Results for 'reproduction'

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  1.  13
    Women and new reproductive.New Reproductive - 1992 - In Helen B. Holmes & Laura Purdy (eds.), Feminist Perspectives in Medical Ethics. Indiana University Press. pp. 695--167.
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  2. Reproductive freedom, self-regulation, and the government of impairment in utero.Shelley Tremain - 2006 - Hypatia 21 (1):35-53.
    : This article critically examines the constitution of impairment in prenatal testing and screening practices and various discourses that surround these technologies. While technologies to test and screen prenatally are claimed to enhance women's capacity to be self-determining, make informed reproductive choices, and, in effect, wrest control of their bodies from a patriarchal medical establishment, I contend that this emerging relation between pregnant women and reproductive technologies is a new strategy of a form of power that began to emerge in (...)
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  3. Reproductive choice: Screening Policy and Access to the Means of Reproduction.Lucinda Vandervort - 2006 - Human Rights Quarterly 28 (2):438-464.
    The practice of screening potential users of reproductive services is of profound social and political significance. Access screening is inconsistent with the principles of equality and self-determination, and violates individual and group human rights. Communities that strive to function in accord with those principles should not permit access screening, even screening that purports to be a benign exercise of professional discretion. Because reproductive choice is controversial, regulation by law may be required in most jurisdictions to provide effective protection for reproductive (...)
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  4.  97
    Reproduction in Education, Society and Culture.Pierre Bourdieu, Professor Pierre Bourdieu & Jean-Claude Passeron - 1990 - Sage Publications.
    The way in which the ruling ideas of a social system are related to structures of class, production and power, and how these are legitimated and perpetuated, is fundamental to the sociological project. In this second edition of this classic text, which includes a new introduction by Pierre Bourdieu, the authors develop an analysis of education. They show how education carries an essentially arbitrary cultural scheme which is actually, though not in appearance, based on power. More widely, the reproduction (...)
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  5. Does Reproductive Justice Demand Insurance Coverage for IVF? Reflections on the Work of Anne Donchin.Carolyn McLeod - 2017 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 10 (2):133-143.
    This paper comes out of a panel honoring the work of Anne Donchin (1940-2014), which took place at the 2016 Congress of the International Network on Feminist Approaches to Bioethics (FAB) in Edinburgh. My general aim is to highlight the contributions Anne made to feminist bioethics, and to feminist reproductive ethics in particular. My more specific aim, however, is to have a kind of conversation with Anne, through her work, about whether reproductive justice could demand insurance coverage for in vitro (...)
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  6.  53
    Reproductive Ethics in Commercial Surrogacy: Decision-Making in IVF Clinics in New Delhi, India.Malene Tanderup, Sunita Reddy, Tulsi Patel & Birgitte Bruun Nielsen - 2015 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 12 (3):491-501.
    As a neo-liberal economy, India has become one of the new health tourism destinations, with commercial gestational surrogacy as an expanding market. Yet the Indian Assisted Reproductive Technology Bill has been pending for five years, and the guidelines issued by the Indian Council of Medical Research are somewhat vague and contradictory, resulting in self-regulated practices of fertility clinics. This paper broadly looks at clinical ethics in reproduction in the practice of surrogacy and decision-making in various procedures. Through empirical research (...)
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  7.  55
    Reproductive tourism and the Quest for global gender justice.Anne Donchin - 2010 - Bioethics 24 (7):323-332.
    Reproductive tourism is a manifestation of a larger, more inclusive trend toward globalization of capitalist cultural and material economies. This paper discusses the development of cross-border assisted reproduction within the globalized economy, transnational and local structural processes that influence the trade, social relations intersecting it, and implications for the healthcare systems affected. I focus on prevailing gender structures embedded in the cross-border trade and their intersection with other social and economic structures that reflect and impact globalization. I apply a (...)
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  8.  66
    Reproductive ectogenesis: The third era of human reproduction and some moral consequences.Stellan Welin - 2004 - Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (4):615-626.
    In a well known story Derek Parfit describes a disconnection between two entities that normally (in real life) travel together through space and time, namely your personal identity consisting of both mind and body. Realising the possibility of separation, even if it might never happen in real life, new questions arise that cast doubt on old solutions. In human reproduction, in real life, at present the fetus spends approximately nine months inside the pregnant woman. But, we might envisage other (...)
