Results for 'screening programme'

1000+ found
Order:
  1.  17
    Can Safety Assurance Procedures in the Food Industry Be Used to Evaluate a Medical Screening Programme? The Application of the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point System to an Antenatal Serum Screening Programme for Down's Syndrome. Stage 1: Identifying Significant Hazards.M. Clare Derrington, Janet D. Glencross, Elizabeth S. Draper, Ronald T. Hsu & Jennifer J. Kurinczuk - 2003 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 9 (1):39-47.
  2.  11
    Can Safety Assurance Procedures in the Food Industry Be Used to Evaluate a Medical Screening Programme? The Application of the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point System to an Antenatal Serum Screening Programme for Down's Syndrome. Stage 2: Overcoming the Hazards in Programme Delivery.M. Clare Derrington, Elizabeth S. Draper, Ronald T. Hsu & Jennifer J. Kurinczuk - 2003 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 9 (1):49-57.
  3.  31
    Reaching Targets in the National Cervical Screening Programme: Are Current Practices Unethical?P. Foster & C. M. Anderson - 1998 - Journal of Medical Ethics 24 (3):151-157.
    The principle of informed consent is now well established within the National Health Service (NHS) in relation to any type of medical treatment. However, this ethical principle appears to be far less well established in relation to medical screening programmes such as Britain's national cervical screening programme. This article will critically examine the case for health care providers vigorously pursuing women to accept an invitation to be screened. It will discuss the type of information which women would (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  4.  20
    What Ethical and Legal Principles Should Guide the Genotyping of Children as Part of a Personalised Screening Programme for Common Cancer?N. Hallowell, S. Chowdhury, A. E. Hall, P. Pharoah, H. Burton & N. Pashayan - 2014 - Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (3):163-167.
    Increased knowledge of the gene–disease associations contributing to common cancer development raises the prospect of population stratification by genotype and other risk factors. Individual risk assessments could be used to target interventions such as screening, treatment and health education. Genotyping neonates, infants or young children as part of a systematic programme would improve coverage and uptake, and facilitate a screening package that maximises potential benefits and minimises harms including overdiagnosis. This paper explores the potential justifications and risks (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  5.  8
    Accessing Rural Populations: Role of the Community Pharmacist in a Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Programme.Timothy R. McGuire, Melissa Leypoldt, Warren A. Narducci & Kathy Ward - 2007 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 13 (1):146-149.
  6.  8
    Overuse of Mammography During the First Round of an Organized Breast Cancer Screening Programme.Eric Chamot, Agathe Charvet & Thomas V. Perneger - 2009 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 15 (4):620-625.
  7.  6
    'If It Was Osteoporosis, I Would Have Really Hurt Myself.' Ambiguity About Osteoporosis and Osteoporosis Care Despite a Screening Programme to Educate Fragility Fracture Patients.Joanna E. M. Sale, Dorcas E. Beaton, Rebeka Sujic & Earl R. Bogoch - 2010 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 16 (3):590-596.
  8.  1
    Psychometric Properties of the SCREESCO Questionnaire Used in a Colorectal Cancer Screening Programme—A Rasch Analysis.Anna Jervaeus, Kaisa Fritzell, Rolf Hultcrantz, Yvonne Wengström & Anders Kottorp - forthcoming - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  9.  8
    Problems of Pre-Natal Screening Programme for Down's Syndrome in Older Women.Sheila L. B. Duncan - 1978 - Journal of Biosocial Science 10 (2):141-146.
  10.  3
    Impact of the Scottish Bowel Cancer Screening Programme on Patient and Tumour Characteristics at a Single Centre.Craig Mackay, George Ramsay, Anthony Rafferty & Malcolm Loudon - 2014 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 20 (1):7-11.
  11.  2
    The Diffusion of a Mass Genetic Screening Programme.David V. McQueen - 1978 - Journal of Biosocial Science 10 (3):287-297.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  12.  9
    Women’s Participation in Breast Cancer Screening in France – an Ethical Approach.Grégoire Moutel, Nathalie Duchange, Sylviane Darquy, Sandrine de Montgolfier, Frédérique Papin-Lefebvre, Odile Jullian, Jérôme Viguier, Hélène Sancho-Garnier & $authorfirstName $authorlastName - 2014 - BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):64.
    Breast cancer is a major public health challenge. Organized mammography screening (OS) is considered one way to reduce breast cancer mortality. EU recommendations prone mass deployment of OS, and back in 2004, France introduced a national OS programme for women aged 50–74 years. However, in 2012, participation rate was still just 52.7%, well short of the targeted 70% objective. In an effort to re-address the (in) efficiency of the programme, the French National Cancer Institute has drafted an (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  13.  29
    Ethical Issues Related to Screening for Preeclampsia.Jennifer M. Jørgensen, Paula L. Hedley, Mickey Gjerris & Michael Christiansen - 2014 - Bioethics 28 (7):360-367.
