Results for 'reliability'

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  1.  90
    The Reliability Problem for Reliabilism.Matthew Frise - forthcoming - Philosophical Studies.
    According to process reliabilism, a belief produced by a reliable belief forming process is justified. I introduce problems for this theory on any account of reliability. Does the performance of a process in some domain of worlds settle its reliability? The theories that answer ‘‘Yes’’ typically fail to state the temporal parameters of this performance. I argue that any theory paired with any plausible parameters has implausible implications. The theories that answer ‘‘No,’’ I argue, thereby lack essential support (...)
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  2.  46
    Coherence Reasoning and Reliability: A Defense of the Shogenji Measure.Stefan Schubert - 2012 - Synthese 187 (2):305-319.
    A measure of coherence is said to be reliability conducive if and only if a higher degree of coherence (as measured) results in a higher likelihood that the witnesses are reliable. Recently, it has been proved that several coherence measures proposed in the literature are reliability conducive in a restricted scenario (Olsson and Schubert 2007, Synthese 157:297–308). My aim is to investigate which coherence measures turn out to be reliability conducive in the more general scenario where it (...)
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  3. Reliability Theories of Justified Credence.Weng Hong Tang - 2016 - Mind 125 (497):63-94.
    Reliabilists hold that a belief is doxastically justified if and only if it is caused by a reliable process. But since such a process is one that tends to produce a high ratio of true to false beliefs, reliabilism is on the face of it applicable to binary beliefs, but not to degrees of confidence or credences. For while beliefs admit of truth or falsity, the same cannot be said of credences in general. A natural question now arises: Can (...) theories of justified belief be extended or modified to account for justified credence? In this paper, I address this question. I begin by showing that, as it stands, reliabilism cannot account for justified credence. I then consider three ways in which the reliabilist may try to do so by extending or modifying her theory, but I argue that such attempts face certain problems. After that, I turn to a version of reliabilism that incorporates evidentialist elements and argue that it allows us to avoid the problems that the other theories face. If I am right, this gives reliabilists a reason, aside from those given recently by Comesaña and Goldman, to move towards such a kind of hybrid theory. (shrink)
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  4.  49
    Coherence, Striking Agreement, and Reliability.Michael Schippers - 2014 - Synthese 191 (15):3661-3684.
    Striving for a probabilistic explication of coherence, scholars proposed a distinction between agreement and striking agreement. In this paper I argue that only the former should be considered a genuine concept of coherence. In a second step the relation between coherence and reliability is assessed. I show that it is possible to concur with common intuitions regarding the impact of coherence on reliability in various types of witness scenarios by means of an agreement measure of coherence. Highlighting the (...)
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  5.  56
    Is Coherence Conducive to Reliability?Stefan Schubert - 2012 - Synthese 187 (2):607-621.
    A measure of coherence is said to be reliability conducive if and only if a higher degree of coherence (asmeasured) of a set of testimonies implies a higher probability that the witnesses are reliable. Recently, it has been proved that the Shogenji measure of coherence is reliability conducive in restricted scenarios (e.g., Olsson and Schubert, Synthese, 157:297–308, 2007). In this article, I investigate whether the Shogenji measure, or any other coherence measure, is reliability conducive in general. An (...)
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  6. Reliability for Degrees of Belief.Jeff Dunn - 2015 - Philosophical Studies 172 (7):1929-1952.
    We often evaluate belief-forming processes, agents, or entire belief states for reliability. This is normally done with the assumption that beliefs are all-or-nothing. How does such evaluation go when we’re considering beliefs that come in degrees? I consider a natural answer to this question that focuses on the degree of truth-possession had by a set of beliefs. I argue that this natural proposal is inadequate, but for an interesting reason. When we are dealing with all-or-nothing belief, high reliability (...)
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  7.  41
    Coverage-Reliability, Epistemic Dependence, and the Problem of Rumor-Based Belief.Axel Gelfert - 2013 - Philosophia 41 (3):763-786.
