Results for 'psychological hedonism'

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  1. Psychological hedonism, evolutionary biology, and the experience machine.John Lemos - 2004 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 34 (4):506-526.
    In the second half of their recent, critically acclaimed book Unto Others: The Evolution and Psychology of Unselfish Behavior , Elliott Sober and David Sloan Wilson discuss psychological hedonism. This is the view that avoiding our own pain and increasing our own pleasure are the only ultimate motives people have. They argue that none of the traditional philosophical arguments against this view are good, and they go on to present theirownevolutionary biological argument against it. Interestingly, the first half (...)
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  2. Two types of psychological hedonism.Justin Garson - 2016 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 56:7-14.
    I develop a distinction between two types of psychological hedonism. Inferential hedonism (or “I-hedonism”) holds that each person only has ultimate desires regarding his or her own hedonic states (pleasure and pain). Reinforcement hedonism (or “R–hedonism”) holds that each person's ultimate desires, whatever their contents are, are differentially reinforced in that person’s cognitive system only by virtue of their association with hedonic states. I’ll argue that accepting R-hedonism and rejecting I-hedonism provides a (...)
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  3.  83
    Psychological hedonism and the nature of motivation: Bertrand Russell's anhedonic desires.Geir Overskeid - 2002 - Philosophical Psychology 15 (1):77 – 93.
    Understanding the causes of behavior is one of philosophy's oldest challenges. In analyzing human desires, Bertrand Russell's position was clearly related to that of psychological hedonism. Still, though he seems to have held quite consistently that desires and emotions govern human behavior, he claimed that they do not necessarily do so by making us want to maximize pleasure. This claim is related to several being made in today's psychology and philosophy. I point out a string of facts and (...)
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  4.  27
    Psychological hedonism.Ralph Piddington - 1931 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 9 (4):274 – 283.
  5.  51
    Peirce's Critique of Psychological Hedonism.Richard Kenneth Atkins - 2015 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 23 (2):349-367.
    Psychological hedonism is the theory that all of our actions are ultimately motivated by a desire for our own pleasure or an aversion to our own pain. Peirce offers a unique critique of PH based on a descriptive analysis of self-controlled action. This essay examines Peirce's critique and his accounts of self-controlled action and of desire.
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  6.  63
    Kant's Psychological Hedonism.A. Phillips Griffiths - 1991 - Philosophy 66 (256):207 - 216.
    As far as consideration of man as phenomenon, as appearance, as an empirical self, is concerned, Kant appears to be a thoroughgoing psychological hedonist.
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  7. Schlick, Altruism and Psychological Hedonism.F. Ablondi - 1996 - Indian Philosophical Quarterly 23 (3-4):417-428.
  8.  16
    Psychological hedonism.Ralph Piddington - 1931 - Australasian Journal of Psychology and Philosophy 9 (4):274-283.
  9.  93
    Psychological Hedonism.Wladyslaw Tatarkiewicz - 1949 - Synthese 8 (1):409-425.
  10. Butler’s Stone and Ultimate Psychological Hedonism.Peter Nilsson - 2013 - Philosophia 41 (2):545-553.
    This paper discusses psychological hedonism with a special reference to the writings of Bishop Butler, and Elliot Sober and David Sloan Wilson. Contrary to philosophical orthodoxy, Sober and Wilson have claimed that Butler failed to refute psychological hedonism. In this paper it is argued: (1) that there is a difference between reductive and ultimate psychological hedonism; (2) that Butler failed to refute ultimate psychological hedonism, but that he succeeded in refuting reductive (...) hedonism; and, finally and more importantly, (3) that Butler’s criticism of reductive hedonism can be used as a stepping-stone in another argument showing the implausibility of ultimate psychological hedonism as well. (shrink)
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  11.  74
    Goals of action and emotional reasons for action. A modern version of the theory of ultimate psychological hedonism.Ulrich Mees & Annette Schmitt - 2008 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 38 (2):157–178.