    The implementation of new methods of treating and preventing disease raises many question of both technical and moral character. Currently, many studies focus on developing a screening test for preeclampsia (PE), a disease complicating 2–8% of pregnancies, potentially causing severe consequences for pregnant women and their fetuses. The purpose is to develop a test that can identify pregnancies at high risk for developing PE sufficiently early in pregnancy to allow for prophylaxis. However, the question of implementing a screening (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  14.  87
    Private and Public Eugenics: Genetic Testing and Screening in India. [REVIEW]Jyotsna Agnihotri Gupta - 2007 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 4 (3):217-228.
    Epidemiologists and geneticists claim that genetics has an increasing role to play in public health policies and programs in the future. Within this perspective, genetic testing and screening are instrumental in avoiding the birth of children with serious, costly or untreatable disorders. This paper discusses genetic testing and screening within the framework of eugenics in the health care context of India. Observations are based on literature review and empirical research using qualitative methods. I distinguish ‘private’ from ‘public’ eugenics. (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  15.  24
    Prenatal Screening: An Ethical Agenda for the Near Future.Antina Jong & Guido M. W. R. Wert - 2015 - Bioethics 29 (1):46-55.
    Prenatal screening for foetal abnormalities such as Down's syndrome differs from other forms of population screening in that the usual aim of achieving health gains through treatment or prevention does not seem to apply. This type of screening leads to no other options but the choice between continuing or terminating the pregnancy and can only be morally justified if its aim is to provide meaningful options for reproductive choice to pregnant women and their partners. However, this aim (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  16.  8
    Challenges of Informed Choice in Organised Screening.W. Osterlie, M. Solbjor, J.-A. Skolbekken, S. Hofvind, A. R. Saetnan & S. Forsmo - 2008 - Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (9):e5-e5.
    Context: Despite much research on informed choice and the individuals’ autonomy in organised medical screening, little is known about the individuals’ decision-making process as expressed in their own words.Objectives: To explore the decision-making process among women invited to a mammography screening programme.Setting: Women living in the counties of Sør- and Nord-Trøndelag, Norway, invited to the first round of the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program in 2003.Methods: Qualitative methods based on eight semistructured focus-group interviews with a total (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  17.  12
    Proceduralisation, Choice and Parental Reflections on Decisions to Accept Newborn Bloodspot Screening.S. G. Nicholls - 2012 - Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (5):299-303.
    Newborn screening is the programme through which newborn babies are screened for a variety of conditions shortly after birth. Programmes such as this are individually oriented but resemble traditional public health programmes because they are targeted at large groups of the population and they are offered as preventive interventions to a population considered healthy. As such, an ethical tension exists between the goals of promoting the high uptake of supposedly ‘effective’ population-oriented programmes and the goal of promoting genuinely (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  18.  71
    The Ethics of Screening: Is 'Screeningitis' an Incurable Disease?D. Shickle & R. Chadwick - 1994 - Journal of Medical Ethics 20 (1):12-18.
    Screening programmes are becoming increasingly popular since prevention is considered 'better than cure'. While earlier diagnosis may result in more effective treatment for some, there will be consequent harm for others due to anxiety, stigma, side-effects etc. A screening test cannot guarantee the detection of all 'abnormal' cases, therefore there will be false reassurance for some. A proper consideration of the potential benefit and harm arising from screening may lead to the conclusion that the programme should (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  19.  24
    Knowledge or Understanding? Informed Choice in the Context of Newborn Bloodspot Screening.S. G. Nicholls - 2010 - Public Health Ethics 3 (2):128-136.
    The UK has a long established programme of newborn bloodspot screening. This operates under a model of informed choice. Understanding is central to the `informed’ element of an informed choice yet it is rarely assessed. To date most research within the context of newborn bloodspot screening has focussed on parental recall of information. In this paper I argue that simplistic assessments of knowledge through recall fail to reflect more complex notions of understanding. In support of this contention (...)
    Direct download (9 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  20.  8
    Ethical Issues in Screening for Hearing Impairment in Newborns in Developing Countries.B. O. Olusanya - 2006 - Journal of Medical Ethics 32 (10):588-591.
    Screening of newborns for permanent congenital or early-onset hearing impairment has emerged as an essential component of neonatal care in developed countries, following favourable outcomes from early intervention in the critical period for optimal speech and language development. Progress towards a similar programme in developing countries, where most of the world’s children with hearing impairment reside, may be impeded by reservations about the available level of support services and the possible effect of the prevailing healthcare challenges. Ethical justification (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  21.  25
    Screening for Infectious Diseases of Asylum Seekers Upon Arrival: The Necessity of the Moral Principle of Reciprocity.Dorien T. Beeres, Darren Cornish, Machiel Vonk, Sofanne J. Ravensbergen, Els L. M. Maeckelberghe, Pieter Boele Van Hensbroek & Ymkje Stienstra - 2018 - BMC Medical Ethics 19 (1):16.