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  9. Reproductive technology's legacy of omission.Miriam Zoll - 2018 - In Françoise Baylis & Alice Domurat Dreger (eds.), Bioethics in action. Cambridge University Press.
     
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  10.  53
    Reproductive genome editing interventions are therapeutic, sometimes.César Palacios-González - 2021 - Bioethics 35 (6):557-562.
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  11.  59
    Postnatal reproductive autonomy: Promoting relational autonomy and self-trust in new parents.Sara Goering - 2009 - Bioethics 23 (1):9-19.
    New parents suddenly come face to face with myriad issues that demand careful attention but appear in a context unlikely to provide opportunities for extended or clear-headed critical reflection, whether at home with a new baby or in the neonatal intensive care unit. As such, their capacity for autonomy may be compromised. Attending to new parental autonomy as an extension of reproductive autonomy, and as a complicated phenomenon in its own right rather than simply as a matter to be balanced (...)
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  12.  11
    Reproduction Expanded: Multifenerational and Multilineal Units of Evoultion.Maureen A. O’Malley - 2016 - Philosophy of Science 83 (5):835-847.
    Reproduction is central to biology and evolution. Standard concepts of reproduction are drawn from animals. Nonstandard examples of reproduction can be found in unicellular eukaryotes that distribute their reproductive strategies across multiple generations, and in mutualistic systems that combine different modes of reproduction across multiple lineages. Examining multigenerational and multilineal reproducers and how they align fitness has implications for conceptualizing units of evolution.
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  13.  77
    Beyond Choice: Reproductive Freedom in the 21st Century.Alexander Sanger - 2004 - Public Affairs.
    The origins of choice -- The reproductive rights debate that ignored reproduction -- Putting reproduction back into reproductive freedom -- Reproductive freedom and human evolution -- Enlisting men in support of reproductive freedom -- Defending reproductive freedom from the dangers of reproductive technology -- Ought there be a law? -- Beyond choice.
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  14.  4
    Freedom and Responsibility in Reproductive Choice.John R. Spencer & Antje Du Bois-Pedain (eds.) - 2006 - Hart.
    What responsibilities, if any, do we have towards our genetic offspring, before or after birth and perhaps even before creation, merely by virtue of the genetic link? What claims, if any, arise from the mere genetic parental relation? Should society through its legal arrangements allow 'fatherless' or 'motherless' children to be born, as the current law on medically assisted reproduction involving gamete donation in some legal systems does? Does the possibility of establishing genetic parentage with practical certainty necessitate reform (...)
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  15.  96
    Artificial Reproduction, Blood Relatedness, and Human Identity.Jacqueline A. Laing - 2006 - The Monist 89 (4):548-566.
    The article discusses questions on the significance of blood relatedness in the context of identity arguments about artificial reproduction (AR). Kinship, origins, and biological connections are significant to human beings. The author explains that family relationships bear on the identity of human beings. Moreover, she emphasizes that once these principles are neglected, it is possible to create people in ways that threaten significant human bonds and alienate people who are naturally related spelling loss, confusion and grief for them.
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  16.  30
    Reproduction in Complex Life Cycles: Toward a Developmental Reaction Norms Perspective.James Griesemer - 2016 - Philosophy of Science 83 (5):803-815.
    Biological reproduction is a material process of intertwined, recursive propagule generation and development, assuming that development produces simple life cycles. Most organisms, however, have more or less complex life cycles. Here, I attempt to reconcile recent articulations of a reproducer account with traditional approaches to complex life cycles by generalizing genetic demarcation criteria for life cycle generations in terms of the “scaffolded” development of hybrid reproducers. I argue that scaffolding provides a general method for identifying developmental bottlenecks and suggests (...)
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  17. Can reproductive genetic manipulation save lives?G. Owen Schaefer - 2020 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy (3):381-386.
    It has recently been argued that reproductive genetic manipulation technologies like mitochondrial replacement and germline CRISPR modifications cannot be said to save anyone’s life because, counterfactually, no one would suffer more or die sooner absent the intervention. The present article argues that, on the contrary, reproductive genetic manipulations may be life-saving (and, from this, have therapeutic value) under an appropriate population health perspective. As such, popular reports of reproductive genetic manipulations potentially saving lives or preventing disease are not necessarily mistaken, (...)