    In this paper we present a modern version of the classic theory of “ultimate psychological hedonism” . As does the UPH, our two-dimensional model of metatelic orientations also postulates a fundamentally hedonistic motivation for any human action. However, it makes a distinction between “telic” or content-based goals of actions and “metatelic” or emotional reasons for actions. In our view, only the emotional reasons for action, but not the goals of action, conform to the UPH. After outlining our model, (...)
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  12.  61
    Butler’s Argument Against Psychological Hedonism.Robert M. Stewart - 1992 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 22 (2):211-221.
    It is widely thought among philosophers that Joseph Butler's criticism of psychological egoism in his Sermons is, in the words of A.E. Duncan-Jones, 'the classic refutation of it.' Indeed, no less a philosopher than David Hume restated and put forth Butler's central argument against hedonistic egoism - without due credit - as part of his own critique. Yet recent commentators have begun to question Butler's arguments, albeit usually with sympathy and in the hope of saving what they take to (...)
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  13.  46
    A Dialectical Dissolution of Psychological Hedonism.Laurence J. Lafleur - 1954 - Review of Metaphysics 7 (3):368 - 378.
    What does a Utilitarian mean by happiness when he says that it is the good? Specifically, pleasure. But how many different kinds of experiences are included under this term? It appears that as the word was used by Bentham, and indeed by almost all other hedonists, it had so wide an extension that it included all experiences not properly termed "unhappiness." Partly, however, because of the identification of happiness with pleasure and the absence of pain, and partly because of a (...)
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  14.  20
    An examination of psychological hedonism.W. A. Merrylees - 1932 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 10 (2):92 – 108.
  15.  17
    An examination of Psychological Hedonism.W. A. Merrylees - 1932 - Australasian Journal of Psychology and Philosophy 10 (2):92-108.
  16. Troubles for Psychological Hedonism.John J. Tilley - 1999 - Skepsis: A Journal for Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Research 10.
     
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  17.  28
    Can evolutionary theory provide evidence against psychological hedonism?G. Harman - 2000 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 7 (1-2):1-2.
    Sober and Wilson argue that neither psychological evidence nor philosophical arguments provide grounds for rejecting psychological hedonism, but evolution by natural selection is unlikely to have led to such a single source of motivation. In order to turn their piecemeal discussion of into a serious argument, Sober and Wilson need a general procedure for mapping alternative accounts of motivation into egoistic hedonistic accounts. That is the only way to demonstrate that there will always be an available hedonistic (...)
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  18.  67
    Bishop Butler's Refutation of Psychological Hedonism.Reginald Jackson - 1943 - Philosophy 18 (70):114 - 139.
    To the question ‘Why do you try to realize this?’ your answer may be ‘Because I desire that and I think that the realization of this would involve the realization of that.’ Or your answer may be ‘Because I desire this.’ If ‘Why?’ is interpreted as ‘Desiring what?’ the question ‘Why do you desire this?’ is improper. The word ‘desire’ is, however, frequently used in such a way as to countenance the impropriety. It is so used not only when what (...)
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  19.  53
    Toward a re-examination of psychological hedonism.W. K. McAllister - 1952 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 13 (4):499-505.
  20. Normative theory and psychological research: Hedonism, eudaimonism and why it matters.Valerie Tiberius & Alicia Hall - 2010 - Journal of Positive Psychology 5 (3):212-225..
    This paper is a contribution to the debate about eudaimonism started by Kashdan, Biswas-Diener, King, and Waterman in a previous issue of The Journal of Positive Psychology. We point out that one thing that is missing from this debate is an understanding of the problems with subjective theories of well-being that motivate a turn to objective theories. A better understanding of the rationale for objective theories helps us to see what is needed from a theory of well-being. We then argue (...)
     
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  21. Hedonism.John J. Tilley - 2012 - In Ruth Chadwick (ed.), Encyclopedia of Allpied Ethics, 2nd ed. Academic Press. pp. 566-73.
