Results for 'psychology of reasoning'

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  1. Psychology of Reasoning: Structure and Content.P. C. Wason & P. N. Johnson - 1974 - Philosophy and Rhetoric 7 (3):193-197.
     
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  2.  45
    The Psychology of Reasoning About Preferences and Unconsequential Decisions.Jean-François Bonnefon, Vittorio Girotto & Paolo Legrenzi - 2012 - Synthese 185 (S1):27-41.
    People can reason about the preferences of other agents, and predict their behavior based on these preferences. Surprisingly, the psychology of reasoning has long neglected this fact, and focused instead on disinterested inferences, of which preferences are neither an input nor an output. This exclusive focus is untenable, though, as there is mounting evidence that reasoners take into account the preferences of others, at the expense of logic when logic and preferences point to different conclusions. This article summarizes (...)
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  3.  59
    Argumentation, Rationality, and Psychology of Reasoning.David Godden - 2015 - Informal Logic 35 (2):135-166.
    This paper explicates an account of argumentative rationality by articulating the common, basic idea of its nature, and then identifying a collection of assumptions inherent in it. Argumentative rationality is then contrasted with dual-process theories of reasoning and rationality prevalent in the psychology of reasoning. It is argued that argumentative rationality properly corresponds only with system-2 reasoning in dual-process theories. This result challenges the prescriptive force of argumentative norms derives if they derive at all from their (...)
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  4. Making Ranking Theory Useful for Psychology of Reasoning.Niels Skovgaard Olsen - 2014 - Dissertation, University of Konstanz
    An organizing theme of the dissertation is the issue of how to make philosophical theories useful for scientific purposes. An argument for the contention is presented that it doesn’t suffice merely to theoretically motivate one’s theories, and make them compatible with existing data, but that philosophers having this aim should ideally contribute to identifying unique and hard to vary predictions of their theories. This methodological recommendation is applied to the ranking-theoretic approach to conditionals, which emphasizes the epistemic relevance and the (...)
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  5.  6
    The Psychology of Reasoning.W. B. Pillsbury - 1924 - Philosophical Review 33 (4):412-414.
    First Published in 1999. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
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  6.  90
    The New Psychology of Reasoning: A Mental Probability Logical Perspective.Niki Pfeifer - 2013 - Thinking and Reasoning 19 (3-4):329-345.
  7.  57
    New Paradigm Psychology of Reasoning.David E. Over - 2009 - Thinking and Reasoning 15 (4):431-438.
  8.  41
    Towards a Descriptivist Psychology of Reasoning and Decision Making.Jonathan St Bt Evans & Shira Elqayam - 2011 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34 (5):275-290.
    Our target article identified normativism as the view that rationality should be evaluated against unconditional normative standards. We believe this to be entrenched in the psychological study of reasoning and decision making and argued that it is damaging to this empirical area of study, calling instead for a descriptivist psychology of reasoning and decision making. The views of 29 commentators (from philosophy and cognitive science as well as psychology) were mixed, including some staunch defences of normativism, (...)
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  9.  33
    New Paradigm Psychology of Reasoning: An Introduction to the Special Issue Edited by Elqayam, Bonnefon, and Over.Shira Elqayam & David E. Over - 2013 - Thinking and Reasoning 19 (3-4):249-265.
  10. Formal Epistemology and the New Paradigm Psychology of Reasoning.Niki Pfeifer & Igor Douven - 2014 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 5 (2):199-221.
    This position paper advocates combining formal epistemology and the new paradigm psychology of reasoning in the studies of conditionals and reasoning with uncertainty. The new paradigm psychology of reasoning is characterized by the use of probability theory as a rationality framework instead of classical logic, used by more traditional approaches to the psychology of reasoning. This paper presents a new interdisciplinary research program which involves both formal and experimental work. To illustrate the program, (...)
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  11.  31
    The Psychology of Reasoning, Based on Experimental Researches in Hypnotism. Edited by A.G. White.A. Binet - 1900 - Philosophical Review 9:111.
  12. The Psychology of Reasoning, Tr. By A.G. Whyte.Alfred Binet & Adam Gowans Whyte - 1899
     
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  13. The Psychology of Reasoning.Eugenio Rignano - 1999 - Routledge.
    First Published in 1999. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
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  14.  19
    The Psychology of Reasoning[REVIEW]Joseph Carson - 1924 - Journal of Philosophy 21 (25):690-695.
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  15. The Psychology of Reasoning[REVIEW]Alfred Binet - 1900 - Ancient Philosophy (Misc) 10:149.
     
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  16. The Psychology of Reasoning[REVIEW]Ellen Bliss Talbot - 1911 - Philosophical Review 20 (1):67-72.
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    The Psychology of Reasoning[REVIEW]Joseph Carson & Eugenio Rignano - 1924 - Journal of Philosophy 21 (25):690-695.