    Rumors, for better or worse, are an important element of public discourse. The present paper focuses on rumors as an epistemic phenomenon rather than as a social or political problem. In particular, it investigates the relation between the mode of transmission and the reliability, if any, of rumors as a source of knowledge. It does so by comparing rumor with two forms of epistemic dependence that have recently received attention in the philosophical literature: our dependence on the testimony of (...)
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  8.  12
    Market Reactions to Increased Reliability of Sustainability Information.Julia Lackmann, Jürgen Ernstberger & Michael Stich - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 107 (2):111-128.
    This article investigates whether investors consider the reliability of companies’ sustainability information when determining the companies’ market value. Specifically, we examine market reactions (in terms of abnormal returns) to events that increase the reliability of companies’ sustainability information but do not provide markets with additional sustainability information. Controlling for competing effects, we regard companies’ additions to an internationally important sustainability index as such events and consider possible determinants for market reactions. Our results suggest that first, investors take into (...)
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  9.  5
    Validity and Reliability of an Instrument for Assessing Case Analyses in Bioengineering Ethics Education.Ilya M. Goldin, Rosa Lynn Pinkus & Kevin Ashley - 2015 - Science and Engineering Ethics 21 (3):789-807.
    Assessment in ethics education faces a challenge. From the perspectives of teachers, students, and third-party evaluators like the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology and the National Institutes of Health, assessment of student performance is essential. Because of the complexity of ethical case analysis, however, it is difficult to formulate assessment criteria, and to recognize when students fulfill them. Improvement in students’ moral reasoning skills can serve as the focus of assessment. In previous work, Rosa Lynn Pinkus and Claire Gloeckner (...)
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  10.  22
    Referees, Editors, and Publication Practices: Improving the Reliability and Usefulness of the Peer Review System.Domenic V. Cicchetti - 1997 - Science and Engineering Ethics 3 (1):51-62.
    The documented low levels of reliability of the peer review process present a serious challenge to editors who must often base their publication decisions on conflicting referee recommendations. The purpose of this article is to discuss this process and examine ways to produce a more reliable and useful peer review system.
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  11.  8
    A Dutch Version of the Modified Reasons for Smoking Scale: Factorial Structure, Reliability and Validity.Hedwig Boudrez & Dirk De Bacquer - 2012 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (4):799-806.
    Aims : The Modified Reasons for Smoking Scale (MRSS) is a widely accepted scale that measures psychological functions of smoking. The scale has been translated in Dutch and has been validated, in order to be used in clinical smoking cessation practice in the Dutch-speaking part of Belgium. This study examined the factorial structure, reliability and validity of the scale in a sample of smokers, who are characterized by a high level of dependence and an explicit motivation to stop smoking. (...)
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  12. Bogen and Woodward's Data-Phenomena Distinction, Forms of Theory-Ladenness, and the Reliability of Data.Samuel Schindler - 2011 - Synthese 182 (1):39-55.
    Some twenty years ago, Bogen and Woodward challenged one of the fundamental assumptions of the received view, namely the theory-observation dichotomy and argued for the introduction of the further category of scientific phenomena. The latter, Bogen and Woodward stressed, are usually unobservable and inferred from what is indeed observable, namely scientific data. Crucially, Bogen and Woodward claimed that theories predict and explain phenomena, but not data. But then, of course, the thesis of theory-ladenness, which has it that our observations are (...)
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  13. The Reliability of Witnesses and Testimony to the Miraculous.Timothy McGrew & Lydia McGrew - 2012 - In Jake Chandler Victoria S. Harrison (ed.), Probability in the Philosophy of Religion. Oxford University Press.
    The formal representation of the strength of witness testimony has been historically tied to a formula — proposed by Condorcet — that uses a factor representing the reliability of an individual witness. This approach encourages a false dilemma between hyper-scepticism about testimony, especially to extraordinary events such as miracles, and an overly sanguine estimate of reliability based on insufficiently detailed evidence. Because Condorcet’s formula does not have the resources for representing numerous epistemically relevant details in the unique situation (...)