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  18.  64
    Reproductive CRISPR does not cure disease.Tina Rulli - 2019 - Bioethics 33 (9):1072-1082.
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  19.  11
    Assisted reproduction technologies and reproductive justice in the production of parenthood and origin: Uses and meanings of the co‐produced gestation and the surrogacy in Brazil.Aureliano Lopes Silva Junior, Mônica Fortuna Pontes & Anna Paula Uziel - forthcoming - Developing World Bioethics.
    This article examines the construction of parenthood, drawing on Brazilian cisgender, heterosexual, and homosexual couples' experiences in using assisted reproduction technologies (ART), particularly the surrogacy. For that purpose, we interviewed: 1) a lesbian woman who had her daughter through her partner's pregnancy, using ART with anonymous donor semen; 2) a gay man who, together with his partner, used a surrogacy service under contract via a specialised offshore agency; 3) a woman who was a surrogate, in Brazil, for her sister-in-law (...)
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  20. Human Enhancement and Reproductive Ethics on Generation Ships.Steven Umbrello & Maurizio Balistreri - forthcoming - Argumenta:1-14.
    The past few years has seen a resurgence in the public interest in space flight and travel. Spurred mainly by the likes of technology billionaires like Elon Musk and Jeff Bezos, the topic poses both unique scientific as well as ethical challenges. This paper looks at the concept of generation ships, conceptual behemoth ships whose goal is to bring a group of human settlers to distant exoplanets. These ships are designed to host multiple generations of people who will be born, (...)
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  21.  1
    Regulating Autonomy: Sex, Reproduction and Family.Shelley Day Sclater (ed.) - 2009 - Hart.
    Intimacies and domestic lives -- Reproduction.
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  22.  10
    Imagining Reproduction in Science and History.Roger Pierson & Raymond Stephanson - 2010 - Journal of Medical Humanities 31 (1):1-9.
    Reproduction is at the core of many aspects of human existence. It is intrinsic in our biology and in the broad social constructs in which we all reside. The introduction to this special issue is designed to reflect on some of the differences between the humanities/arts and the sciences on the subject of Reproduction now and in the past. The intellectual/cultural distance between humanists and reproductive biologists is vast, yet communication between the Two Cultures has much to offer (...)
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  23.  47
    Reproduction and the central project of evolutionary theory.Evelyn Fox Keller - 1987 - Biology and Philosophy 2 (4):383-396.
    In much of the discourse of evolutionary theory, reproduction is treated as an autonomous function of the individual organism — even in discussions of sexually reproducing organisms. In this paper, I examine some of the functions and consequences of such manifestly peculiar language. In particular, I suggest that it provides crucial support for the central project of evolutionary theory — namely that of locating causal efficacy in intrinsic properties of the individual organism. Furthermore, I argue that the language of (...)
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  24. Reproductive Embryo Editing: Attending to Justice.Inmaculada De Melo-Martín - 2022 - Hastings Center Report 52 (4):26-33.
    The use of genome embryo editing tools in reproduction is often touted as a way to ensure the birth of healthy and genetically related children. Many would agree that this is a worthy goal. The purpose of this paper is to argue that, if we are concerned with justice, accepting such goal as morally appropriate commits one to rejecting the development of embryo editing for reproductive purposes. This is so because safer and more effective means exist that can allow (...)
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  25.  4
    Reimagining relationality for reproductive care: Understanding obstetric violence as “separation”.Rodante van der Waal & Inge van Nistelrooij - 2022 - Nursing Ethics 29 (5):1186-1197.
    Nursing Ethics has published several pleas for care ethics and/or relationality as the most promising ethical foundation for midwifery philosophy and practice. In this article, we stand by these calls, contributing to them with the identification of the structural form of violence that a care ethical relational approach to reproductive care is up against: that of “maternal separation”. Confronted with reproductive and obstetric violence globally, we show that a hegemonic racialized, instrumentalized, and individualized conception of pregnancy is responsible for a (...)
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  26. Human reproductive cloning: A conflict of liberties.Joyce C. Havstad - 2010 - Bioethics 24 (2):71-77.
