (...)
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  48.  11
    Lalumera, E. 2016. Saving the DSM-5? Descriptive Conceptions and Theoretical Concepts of Mental Disorders.Lalumera Elisabetta - forthcoming - Medicina E Storia 9.
    At present, psychiatric disorders are characterized descriptively, as the standard within the scientific community for communication and, to a certain extent, for diagnosis, is the DSM, now at its fifth edition. The main reasons for descriptivism are the aim of achieving reliability of diagnosis and improving communication in a situation of theoretical disagreement, and the Ignorance argument, which starts with acknowledgment of the relative failure of the project of finding biomarkers for most mental disorders. Descriptivism has also the advantage (...)
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  49.  30
    On the Moral Acceptability of Physician‐Assisted Dying for Non‐Autonomous Psychiatric Patients.Jukka Varelius - 2016 - Bioethics 30 (4):227-233.
    Several authors have recently suggested that the suffering caused by mental illness could provide moral grounds for physician-assisted dying. Yet they typically require that psychiatric-assisted dying could come to question in the cases of autonomous, or rational, psychiatric patients only. Given that also non-autonomous psychiatric patients can sometimes suffer unbearably, this limitation appears questionable. In this article, I maintain that restricting psychiatric-assisted dying to autonomous, or rational, psychiatric patients would not be compatible with endorsing certain (...)
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  50.  96
    Mental Health Care and the Politics of Inclusion: A Social Systems Account of Psychiatric Deinstitutionalization.Enric J. Novella - 2010 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 31 (6):411-427.
    This paper provides an interpretation, based on the social systems theory of German sociologist Niklas Luhmann, of the recent paradigmatic shift of mental health care from an asylum-based model to a community-oriented network of services. The observed shift is described as the development of psychiatry as a function system of modern society and whose operative goal has moved from the medical and social management of a lower and marginalized group to the specialized medical and psychological care of the whole population. (...)
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