Results for 'reward'

929 found
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  1. Reward Prediction Error Signals Are Meta‐Representational.Nicholas Shea - 2012 - Noûs 48 (2):314-341.
    1. Introduction 2. Reward-Guided Decision Making 3. Content in the Model 4. How to Deflate a Metarepresentational Reading Proust and Carruthers on metacognitive feelings 5. A Deflationary Treatment of RPEs? 5.1 Dispensing with prediction errors 5.2 What is use of the RPE focused on? 5.3 Alternative explanations—worldly correlates 5.4 Contrast cases 6. Conclusion Appendix: Temporal Difference Learning Algorithms.
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  2.  32
    Deep and Beautiful. The Reward Prediction Error Hypothesis of Dopamine.Matteo Colombo - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 45 (1):57-67.
    According to the reward-prediction error hypothesis of dopamine, the phasic activity of dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain signals a discrepancy between the predicted and currently experienced reward of a particular event. It can be claimed that this hypothesis is deep, elegant and beautiful, representing one of the largest successes of computational neuroscience. This paper examines this claim, making two contributions to existing literature. First, it draws a comprehensive historical account of the main steps that led to the formulation (...)
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  3. Passive Avoidance Learning in Individuals with Psychopathy: Modulation by Reward but Not by Punishment.R. J. R. Blair, D. G. V. Mitchell, A. Leonard, S. Budhani, K. S. Peschardt & C. Newman - 2004 - Personality and Individual Differences 37:1179–1192.
    This study investigates the ability of individuals with psychopathy to perform passive avoidance learning and whether this ability is modulated by level of reinforcement/punishment. Nineteen psychopathic and 21 comparison individuals, as defined by the Hare Psychopathy Checklist Revised (Hare, 1991), were given a passive avoidance task with a graded reinforcement schedule. Response to each rewarding number gained a point reward specific to that number (i.e., 1, 700, 1400 or 2000 points). Response to each punishing number lost a point punishment (...)
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  4.  4
    Hidden in the Middle: Culture, Value and Reward in Bioinformatics.Jamie Lewis, Andrew Bartlett & Paul Atkinson - 2016 - Minerva 54 (4):471-490.
    Bioinformatics – the so-called shotgun marriage between biology and computer science – is an interdiscipline. Despite interdisciplinarity being seen as a virtue, for having the capacity to solve complex problems and foster innovation, it has the potential to place projects and people in anomalous categories. For example, valorised ‘outputs’ in academia are often defined and rewarded by discipline. Bioinformatics, as an interdisciplinary bricolage, incorporates experts from various disciplinary cultures with their own distinct ways of working. Perceived problems of interdisciplinarity include (...)
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  5.  10
    Altruism and Reward: Motivational Compatibility in Deceased Organ Donation.Teck Chuan Voo - 2015 - Bioethics 29 (3):190-202.
    Acts of helping others are often based on mixed motivations. Based on this claim, it has been argued that the use of a financial reward to incentivize organ donation is compatible with promoting altruism in organ donation. In its report Human Bodies: Donation for Medicine and Research, the Nuffield Council on Bioethics uses this argument to justify its suggestion to pilot a funeral payment scheme to incentivize people to register for deceased organ donation in the UK. In this article, (...)
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  6. HIT and Brain Reward Function: A Case of Mistaken Identity (Theory).Wright Cory, Colombo Matteo & Beard Alexander - forthcoming - Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences.
    This paper employs a case study from the history of neuroscience—brain reward function—to scrutinize the inductive argument for the so-called 'Heuristic Identity Theory' (HIT). The case fails to support HIT, illustrating why other case studies previously thought to provide empirical support for HIT also fold under scrutiny. After distinguishing two different ways of understanding the types of identity claims presupposed by HIT and considering other conceptual problems, we conclude that HIT is not an alternative to the traditional identity theory (...)
     
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  7.  48
    Neuronal Representations of Cognitive State: Reward or Attention?J. H. Maunsell - 2004 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 8 (6):261-265.