    Proponents of human reproductive cloning do not dispute that cloning may lead to violations of clones' right to self-determination, or that these violations could cause psychological harms. But they proceed with their endorsement of human reproductive cloning by dismissing these psychological harms, mainly in two ways. The first tactic is to point out that to commit the genetic fallacy is indeed a mistake; the second is to invoke Parfit's non-identity problem. The argument of this paper is that neither approach succeeds (...)
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  27. Normalizing reproductive technologies and the implications for autonomy.Susan Sherwin - forthcoming - Globalizing Feminist Bioethics.
     
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  28.  60
    Reproductive autonomous choice – A cherished illusion? Reproductive autonomy examined in the context of preimplantation genetic diagnosis.Kristin Zeiler - 2004 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 7 (2):175-183.
    Enhancement of autonomous choice may be considered as an important reason for facilitating the use of genetic tests such as preimplantation genetic diagnosis. The principle of respect for autonomy is a crucial component not only of Western liberal traditions but also of Western bioethics. This is especially so in bioethical discussions and analyses of clinical encounters within medicine. On the basis of an analysis of qualitative research interviews performed with British, Italian and Swedish geneticists and gynaecologists on ethical aspects of (...)
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  29.  54
    Reproductive tourism in argentina: Clinic accreditation and its implications for consumers, health professionals and policy makers.Elise Smith, Jason Behrmann, Carolina Martin & Bryn Williams-Jones - 2010 - Developing World Bioethics 10 (2):59-69.
    A subcategory of medical tourism, reproductive tourism has been the subject of much public and policy debate in recent years. Specific concerns include: the exploitation of individuals and communities, access to needed health care services, fair allocation of limited resources, and the quality and safety of services provided by private clinics. To date, the focus of attention has been on the thriving medical and reproductive tourism sectors in Asia and Eastern Europe; there has been much less consideration given to more (...)
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  30.  4
    Reproductive autonomy or responsible parenthood? Conflicting ethical framings of genetic carrier screening.Peter Wehling, Beatrice Perera & Sabrina Schüssler - 2020 - Ethik in der Medizin 32 (4):313-329.
    Definition of the problem The present article focuses on the current international ethical debate on “responsible implementation” of expanded carrier screening to public healthcare systems. Expanded carrier screening is a novel genetic test which aims to provide information to couples about whether both partners carry a genetic variation for the same recessively inherited condition. It was introduced to the market by commercial laboratories in the U.S. in 2010; since about 2015, however, international debates have emerged on how and why to (...)
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  31. Reproductive politics, biopolitics and auto-immunity: From Foucault to Esposito. [REVIEW]Penelope Deutscher - 2010 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 7 (2):217-226.
    The contingent cultural, epistemological and ontological status of biology is highlighted by changes in attitudes towards reproductive politics in the history of feminist movements. Consider, for example, the American, British, and numerous European instances of feminist sympathy for eugenics at the turn of the century. This amounted to a specific formation of the role, in late nineteenth and early twentieth century feminisms, of concepts of biological risk and defence, which were transformed into the justificatory language of rights claims. In this (...)
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  32. New reproductive technologies in the treatment of human infertility and genetic disease.Lee M. Silver - 1990 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 11 (2).
    In this paper I will discuss three areas in which advances in human reproductive technology could occur, their uses and abuses, and their effects on society. First is the potential to drastically increase the success rate and availability of in vitro fertilization and embryo freezing. Second is the ability to perform biopsies on embryos prior to the onset of pregnancy. Finally, I will consider the adding or altering of genes in embryos, commonly referred to as genetic engineering.As new reproductive technologies (...)
     
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  33.  37
    Assisted Reproduction and Distributive Justice.Vida Panitch - 2015 - Bioethics 29 (2):108-117.
    The Canadian province of Quebec recently amended its Health Insurance Act to cover the costs of In Vitro Fertilization . The province of Ontario recently de-insured IVF. Both provinces cited cost-effectiveness as their grounds, but the question as to whether a public health insurance system ought to cover IVF raises the deeper question of how we should understand reproduction at the social level, and whether its costs should be a matter of individual or collective responsibility. In this article I (...)
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  34. Selective Reproduction, eugenics, and public health.Stephen Wilkinson - 2011 - In Angus Dawson (ed.), Public Health Ethics: Key Concepts and Issues in Policy and Practice. New York, USA: Cambridge University Press. pp. 48-66.