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  18.  88
    Questions and Challenges for the New Psychology of Reasoning.Jonathan St B. T. Evans - 2012 - Thinking and Reasoning 18 (1):5 - 31.
    In common with a number of other authors I believe that there has been a paradigm shift in the psychology of reasoning, specifically the area traditionally labelled as the study of deduction. The deduction paradigm was founded in a philosophical tradition that assumed logicality as the basis for rational thought, and provided binary propositional logic as the agreed normative framework. By contrast, many contemporary authors assume that people have degrees of uncertainty in both premises and conclusions, and reject (...)
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  19.  7
    The Psychology of Reasoning.W. B. Pillsbury - 1911 - Philosophical Review 20 (1):67-72.
  20.  8
    Human Rationality and the Psychology of Reasoning: Where Do We Go From Here?Nick Chater & Mike Oaksford - 2001 - British Journal of Psychology 92 (1):193-216.
    British psychologists have been at the forefront of research into human reasoning for 40 years. This article describes some past research milestones within this tradition before outlining the major theoretical positions developed in the UK. Most British reasoning researchers have contributed to one or more of these positions. We identify a common theme that is emerging in all these approaches, that is, the problem of explaining how prior general knowledge affects reasoning. In our concluding comments we outline (...)
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  21. Chains of Inferences and the New Paradigm in the Psychology of Reasoning.Ulf Hlobil - 2016 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 7 (1):1-16.
    The new paradigm in the psychology of reasoning draws on Bayesian formal frameworks, and some advocates of the new paradigm think of these formal frameworks as providing a computational-level theory of rational human inference. I argue that Bayesian theories should not be seen as providing a computational-level theory of rational human inference, where by “Bayesian theories” I mean theories that claim that all rational credal states are probabilistically coherent and that rational adjustments of degrees of belief in the (...)
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  22.  41
    Probabilities, Beliefs, and Dual Processing: The Paradigm Shift in the Psychology of Reasoning.Shira Elqayam & David Over - 2012 - Mind and Society 11 (1):27-40.
    In recent years, the psychology of reasoning has been undergoing a paradigm shift, with general Bayesian, probabilistic approaches replacing the older, much more restricted binary logic paradigm. At the same time, dual processing theories have been gaining influence. We argue that these developments should be integrated and moreover that such integration is already underway. The new reasoning paradigm should be grounded in dual processing for its algorithmic level of analysis just as it uses Bayesian theory for its (...)
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  23.  31
    Mercier and Sperber's Argumentative Theory of Reasoning: From Psychology of Reasoning to Argumentation Studies.Cristián Santibáñez Yáñez - 2012 - Informal Logic 32 (1):132-159.
    Mercier and Sperber (2011a, 2011b; Mercier, 2011a, 2011b, 2011c, and 2011d) have presented a stimulating and provocative new theory of reasoning: the argumentative theory of reasoning. They maintain that argumentation is a meta-representational module. In their evolutionary view of argumentation, the function of this module would be to regulate the flow of information between interlocutors through persuasiveness on the side of the communicator and epistemic vigilance on the side of the audience. The aim of this paper is to (...)
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  24.  24
    The Psychology of Causal Perception and Reasoning.David Danks - 2009 - In Helen Beebee, Christopher Hitchcock & Peter Menzies (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Causation. Oxford University Press.
  25.  73
    Justification and the Psychology of Human Reasoning.Stephen P. Stich & Richard E. Nisbett - 1980 - Philosophy of Science 47 (2):188-202.
    This essay grows out of the conviction that recent work by psychologists studying human reasoning has important implications for a broad range of philosophical issues. To illustrate our thesis we focus on Nelson Goodman's elegant and influential attempt to "dissolve" the problem of induction. In the first section of the paper we sketch Goodman's account of what it is for a rule of inference to be justified. We then marshal empirical evidence indicating that, on Goodman's account of justification, patently (...)
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  26. Social Intuitionism and the Psychology of Moral Reasoning.Hanno Sauer - 2011 - Philosophy Compass 6 (10):708-721.
    Rationalism about the psychology of moral judgment holds, among other things, that the justifying moral reasons we have for our judgments are also the causally effective reasons for why we make those judgments. This can be called the ‘effectiveness’-thesis regarding moral reasoning. The theory that best exemplifies the thesis is the traditional conscious reasoning-paradigm. Current empirical moral psychology, however, poses a serious challenge to this thesis: it argues that in fact, emotional reactions are necessary and sufficient (...)
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  27. The Psychological Reality of Reasons.Arthur W. Collins - 1997 - Ratio 10 (2):108–123.
  28.  69
    The Erotetic Theory of Reasoning: Bridges Between Formal Semantics and the Psychology of Deductive Inference.Philipp Koralus & Salvador Mascarenhas - 2013 - Philosophical Perspectives 27 (1):312-365.