    This article covers four types of hedonism: ancient hedonism; ethical hedonism; axiological hedonism; and psychological hedonism. It concentrates on the latter two types, both by clarifying them and by discussing arguments in their behalf. It closes with a few words about the relevance of those positions to applied ethics.
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  22.  17
    Psychology and hedonism.W. B. Mahan - 1929 - International Journal of Ethics 39 (4):408-423.
  23. Epicurus: psychological or ethical hedonist?Larry J. Waggle - 2007 - Revista de Filosofía (Venezuela) 57 (3):73-88.
    Este artículo sostiene que el tipo de hedonismo que se encuentra en la ética de Epicuro no es de tipo psicológico sino ético. Asimismo, este ensayo se opone a la utilización de reportes doxográficos como una base para desarrollar una interpretación de la filosofía de Epicuro si existen materiales de referencia primaria disponibles, y afirma que la doxografía debe ser utilizada para clarificar esos materiales de referencia primarios, y no al revés.
     
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  24.  6
    Psychology and Hedonism.W. B. Mahan - 1929 - International Journal of Ethics 39 (4):408-423.
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  25.  39
    Non-Drive-Reductive Hedonism and the Physiological Psychology of Inspiration.Bill Faw - 2008 - Philosophy in the Contemporary World 15 (2):114-128.
    Major strands of the history of scientific psychology proposed less mechanistic explanations of behavior than the “series of billiard ball reactions” that Ellis ascribes to them. I tease apart psychological systems based on hedonism and those based on stimulus-response mechanisms-and then tease apart basic hedonism and drive-reduction hedonism, to layout psychological and neuroscientific foundations for the active, dynamic, cognitive, emotive, and "spiritual" dynamics of human nature which Ellis calls us to affirm. I trace these distinctions (...)
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  26.  20
    Hume’s Hedonism.Roger Crisp - 2024 - Hume Studies 49 (1):35-51.
    This paper seeks critically to elucidate Hume’s views on pleasure and the good, in particular his evaluative hedonism, and to show that evaluative hedonism is in certain respects at least as significant a component of his philosophical ethics as sentimentalism. The first section explains his notion of pleasure, and how it is, in an important sense, prior to desire. The following two sections show how this conception of pleasure and its relation to desire leads Hume to accept evaluative (...)
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  27.  52
    The Relation between Jeremy Bentham's Psychological, and his Ethical, Hedonism: T. L. S. Sprigge.T. L. S. Sprigge - 1999 - Utilitas 11 (3):296-319.
    The relationship between Bentham's ‘enunciative principle’ and his ‘censorial principle’ is famously problematic. The problem's solution is that each person has an overwhelming interest in living in a community in which they, like others, are liable to punishment for behaviour condemned by the censorial principle either by the institutions of the state or by the tribunal of public opinion. The senses in which Bentham did and did not think everyone selfish are examined, and a less problematic form of psychological (...)
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  28.  17
    Re-Thinking Cultural Hedonism.Aivaras Stepukonis - 2023 - Dialogue and Universalism 33 (1):181-194.
    Hedonism, driven by mass culture and widespread consumerism, is a salient factor in the modus vivendi of contemporary Western civilization. This general psychological and behavioral backdrop is exploited in the article as an opportunity to both reinvigorate and re-appraise the theoretical underpinnings of modern hedonism as developed by John Stuart Mill in his Utilitarianism. The article proceeds in two steps: Firstly, a detailed exposition of Mill’s arguments for the principle of utility is undertaken, with an accompanying elucidation (...)
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  29. What Kind of Hedonist was Epicurus?Raphael Woolf - 2004 - Phronesis 49 (4):303-322.
    This paper addresses the question of whether or not Epicurus was a psychological hedonist. Did he, that is, hold that all human action, as a matter of fact, has pleasure as its goal? Or was he just an ethical hedonist, asserting merely that pleasure ought to be the goal of human action? I discuss a recent forceful attempt by John Cooper to answer the latter question in the affirmative, and argue that he fails to make his case. There is (...)