     
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  35. Reproductive labour and indigenous hospitalities in post/colonial fieldwork.Alexandra Widmer - 2022 - In Jenny Bangham, Xan Chacko & Judith Kaplan (eds.), Invisible Labour in Modern Science. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
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  36.  11
    Reproductive justice: Non‐interference or non‐domination?Himani Bhakuni - forthcoming - Developing World Bioethics.
    The reproductive justice movement started by black women’s rights activists made its way into the academic literature as an intersectional approach to women’s reproductive autonomy. While there are many scholars who now employ the term ‘reproductive justice’ in their research, few have taken up the task of explaining what ‘justice’ entails in reproductive justice. In this paper I take up part of this work and attempt to clarify the relevant kind of freedom an adequate theory of reproductive justice would postulate. (...)
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  37.  94
    Reproductive biocrossings: Indian egg donors and surrogates in the globalized fertility market.Jyotsna Agnihotri Gupta - 2012 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 5 (1):25-51.
    A growing number of infertile couples and other individuals desiring children are seeking to fulfill their desire for parenthood transnationally through the use of donor gametes and a surrogate. The number of “fertility tourists” from developed countries to low-income countries is growing phenomenally. Indian women, too, are participating as producers in these “biocrossings,” turning India into the surrogacy outsourcing capital of the world in the globalized bioeconomy of assisted reproduction. I argue for a ban on commercial egg donation and (...)
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  38. Reproductive technology: A critical analysis of theological responses in christianity and Islam.Mohd Shuhaimi Bin Ishak & Sayed Sikandar Shah Haneef - 2014 - Zygon 49 (2):396-413.
    Reproductive medical technology has revolutionized the natural order of human procreation. Accordingly, some have celebrated its advent as a new and liberating determinant of kinship at the global level and advocate it as a right to reproductive health while others have frowned upon it as a vehicle for “guiltless exchange of sexual fluid” and commodification of human gametes. Religious voices from both Christianity and Islam range from unthinking adoption to restrictive use. While utilizing this technology to enable the married couple (...)
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  39. New Reproductive Technologies are Morally Problematic.Jacqueline A. Laing - 2000 - In James Torr (ed.), Medical Ethics. Greenhaven Press.
    A short article examining the problems of the fertility industry, commodifying human life and allowing unaccountable third parties to create children in ways that undermine their identity by way of donor conception, human cloning and artificial reproductive techniques.
     
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  40.  95
    Reproductive autonomy, the non-identity problem, and the non-person problem.Russell Disilvestro - 2009 - Bioethics 23 (1):59-67.
    The Non-Identity Problem is the problem of explaining the apparent wrongness of a decision that does not harm people, especially since some of the people affected by the decision would not exist at all were it not for the decision. One approach to this problem, in the context of reproductive decisions, is to focus on wronging, rather than harming, one's offspring. But a Non-Person Problem emerges for any view that claims (1) that only persons can be wronged and (2) that (...)
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  41.  32
    Reproductive tourism as moral pluralism in motion.G. Pennings - 2002 - Journal of Medical Ethics 28 (6):337-341.
    Reproductive tourism is the travelling by candidate service recipients from one institution, jurisdiction, or country where treatment is not available to another institution, jurisdiction, or country where they can obtain the kind of medically assisted reproduction they desire. The more widespread this phenomenon, the louder the call for international measures to stop these movements. Three possible solutions are discussed: internal moral pluralism, coerced conformity, and international harmonisation. The position is defended that allowing reproductive tourism is a form of tolerance (...)
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  42.  2
    Assisted reproduction technologies and reproductive justice in the production of parenthood and origin: Uses and meanings of the co‐produced gestation and the surrogacy in Brazil.Aureliano Lopes Silva Junior, Mônica Fortuna Pontes & Anna Paula Uziel - forthcoming - Developing World Bioethics.
    This article examines the construction of parenthood, drawing on Brazilian cisgender, heterosexual, and homosexual couples' experiences in using assisted reproduction technologies (ART), particularly the surrogacy. For that purpose, we interviewed: 1) a lesbian woman who had her daughter through her partner's pregnancy, using ART with anonymous donor semen; 2) a gay man who, together with his partner, used a surrogacy service under contract via a specialised offshore agency; 3) a woman who was a surrogate, in Brazil, for her sister-in-law (...)