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  14.  25
    Proof, Reliability, and Mathematical Knowledge.Anthony F. Peressini - 2003 - Theoria 69 (3):211-232.
    With respect to the confirmation of mathematical propositions, proof possesses an epistemological authority unmatched by other means of confirmation. This paper is an investigation into why this is the case. I make use of an analysis drawn from an early reliability perspective on knowledge to help make sense of mathematical proofs singular epistemological status.
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  15.  78
    Reliability Connections Between Conceivability and Inconceivability.Peter Murphy - 2006 - Dialectica 60 (2):195-205.
    Conceivability is an important source of our beliefs about what is possible; inconceivability is an important source of our beliefs about what is impossible. What are the connections between the reliability of these sources? If one is reliable, does it follow that the other is also reliable? The central contention of this paper is that suitably qualified the reliability of inconceivability implies the reliability of conceivability, but the reliability of conceivability fails to imply the reliability (...)
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  16.  31
    Automatic Decision-Making and Reliability in Robotic Systems: Some Implications in the Case of Robot Weapons.Roberto Cordeschi - 2013 - AI and Society 28 (4):431-441.
    In this article, I shall examine some of the issues and questions involved in the technology of autonomous robots, a technology that has developed greatly and is advancing rapidly. I shall do so with reference to a particularly critical field: autonomous military robotic systems. In recent times, various issues concerning the ethical implications of these systems have been the object of increasing attention from roboticists, philosophers and legal experts. The purpose of this paper is not to deal with these issues, (...)
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  17.  25
    Estimation of Reliability Parameters Under Incomplete Primary Information.A. N. Golodnikov, P. S. Knopov & V. A. Pepelyaev - 2004 - Theory and Decision 57 (4):331-344.
    We consider the procedure for small-sample estimation of reliability parameters. The main shortcomings of the classical methods and the Bayesian approach are analyzed. Models that find robust Bayesian estimates are proposed. The sensitivity of the Bayesian estimates to the choice of the prior distribution functions is investigated using models that find upper and lower bounds. The proposed models reduce to optimization problems in the space of distribution functions.
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  18. Objectivity and Reliability.Justin Clarke-Doane - 2017 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 47 (6):841-855.
    Scanlon’s Being Realistic about Reasons (BRR) is a beautiful book – sleek, sophisticated, and programmatic. One of its key aims is to demystify knowledge of normative and mathematical truths. In this article, I develop an epistemological problem that Scanlon fails to explicitly address. I argue that his “metaphysical pluralism” can be understood as a response to that problem. However, it resolves the problem only if it undercuts the objectivity of normative and mathematical inquiry.
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  19. Character, Reliability and Virtue Epistemology.Jason Baehr - 2006 - Philosophical Quarterly 56 (223):193–212.
    Standard characterizations of virtue epistemology divide the field into two camps: virtue reliabilism and virtue responsibilism. Virtue reliabilists think of intellectual virtues as reliable cognitive faculties or abilities, while virtue responsibilists conceive of them as good intellectual character traits. I argue that responsibilist character virtues sometimes satisfy the conditions of a reliabilist conception of intellectual virtue, and that consequently virtue reliabilists, and reliabilists in general, must pay closer attention to matters of intellectual character. This leads to several new questions and (...)
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  20.  32
    A Reliability Challenge to Theistic Platonism.Dan Baras - 2017 - Analysis 77 (3):479-487.
    Many philosophers believe that when a theory is committed to an apparently unexplainable massive correlation, that fact counts significantly against the theory. Philosophical theories that imply that we have knowledge of non-causal mind-independent facts are especially prone to this objection. Prominent examples of such theories are mathematical Platonism, robust normative realism and modal realism. It is sometimes thought that theists can easily respond to this sort of challenge and that theism therefore has an epistemic advantage over atheism. In this paper, (...)