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  30.  63
    Social Media Hedonism and the Case of ’Fitspiration’: A Nietzschean Critique.Aurélien Daudi - 2022 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 17 (2):127-142.
    Though the rise of social media has provided countless advantages and possibilities, both within and without the domain of sports, recent years have also seen some more detrimental aspects of these technologies come to light. In particular, the widespread social media culture surrounding fitness – ‘fitspiration’ – warrants attention for the way it encourages self-sexualization and -objectification, thereby epitomizing a wider issue with photo-based social media in general. Though the negative impact of fitspiration has been well documented, what is less (...)
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  31.  50
    Hedonism as Metaphysics of Mind and Value.Leonard David Katz - 1986 - Dissertation, Princeton University
    I develop and defend a hedonistic view of the constitution of human subjectivity, agency and value, while disassociating it from utilitarian accounts of morality and from the view that only pleasure is desired. Chapter One motivates the general question, "What really is of value in human living?", and introduces evaluative hedonism as an answer to this question. Chapter Two argues against preference satisfaction accounts of pleasure and of welfare, and begins the explication and defense of the hedonist's conception of (...)
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  32.  46
    Hiltonism, hedonism and the self.Kristján Kristjánsson - 2008 - Ethics and Education 3 (1):3-14.
    In her 2006 bestseller about the rise of 'raunch culture' and of such self-ascribed 'Female Chauvinist Pigs' as the tawdry socialite Paris Hilton, Ariel Levy describes these phenomena as being indicative of a drastic cultural shift. Serious concerns have been raised, most recently by the American Psychological Association, about the effects of this culture on young girls. Recent Web sources have coined a term for the self-concept embodied and projected by Paris Hilton and her admirers: 'Hiltonism'. In this paper, (...)
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  33.  75
    The Philosophes’ Criticism of Religion and d’Holbach’s Non-Hedonistic Materialism.Hasse Hämäläinen - 2017 - Diametros 54:56-75.
    Baron d’Holbach was a critic of established religion, or a philosophe, in late 18 th -century France. His work is often perceived as less inventive than the work of other materialist philosophes, such as Helvétius and Diderot. However, I claim that d’Holbach makes an original, unjustly overlooked move in the criticism of religious moral teaching. According to the materialist philosophes, this teaching claims that true happiness is only possible in the afterlife. As an alternative, Helvétius and Diderot offer theories according (...)
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  34. In defense of the hedonistic account of happiness.Stephen Morris - 2011 - Philosophical Psychology 24 (2):261-281.
    Although the concept of HAPPINESS plays a central role in ethics, contemporary philosophers have generally given little attention to providing a robust account of what this concept entails. In a recent paper, Dan Haybron sets out to accomplish two main tasks: the first is to underscore the importance of conducting philosophical inquiry into the concept of HAPPINESS; the second is to defend a particular account of happiness—which he calls the ‘emotional state conception of happiness’—while pointing out weaknesses in the primary (...)
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  35.  90
    Kant's empirical hedonism.Andrew B. Johnson - 2005 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 86 (1):50–63.
    : According to the long orthodox interpretation of Kant's theory of motivation, Kant recognized only two fundamental types of motives: moral motives and egoistic, hedonistic motives. Seeking to defend Kant against the ensuing charges of psychological simplism, Andrews Reath formulated a forceful and seminal repudiation of this interpretation in his 1989 essay “Hedonism, Heteronomy and Kant's Principle of Happiness.” The current paper aims to show that Reath's popular exegetical alternative is untenable. His arguments against the traditional view miss (...)
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  36.  27
    An Objection to Attitudinal Hedonism.Peter de Marneffe - 2003 - Philosophical Studies 115 (2):197 - 200.
    This article argues that attitudinal hedonism is false as a theory of what is intrinsically good for us because it implies that nothing is intrinsically good for someone who does not have the psychological capacity for the propositional attitude of enjoyment even if he has other important mental capacities that humans have.