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  43.  88
    Reproductive Autonomy as Self-Making: Procreative Liberty and the Practice of Ethical Subjectivity.Catherine Mills - 2013 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 38 (6):639-656.
    In this article, I consider recent debates on the notion of procreative liberty, to argue that reproductive freedom can be understood as a form of positive freedom—that is, the freedom to make oneself according to various ethical and aesthetic principles or values. To make this argument, I draw on Michel Foucault’s later work on ethics. Both adopting and adapting Foucault’s notion of ethics as a practice of the self and of liberty, I argue that reproductive autonomy requires enactment to gain (...)
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  44.  12
    Human Reproduction: Principles, Practices, Policies.Christine Overall - 1993 - Oxford University Press.
    Who owns frozen human embryos? Are "surrogate motherhood" arrangements dangerous for women? Should access to in vitro fertilization be limited or increased? With the development of complex reproductive technologies and the ensuing controversies in reproductive ethics, there is an urgent need for more careful examination of moral principles, current practices, and social policies pertaining to reproduction. The issues examined in this collection of nine papers focusing of the Canadian experience include abortion, the cryopreservation of embryos, the selective termination of (...)
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  45. Reproduction, partiality, and the non-identity problem.Hallvard Lillehammer - 2009 - In M. A. Roberts & D. T. Wasserman (eds.), Harming Future Persons. Springer Verlag. pp. 231--248.
    Much work in contemporary bioethics defends a broadly liberal view of human reproduction. I shall take this view to comprise (but not to be exhausted by) the following four claims.1 First, it is permissible both to reproduce and not to reproduce, either by traditional means or by means of assisted reproductive techniques such as IVF and genetic screening. Second, it is permissible either to reproduce or to adopt or otherwise foster an existing child to which one is not biologically (...)
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  46.  13
    Race, Reproduction, and Biopolitics: A Review Essay.Christopher Mayes - 2021 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 18 (1):99-107.
    This review essay critically examines Catherine Mills’s Biopolitics and Camisha Russell’s The Assisted Reproduction of Race. Although distinct works, the centrality of race and reproduction provides a point of connection and an opening into reframing contemporary debates within bioethics and biopolitics. In reviewing these books together I hope to show how biopolitical theory and critical philosophy of race can be useful in looking at bioethical problems from a new perspective that open up different kinds of analyses, especially around (...)
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  47.  60
    Feminism & Bioethics: Beyond Reproduction.Susan M. Wolf (ed.) - 1996 - Oxford University Press.
    Bioethics has paid surprisingly little attention to the special problems faced by women and to feminist analyses of current health care issues other than ...
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  48.  8
    Reproductive technologies are not the cure for social problems.Lisa Campo-Engelstein - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (2):85-86.
    Giulia Cavaliere disagrees with claims that ectogenesis will increase equality and freedom for women, arguing that they often ignore social context and consequently fail to recognise that ectogenesis may not benefit women or it may only benefit a small subset of already privileged women. In this commentary, I will contextualise her argument within the broader cultural milieu to highlight the pattern of reproductive advancements and technologies, such as egg freezing and birth control, being presented as the panacea for women’s inequality. (...)
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  49.  52
    Queer reproduction revisited and why race, class and citizenship still matters: A response to Cristina Richie.Doris Leibetseder - 2018 - Bioethics 32 (2):138-144.
    In the dialogue between Timothy F. Murphy and Cristina Richie about queer bioethics and queer reproduction in this journal, significant points of the emergent and extremely important discussions on lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer bioethics are raised. Richie specifies correctly that queer bioethics can either complement or contradict LGBT bioethics and the queer standpoint against heteroconformity and heterofuturity is decisive here. As the field of queer bioethics is such a recent and essential part of consideration for bioethics and (...)
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  50.  26
    Assisted Reproduction: Managing an Unruly Technology. [REVIEW]Mairi Levitt - 2004 - Health Care Analysis 12 (1):41-49.
    Technology is “unruly” because it operates in a social context where it is shaped by institutions, organisations and individuals in ways not envisaged when it was first developed. In the UK assisted reproductive technology has developed from strictly circumscribed beginnings as a treatment for infertility within the NHS, to a service which is more often offered by commercial clinics and purchased by clients who are not necessarily infertile. The article considers the process by which assisted reproductive technology has been created (...)
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