  8.  7
    Learning and Extinction Based Upon Frustration, Food Reward, and Exploratory Tendency.Harvey M. Adelman & Jack L. Maatsch - 1956 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 52 (5):311.
  9.  3
    Partial Reward Either Following or Preceding Consistent Reward: A Case of Reinforcement Level.E. J. Capaldi - 1974 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 102 (6):954.
  10.  4
    Attenuation of Blocking with Shifts in Reward: The Involvement of Schedule-Generated Contextual Cues.James H. Neely & Allan R. Wagner - 1974 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 102 (5):751.
  11.  6
    Repetition of Correct Responses and Errors as a Function of Performance with Reward or Information.Melvin H. Marx & David W. Witter - 1972 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 92 (1):53.
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  12.  4
    An Investigation of Conditions Determining Contrast Effects in Differential Reward Conditioning.H. Wayne Ludvigson & Robert A. Gay - 1967 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 75 (1):37.
  13.  4
    Addiction: Decreased Reward Sensitivity and Increased Expectation Sensitivity Conspire to Overwhelm the Brain's Control Circuit.Nora D. Volkow, Gene‐Jack Wang, Joanna S. Fowler, Dardo Tomasi, Frank Telang & Ruben Baler - 2010 - Bioessays 32 (9):748-755.
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  14.  4
    Repeated Shifts in Reward Magnitude: Evidence in Favor of an Associational and Absolute (Noncontextual) Interpretation.E. J. Capaldi & David Lynch - 1967 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 75 (2):226.
  15.  13
    The Relation of Secondary Reinforcement to Delayed Reward in Visual Discrimination Learning.G. Robert Grice - 1948 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 38 (1):1.
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  16.  18
    Information Versus Reward in Binary Choices.Amos Tversky & Ward Edwards - 1966 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 71 (5):680.
  17.  20
    Different Carrots and Different Sticks: Do We Reward and Punish Differently Than We Approve and Disapprove? [REVIEW]Andreas Leibbrandt & Raúl López-Pérez - 2014 - Theory and Decision 76 (1):95-118.
  18.  49
    Desire, Reward, Feeling: Commentary on Three Faces of Desire.Andrew Brook - 2006 - Dialogue 45 (1):157-164.
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  19.  4
    Contrast Effects in Differential Delay of Reward Conditioning.James R. Gavelek & James H. McHose - 1970 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 86 (3):454.
  20.  5
    Differential Cost, Gain, and Relative Frequency of Reward in a Sequential Choice Situation.Jerome L. Myers, Raymond E. Reilly & Harvey A. Taub - 1961 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 62 (4):357.
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  21.  11
    Effect of Reward and Punishment on Children's Orientation and Discrimination Learning.Ronald K. Penney - 1967 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 75 (1):140.
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  22.  1
    Differential Instrumental Conditioning as a Function of Percentage and Amount of Positive Stimulus Reward.James H. McHose & Douglas P. Peters - 1973 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 100 (2):413.
  23.  8
    Delay of Reward in the Double Alleyway: A Within-Subjects Versus Between-Groups Comparison.Joseph A. Sgro, Robert A. Glotfelty & Bruce D. Moore - 1970 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 84 (1):82.
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  24.  12
    Alley Length and Time of Food Deprivation in Instrumental Reward Learning.Norma Fredenburg Besch & William F. Reynolds - 1958 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 56 (5):448.
  25.  8
    Frustrative Factors in Selective Learning with Reward and Nonreward as Discriminanda.Abram Amsel & David L. Prouty - 1959 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 57 (4):224.
  26.  7
    Memory Probes During Two-Choice, Differential Reward Problems.Gordon A. Allen - 1972 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 95 (1):78.
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  27.  7
    Consistency and Complexity of Response Sequences as a Function of Schedules of Noncontingent Reward.John C. Wright - 1962 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 63 (6):601.
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  28.  8
    Reward and Punishment in a Minimal Social Situation.Joseph B. Sidowski - 1957 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 54 (5):318.