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  21. Development of a Questionnaire to Measure Patient‐Reported Postoperative Recovery: Content Validity and Intra‐Patient Reliability.Renée Allvin, Margareta Ehnfors, Narinder Rawal, Elisabeth Svensson & Ewa Idvall - 2009 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 15 (3):411-419.
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  22.  17
    The Reliability of Peer Review for Manuscript and Grant Submissions: A Cross-Disciplinary Investigation.Domenic V. Cicchetti - 1991 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 (1):119-135.
  23. Our Reliability is in Principle Explainable.Dan Baras - 2017 - Episteme 14 (2):197-211.
    Non-skeptical robust realists about normativity, mathematics, or any other domain of non- causal truths are committed to a correlation between their beliefs and non- causal, mind-independent facts. Hartry Field and others have argued that if realists cannot explain this striking correlation, that is a strong reason to reject their theory. Some consider this argument, known as the Benacerraf–Field argument, as the strongest challenge to robust realism about mathematics, normativity, and even logic. In this article I offer two closely related accounts (...)
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  24.  24
    Source Reliability and the Conjunction Fallacy.Andreas Jarvstad & Ulrike Hahn - 2011 - Cognitive Science 35 (4):682-711.
  25.  44
    On the Reliability of Moral and Intellectual Virtues.Jason Baehr - 2007 - Metaphilosophy 38 (4):456-470.
  26.  12
    Secondary Reinforcement in Rats as a Function of Information Value and Reliability of the Stimulus.M. David Egger & Neal E. Miller - 1962 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 64 (2):97.
  27.  10
    Uncertainties, Plurality, and Robustness in Climate Research and Modeling: On the Reliability of Climate Prognoses.Anna Leuschner - 2015 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 46 (2):367-381.
    The paper addresses the evaluation of climate models and gives an overview of epistemic uncertainties in climate modeling; the uncertainties concern the data situation as well as the causal behavior of the climate system. In order to achieve reasonable results nonetheless, multimodel ensemble studies are employed in which diverse models simulate the future climate under different emission scenarios. The models jointly deliver a robust range of climate prognoses due to a broad plurality of theories, techniques, and methods in climate research; (...)
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  28. Rationality, Reliability, and Natural Selection.Richard H. Feldman - 1988 - Philosophy of Science 55 (June):218-27.
    A tempting argument for human rationality goes like this: it is more conducive to survival to have true beliefs than false beliefs, so it is more conducive to survival to use reliable belief-forming strategies than unreliable ones. But reliable strategies are rational strategies, so there is a selective advantage to using rational strategies. Since we have evolved, we must use rational strategies. In this paper I argue that some criticisms of this argument offered by Stephen Stich fail because they rely (...)
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  29.  5
    The Validity and Reliability of the Turkish Version of the MacNew Heart Disease Questionnaire in Patients with Angina.Arzu Daskapan, Stefan Höfer, Neil Oldridge, Neslihan Alkan, Haldun Muderrisoglu & Emine Handan Tuzun - 2008 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 14 (2):209-213.
  30.  13
    Reliability and Validity of the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale in Clinical Outpatients with Depressive Disorders.Esther M. V. Grootenboer, Erik J. Giltay, Rosalind van der Lem, Tineke van Veen, Nic J. A. van der Wee & Frans G. Zitman - 2012 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (2):502-507.
  31.  46
    Reliability and the a Priori.Ernest Sosa - 2002 - In John Hawthorne & Tamar Gendler (eds.), Conceivability and Possibility. Oxford University Press. pp. 369--384.
  32.  9
    Reliability and Validity of the Intercollegiate Stroke Audit Package.P. H. Gompertz, P. Irwin, R. Morris, D. Lowe MSc Cstat, Z. Rutledge, A. G. Rudd & M. G. Pearson - 2001 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 7 (1):1-11.
  33.  6
    Reviewing Measures of Outcome: Reliability of Data Extraction.K. L. Haywood, J. Hargreaves, R. White & S. E. Lamb - 2004 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 10 (2):329-337.