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  29.  29
    Models of Rationality and the Psychology of Reasoning: From is to Ought, and Back.Crupi Vincenzo & Vittorio Girotto - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
    Diagnoses of rationality often arise from the experimental investigation of human reasoning. We suggest that such diagnoses can be disputed on various grounds and provide a classification. We then argue that much fruitful research done with classical experimental paradigms was triggered by normative concerns and yet fostered insight in properly psychological terms. Our examples include the selection task, the conjunction fallacy, and so-called pseudodiagnosticity. We conclude that normative considerations retain a constructive role in the psychology of reasoning, (...)
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  30.  23
    New Ambitions for a New Paradigm: Putting the Psychology of Reasoning at the Service of Humanity.Jean-François Bonnefon - 2013 - Thinking and Reasoning 19 (3-4):381-398.
  31.  30
    Computational and Biological Constraints in the Psychology of Reasoning.Mike Oaksford & Mike Malloch - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (3):468-469.
  32.  2
    The Psychology of Economic Decisions: Volume Two: Reasons and Choices.Isabelle Brocas & Juan D. Carrillo (eds.) - 2003 - Oxford University Press UK.
    Psychologists have a long tradition of studying human behavior, strengths and weaknesses, biases and limitations. Economists have constructed normative frameworks that capture the most important elements of human decision-making and developed powerful tools to determine individual and strategic choices in a variety of situations. Only recently have their strengths been combined and economic models enriched with key ingredients found in psychological studies.This volume covers four of the most important themes in this interdisciplinary field: feelings, inconsistencies, limitations and biases. Each chapter (...)
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  33. The Psychology of Economic Decisions: Volume Two: Reasons and Choices.Isabelle Brocas & Juan D. Carrillo (eds.) - 2003 - Oxford University Press UK.
    Psychologists have a long tradition of studying human behavior, strengths and weaknesses, biases and limitations. Economists have constructed normative frameworks that capture the most important elements of human decision-making and developed powerful tools to determine individual and strategic choices in a variety of situations. Only recently have their strengths been combined and economic models enriched with key ingredients found in psychological studies.This volume covers four of the most important themes in this interdisciplinary field: feelings, inconsistencies, limitations and biases. Each chapter (...)
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  34.  14
    The Mechanics and Psychology of Practical Reasoning.Alex King - 2018 - Rivista Internazionale di Filosofia e Psicologia 9 (1):81-88.
    : In this commentary on Sinhababu’s Humean Nature I will explore three lines of inquiry. The first asks about the explanatory power of the Desire-Belief Theory of Reasoning, by way of wondering about how desires and beliefs combine with one another. The second question continues along these lines, asking about the further conditions Sinhababu places on reasoning and whether a theory of reasoning can be normatively neutral. The third points out the need for more clarity in his (...)
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  35. The Psychology of Sufficient Reason.W. N. Urban - 1897 - Philosophical Review 6:669.
     
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  36. Knowing Thyself: The Evolutionary Psychology of Moral Reasoning and Moral Sentiments.Leda Cosmides - 2004 - The Ruffin Series of the Society for Business Ethics 4:93-128.
    “Ought” cannot be derived from “is,” so why should facts about human nature be of interest to business ethicists? In this article, we discuss why the nature of human nature is relevant to anyone wishing to create a more just and humane workplace and society. We begin by presenting evolutionary psychology as a research framework, and then present three examples of research that illuminate various evolved cognitive programs. The first involves the cognitive foundations of trade, including a neurocognitive mechanism (...)
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  37. Philosophy and the Psychology of Conditional Reasoning.David Over & Nicole Cruz - 2019 - In Andrew Aberdein & Matthew Inglis (eds.), Advances in Experimental Philosophy of Logic and Mathematics. Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 225-249.
     
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  38.  9
    “Psychologizing” Practical Reason: John Rawls’s Naturalization of the Kantian Ethics.Irene Ottonello - 2013 - In Margit Ruffing, Claudio La Rocca, Alfredo Ferrarin & Stefano Bacin (eds.), Kant Und Die Philosophie in Weltbürgerlicher Absicht: Akten des Xi. Kant-Kongresses 2010. De Gruyter. pp. 805-816.
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  39.  3
    The Psychology of Sufficient Reason.W. M. Urban - 1897 - Psychological Review 4 (4):361-373.
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  40. The Psychology of Dilemmas and the Philosophy of Morality.Fiery Cushman & Liane Young - 2009 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 12 (1):9-24.
    We review several instances where cognitive research has identified distinct psychological mechanisms for moral judgment that yield conflicting answers to moral dilemmas. In each of these cases, the conflict between psychological mechanisms is paralleled by prominent philosophical debates between different moral theories. A parsimonious account of this data is that key claims supporting different moral theories ultimately derive from the psychological mechanisms that give rise to moral judgments. If this view is correct, it has some important implications for the practice (...)