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  29.  6
    Within-Subject Demonstration of a Relationship Between Frustration and Magnitude of Reward in a Differential Magnitude of Reward Discrimination.Richard H. Peckham & Abram Amsel - 1967 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 73 (2):187.
  30. Reward Versus Nonreward in Simultaneous Discrimination.R. Allen Gardner & W. B. Coate - 1965 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 69 (6):579.
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  31.  4
    Reward Shift Effects in Differential Conditioning.Earl R. McHewitt - 1974 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 103 (4):646.
  32.  4
    Effect of Differences in Reward Magnitude with Correlated Cues on Running Speed.Richard G. Seymann - 1969 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 81 (3):504.
  33.  22
    The Nobel Prize as a Reward Mechanism in the Genomics Era: Anonymous Researchers, Visible Managers and the Ethics of Excellence. [REVIEW]Hub Zwart - 2010 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 7 (3):299-312.
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  34.  2
    Acquisition of a Bar-Press Response to Escape Frustrative Nonreward and Reduced Reward.Helen B. Daly & James H. McCroskery - 1973 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 98 (1):109.
  35.  2
    Reinforcing Effect of Self-Reward.Gary T. Montgomery & David A. Parton - 1970 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 84 (2):273.
  36.  3
    Sucrose Concentration, Constant Delay of Reward, and Resistance to Extinction.J. L. McCloskey & Tom N. Tombaugh - 1971 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 88 (1):128.
  37.  10
    Within-Subjects Partial Reinforcement Effects Varying Percentage of Reward to the Partial Stimulus Between Groups.Karen Galbraith, Michael E. Rashotte & Abram Amsel - 1968 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 77 (4):547.
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  38. Acquisition of Secondary Reward by Cues Associated with Shock Reduction.Maurice P. Smith & Garth Buchanan - 1954 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 48 (2):123.
  39.  3
    Differential Magnitude of Reward Conditioning as a Function of Predifferential Reward Magnitude.John R. Platt & Robert A. Gay - 1968 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 77 (3p1):393.
  40.  4
    Effect of Different Percentages of Money Reward on Extinction of a Lever-Pulling Response.Donald J. Lewis & Carl P. Duncan - 1956 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 52 (1):23.
  41.  9
    Within-Subject Partial Reinforcement Effects: Reward-Nonreward Transitions and Generalization.Roger L. Mellgren, Dennis G. Dyck, Jeffrey A. Seybert & Dan M. Wrather - 1973 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 99 (3):389-394.
  42.  8
    Monetary Reward and Motivation in Discrimination Learning.Louise Brightwell Miller & Betsy Worth Estes - 1961 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 61 (6):501.
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  43.  3
    Effect of the Spatial Relationship Between Cue, Reward, and Response in Simple Discrimination Learning.J. V. Murphy & R. E. Miller - 1958 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 56 (1):26.
  44.  1
    Interaction of Midchain Detention and Reward Magnitude in Instrumental Conditioning.H. Wayne Ludvigson - 1968 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 78 (1):70.
  45.  1
    Extinction Following Partial Delay of Reward with Immediate Continuous Reward Interpolated, at 24-Hour Intertrial Intervals.Janet A. Donin, C. Thomas Surridge & Abram Amsel - 1967 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 74 (1):50-53.
  46.  1
    Differential Effects of Knowledge of Results and Monetary Reward Upon Optimal Choice Behavior Under Risk.David E. Meyer - 1967 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 75 (4):520.
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  47.  1
    Effect of Reinforcement Schedules on Reward Shifts.P. J. Mikulka, R. Lehr & W. B. Pavlik - 1967 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 74 (1):57-61.
  48.  2
    Magnitude of Reward and Probability Learning.Yvonne Brackbill, Michael S. Kappy & Raymond H. Starr - 1962 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 63 (1):32.
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  49.  1
    Transfer of Verbal Discriminations Based on Differential Reward Magnitudes.W. K. Estes - 1966 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 72 (2):276.
  50.  5
    Anticipatory Errors in Rats as a Function of Delayed Reward.William R. Gamboni - 1973 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 97 (1):98.
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