  34.  25
    Reliability in Plantinga´s Account of Epistemic Warrant.John Wingard Jr - 2010 - Principia: An International Journal of Epistemology 6 (2):249-278.
    In das paper 1 ccmstder the rehabday condaton in Atm PlanungaS's proper functionabst account of eptstemtc warrant I begm by reviewing m some detail the features of the rehabdity condition as Planunga lias aruculated a From there, 1 consider what is needed to ground or secure the sort of rehability whzch Plantinga has m mind, and argue that what is needed is a significant causai condam which has generally been overlooked Then, after identifying eight verstons of the relevant sort of (...)
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  35.  18
    Validity and Reliability Study on Traditional Chinese FACT‐C in Chinese Patients with Colorectal Neoplasm.Carlos Kh Wong, Cindy Lk Lam, Wai‐Lun Law, Jensen Tc Poon, Pierre Chan, Dora Lw Kwong & Janice Tsang - 2012 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (6):1186-1195.
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  36.  17
    Problems in Using Health Survey Questionnaires in Older Patients with Physical Disabilities. The Reliability and Validity of the SF‐36 and the Effect of Cognitive Impairment.D. Gwyn Seymour, Anne E. Ball, Elizabeth M. Russell, William R. Primrose, Andrew M. Garratt & John R. Crawford - 2001 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 7 (4):411-418.
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  37.  4
    Reliability and Validity of Eye-Movement Measures of Reading.M. A. Tinker - 1936 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 19 (6):732.
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  38.  10
    Studies in Thermal Sensitivity: 9. The Reliability of Seriatim Cold-Mapping with Untrained Subjects.W. L. Jenkins - 1939 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 24 (3):278.
  39.  7
    Accuracy and Reliability of Assessment of Severity of Illness Before and After an Educational Intervention.Christopher Shlels, Allen Hutchlnson, Martin Eccles, Eric Gardiner & Lada Smoljanovlc - 1996 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 2 (4):265-271.
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  40.  8
    Methods to Assess the Reliability of the interRAI Acute Care: A Framework to Guide Clinimetric Testing. Part II.Nathalie I. H. Wellens, Koen Milisen, Johan Flamaing & Philip Moons - 2012 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (4):822-827.
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  41.  8
    The Validity and Reliability of Group Judgments.H. J. Eysenck - 1941 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 29 (5):427-434.
  42.  7
    Clinical Instruments: Reliability and Validity Critical Appraisal.Yolandi Brink & Quinette A. Louw - 2012 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (6):1126-1132.
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  43.  6
    Reliability of Blinking Frequency Employed as a Measure of Readability.M. A. Tinker - 1945 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 35 (5):418.
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  44.  4
    Free Association Reliability as a Function of Response Strength.David C. Howell - 1970 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 85 (3):431.
  45.  4
    The Validity and Reliability of Group Judgments.B. B. Smith - 1941 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 29 (5):420-426.
  46.  3
    Discriminant Validity and Test–Retest Reliability of a Self‐Administered Internet‐Based Questionnaire Testing Doctors' Knowledge in Evidence‐Based Medicine.Rachel Voellinger, Patrick Taffé, Jacques Cornuz, Pierre Durieux & Bernard Burnand - 2011 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 17 (3):471-477.
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  47.  3
    Reliability of Judgments of Figural Complexity.Lois Lawrence Elliott - 1958 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 56 (4):335.
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  48.  2
    Prediction of the Reliability of Mental Tests and Tests of Special Abilities.L. H. Lanier - 1927 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 10 (2):69.
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  49.  2
    The Reliability of Measurements of Human Dark Adaptation.F. A. Mote, G. E. Briggs & K. M. Michels - 1954 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 48 (1):69.
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  50.  3
    Reliability of Scores in Steadiness Tests.J. Q. Holsopple - 1922 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 5 (3):203.
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