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  41.  26
    The Psychological Explanation of Reasoning: Logical and Methodological Problems.Maurice A. Finocchiaro - 1979 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 9 (3):277-291.
  42. Change in View: Principles of Reasoning.Gilbert H. Harman - 1986 - Cambridge, MA, USA: MIT Press.
    Change in View offers an entirely original approach to the philosophical study of reasoning by identifying principles of reasoning with principles for revising one's beliefs and intentions and not with principles of logic. This crucial observation leads to a number of important and interesting consequences that impinge on psychology and artificial intelligence as well as on various branches of philosophy, from epistemology to ethics and action theory. Gilbert Harman is Professor of Philosophy at Princeton University. A Bradford (...)
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  43. Epistemology and the Psychology of Human Judgment.Michael A. Bishop & J. D. Trout - 2004 - New York: OUP USA.
    Bishop and Trout here present a unique and provocative new approach to epistemology. Their approach aims to liberate epistemology from the scholastic debates of standard analytic epistemology, and treat it as a branch of the philosophy of science. The approach is novel in its use of cost-benefit analysis to guide people facing real reasoning problems and in its framework for resolving normative disputes in psychology. Based on empirical data, Bishop and Trout show how people can improve their (...) by relying on Statistical Prediction Rules. They then develop and articulate the positive core of the book. Their view, Strategic Reliabilism, claims that epistemic excellence consists in the efficient allocation of cognitive resources to reliable reasoning strategies, applied to significant problems. The last third of the book develops the implications of this view for standard analytic epistemology; for resolving normative disputes in psychology; and for offering practical, concrete advice on how this theory can improve real people's reasoning. This is a truly distinctive and controversial work that spans many disciplines and will speak to an unusually diverse group, including people in epistemology, philosophy of science, decision theory, cognitive and clinical psychology, and ethics and public policy. (shrink)
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  44.  4
    The Psychology of Normative Cognition.Daniel Kelly & Stephen Setman - 2020 - The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    From an early age, humans exhibit a tendency to identify, adopt, and enforce the norms of their local communities. Norms are the social rules that mark out what is appropriate, allowed, required, or forbidden in different situations for various community members. These rules are informal in the sense that although they are sometimes represented in formal laws, such as the rule governing which side of the road to drive on, they need not be explicitly codified to effectively influence behavior. There (...)
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  45.  5
    A Psychological Theory of Reasoning as Logical Evidence: A Piagetian Perspective.M. A. Winstanley - 2021 - Synthese 199 (3-4):10077-10108.
    Many contemporary logicians acknowledge a plurality of logical theories and accept that theory choice is in part motivated by logical evidence. However, just as there is no agreement on logical theories, there is also no consensus on what constitutes logical evidence. In this paper, I outline Jean Piaget’s psychological theory of reasoning and show how he used it to diagnose and solve one of the paradoxes of material implication. I assess Piaget’s use of psychology as a source of (...)
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    Formal Models of Reasoning in Cognitive Psychology.Jean-François Bonnefon - 2013 - Argument and Computation 4 (1):1 - 3.
    (2013). Formal Models of Reasoning in Cognitive Psychology. Argument & Computation: Vol. 4, Formal Models of Reasoning in Cognitive Psychology, pp. 1-3. doi: 10.1080/19462166.2013.767559.
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    The "Rule" of Reason in Plato's Psychology.George Klosko - 1988 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 5 (4):341 - 356.
  48.  31
    Folk Psychological Narratives: The Sociocultural Basis of Understanding Reasons.Daniel D. Hutto - 2008 - Bradford.
    Established wisdom in cognitive science holds that the everyday folk psychological abilities of humans -- our capacity to understand intentional actions performed for reasons -- are inherited from our evolutionary forebears. In _Folk Psychological Narratives_, Daniel Hutto challenges this view and argues for the sociocultural basis of this familiar ability. He makes a detailed case for the idea that the way we make sense of intentional actions essentially involves the construction of narratives about particular persons. Moreover he argues that children (...)
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  49.  39
    Reasoning and Argumentation: Towards an Integrated Psychology of Argumentation.Jos Hornikx & Ulrike Hahn - 2012 - Thinking and Reasoning 18 (3):225 - 243.
    Although argumentation plays an essential role in our lives, there is no integrated area of research on the psychology of argumentation. Instead research on argumentation is conducted in a number of separate research communities that are spread across disciplines and have only limited interaction. With a view to bridging these different strands, we first distinguish between three meanings of the word ?argument?: argument as a reason, argument as a structured sequence of reasons and claims, and argument as a social (...)
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  50.  9
    The Status of Reason in Plato's Psychology'.F. A. Wilford - 1959 - Phronesis 4 (1):54 - 58.
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