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  37. An objection to attitudinal hedonism.Peter de Marneffe - 2003 - Philosophical Studies 115 (2):197 - 200.
    This article argues that attitudinal hedonism is false as atheory of what is intrinsically good for us because it impliesthat nothing is intrinsically good for someone who does nothave the psychological capacity for the propositional attitudeof enjoyment even if he has other important mental capacitiesthat humans have.
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  38.  17
    Psychological Analysis and the Philosophy of John Stuart Mill.Fred Wilson - 1990
    John Stuart Mill underwent a mental crisis in the 1820s. He emerged from it, argues Fred Wilson, with a new understanding of the notion of introspective analysis more dequare as an empirical method than the sort of analysis that had been used by earlier utilitarian thinkiers such as Bentham and James Mill. Wilson's study places Mill's innovations in the context of earlier work in ethics and perception and of subsequent developments in the history of psychology. He shows the significance of (...)
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  39. Introduction: The biology of psychological altruism.Justin Garson & Armin W. Schulz - 2016 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 56:1-2.
    I develop a distinction between two types of psychological hedonism. Inferential hedonism (or “I-hedonism”) holds that each person only has ultimate desires regarding his or her own hedonic states (pleasure and pain). Reinforcement hedonism (or “R–hedonism”) holds that each person's ultimate desires, whatever their contents are, are differentially reinforced in that person’s cognitive system only by virtue of their association with hedonic states. I’ll argue that accepting R-hedonism and rejecting I-hedonism provides a (...)
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  40.  25
    The Psychology behind J. S. Mill's 'Proof'.G. W. Spence - 1968 - Philosophy 43 (163):18 - 28.
    Professor J. B. Schneewind's recent excellent volume Mill's Ethical Writings has drawn attention to the necessity of studying Mill's notes to chapter XXIII of his father's Analysis of the Phenomena of the Human Mind for a clear understanding of his theory of the moral sentiments. There are notes, however, by J. S. Mill to other chapters of that work, which should not be forgotten, because they elucidate the associationist theory of motivation which is obscurely appealed to in chapter IV of (...)
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  41.  12
    Is a Psychic Thermidor Inevitable? Marcuse’s Hedonism and Its Freudian Challenge.Dror Yinon - 2022 - Naharaim 16 (2):275-298.
    In this paper I argue that Marcuse’s Eros and Civilization is a revision of his early hedonism presented in his early papers from the 1930’s, a revision necessitated by the challenge Freud’s psychoanalysis posited to the possibility of hedonism. In the first section of the paper, I present Marcuse’s critical hedonist position, mainly in “On Hedonism” (1938), where he develops a social and objective hedonism that should be set as a main political goal of a society. (...)
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  42.  5
    The Psychology Behind J. S. Mill's ‘Proof’.G. W. Spence - 1968 - Philosophy 43 (163):18-28.
    Professor J. B. Schneewind's recent excellent volume Mill's Ethical Writings has drawn attention to the necessity of studying Mill's notes to chapter XXIII of his father's Analysis of the Phenomena of the Human Mind for a clear understanding of his theory of the moral sentiments. There are notes, however, by J. S. Mill to other chapters of that work, which should not be forgotten, because they elucidate the associationist theory of motivation which is obscurely appealed to in chapter IV of (...)
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  43.  18
    Future and Present Hedonistic Time Perspectives and the Propensity to Take Investment Risks: The Interplay Between Induced and Chronic Time Perspectives.Katarzyna Sekścińska, Joanna Rudzinska-Wojciechowska & Dominika Agnieszka Maison - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9:362092.
    Willingness to take risk is one of the most important aspects of personal financial decisions, especially those regarding investments. Recent studies show that one’s perception of time, specifically the individual level of Present Hedonistic and Future Time Perspectives (TPs), influence risky financial choices. This was demonstrated for both, Time Perspective treated as an individual trait and for experimentally induced Time Perspectives. However, on occasion, people might find themselves under the joint influence of both, chronic and situational Time Perspectives and little (...)
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  44. Social constructionism and the ethics of hedonism.Edwin E. Gantt - 1996 - Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 16 (2):123-140.
    Examines the assumption of hedonism that lies at the core of many social constructionist accounts of human interaction, and illustrates how it precludes an adequate understanding of agency, morality, and intimacy. The implications of such a hedonism are discussed, and a possible alternative to this hedonism which would allow for a more adequate account of agency, morality, and intimacy is briefly explored. It is argued that if social constructionism is going to come to grips with morality and (...)
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  45.  4
    Gassendi and Epicureanism.Saul Fisher - 2018 - In Delphine Bellis, Daniel Garber & Carla Rita Palmerino (eds.), Pierre Gassendi: Humanism, Science, and the Birth of Modern Philosophy. New York, NY: Routledge. pp. 106-143.
    As the premier early modern advocate of an Epicurean alternative to the prevailing neo-Scholastic framework of Aristotelianism, Pierre Gassendi promoted not only ancient but also innovative reasoning on behalf of atomism, probabilism, empiricism, psychological hedonism, social contractarianism, and a range of other stances associated with the philosophy of the Garden. Much commentary has focused on the extent to which Gassendi ‘baptizes’ Epicurean thought. Beyond this aspect of his Epicureanism are questions as to whether, and how, Gassendi is true (...)
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  46. Locke's Moral Psychology.Ruth Boeker - 2021 - In Jessica Gordon-Roth & Shelley Weinberg (eds.), The Lockean Mind. New York, NY: Routledge.
    In this chapter, I discuss Locke’s contributions to moral psychology. I begin by examining how we acquire moral ideas, according to Locke. Next, I ask what explains why we act morally. I address this question by showing how Locke reconciles hedonist views concerning moral motivation with his commitment to divine law theory. Then I turn to Shaftesbury’s criticism that Locke’s moral view is a self-interested moral theory that undermines virtue. In response to the criticism I draw attention to Locke’s Christian (...)
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  47.  34
    Health and Hedonism in Plato and Epicurus by Kelly Arenson.David Konstan - 2020 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 58 (2):401-402.
    Epicurus had a distinctive position on pleasure: the greatest possible pleasure consists in the absence of pain. The pain in question may be physical or psychological. Not to be hungry, cold, or otherwise distressed is the greatest pleasure that the body can know; to be free of fear, particularly the kind of vague, undirected anxiety that Lucretius called cura, is the most pleasant state that the mind can achieve. As Lucretius exclaims, "Do you not see that our nature cries (...)
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  48.  31
    Review of J. Clerk Shaw, Plato’s Anti-hedonism and the Protagoras, Cambridge, 2015. [REVIEW]Vanessa de Harven - 2015 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 11.
    In his exciting new book, Plato’s Anti-hedonism and the Protagoras, J. Clerk Shaw paints a masterful portrait of the Athenian majority, or “the many,” as portrayed by Plato not just in the Protagoras (as the title advertises), but throughout the Platonic corpus. Shaw offers an incisive diagnosis of popular “double-think,” which balances the incoherent complex of commitments to hedonism (the view the pleasure is the good), to the possibility of akrasia (weakness of will) and to the belief that (...)
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  49. John Clarke of Hull's Argument for Psychological Egoism.John J. Tilley - 2015 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 23 (1):69-89.
    John Clarke of Hull, one of the eighteenth century's staunchest proponents of psychological egoism, defended that theory in his Foundation of Morality in Theory and Practice. He did so mainly by opposing the objections to egoism in the first two editions of Francis Hutcheson's Inquiry into Virtue. But Clarke also produced a challenging, direct argument for egoism which, regrettably, has received virtually no scholarly attention. In this paper I give it some of the attention it merits. In addition to (...)
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  50. A contrary view of hedonism.James Mackenzie - 1932 - Australasian Journal of Psychology and Philosophy 10 (4):299-300.
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