    With a large number of forcibly displaced people seeking safety, the EU is facing a challenge in maintaining solidarity. Europe has seen millions of asylum seekers crossing European borders, the largest number of asylum seekers since the second world war. Endemic diseases and often failing health systems in their countries of origin, and arduous conditions during transit, raise questions around how to meet the health needs of this vulnerable population on arrival in terms of screening, vaccination, and access to (...)
    Direct download (9 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  22.  9
    Information and Consent for Newborn Screening: Practices and Attitudes of Service Providers.N. J. Kerruish, D. Webster & N. Dickson - 2008 - Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (9):648-652.
    Objectives: To gather information about the practices and attitudes of providers of maternity care with respect to informed consent for newborn screening .Methods: A questionnaire concerning information provision and parental consent for NBS was sent to all 1036 registered lead maternity carers in New Zealand.Results: 93% of LMC in New Zealand report giving parents information concerning NBS, most frequently after delivery and in the third trimester . The majority of LMC currently obtain some form of consent for NBS from (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  23.  17
    Controversies: The Ethics of Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in Men.Roger Brownsword & Jonothan J. Earnshaw - 2010 - Journal of Medical Ethics 36 (12):827-830.
    Approximately 6000 men die every year from ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm in England and Wales. Randomised clinical trials and a large pilot study have shown that ultrasound screening of men aged 65 years can prevent about half of these deaths. However, there is a significant perioperative morbidity and mortality from interventions to repair the detected aneurysm. This paper explores the ethical issues of screening men for abdominal aortic aneurysm. It is concluded that a population screening programme (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  24.  80
    Whakapapa – a Foundation for Genetic Research?Maui L. Hudson, Annabel L. M. Ahuriri-Driscoll, Marino G. Lea & Rod A. Lea - 2007 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 4 (1):43-49.
    Whakapapa is the foundation of traditional Māori social structure and it perpetuates a value base that locates people through their relationships to the physical and spiritual worlds. As part of a new envirogenomics research programme, researchers at the Institute of Environmental Science and Research (ESR) are developing a study with an iwi (tribe) to identify combinations of genetic and environmental factors that may contribute to current health status. A major objective of this study is to utilise whakapapa (genealogical information) (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  25.  24
    "If You Think You've Got a Lump, They'll Screen You." Informed Consent, Health Promotion, and Breast Cancer.N. Pfeffer - 2004 - Journal of Medical Ethics 30 (2):227-230.
    A great deal has been written about information that is or should be provided when seeking consent to medical research and treatment. Relatively little attention has been paid to information describing health promotion interventions. This paper critically examines some information material describing three different methods of encouraging early presentation of breast cancer in the UK: the NHS breast screening programme, breast self examination, and breast awareness. Findings from a content analysis of printed material and a series of focus (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  26.  11
    The Ethics of Anonymised HIV Testing of Pregnant Women: A Reappraisal.A. J. Pinching - 2000 - Journal of Medical Ethics 26 (1):22-24.
    Dr de Zulueta articulates some important and commonly held concerns about the anonymised screening programme for HIV in pregnant women, which is one of a number of such programmes that are current. However, in my view, many of these concerns reflect a failure to understand two key distinctions.In both these regards, there is a danger of putting up a “straw man” for challenge. In this commentary, I wish to pick up some of these issues to help to resolve (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  27. Confirmation, Transitivity, and Moore: The Screening-Off Approach.William Roche & Tomoji Shogenji - 2013 - Philosophical Studies (3):1-21.
    It is well known that the probabilistic relation of confirmation is not transitive in that even if E confirms H1 and H1 confirms H2, E may not confirm H2. In this paper we distinguish four senses of confirmation and examine additional conditions under which confirmation in different senses becomes transitive. We conduct this examination both in the general case where H1 confirms H2 and in the special case where H1 also logically entails H2. Based on these analyses, we argue that (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   11 citations  
  28.  60
    Inference to the Best Explanation and the Screening-Off Challenge.William Roche & Elliott Sober - 2019 - Teorema: International Journal of Philosophy 38:121-142.
    We argue in Roche and Sober (2013) that explanatoriness is evidentially irrelevant in that Pr(H | O&EXPL) = Pr(H | O), where H is a hypothesis, O is an observation, and EXPL is the proposition that if H and O were true, then H would explain O. This is a “screening-off” thesis. Here we clarify that thesis, reply to criticisms advanced by Lange (2017), consider alternative formulations of Inference to the Best Explanation, discuss a strengthened screening-off thesis, and (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  29. Evidential Support, Transitivity, and Screening-Off.William Roche - 2015 - Review of Symbolic Logic 8 (4):785-806.
    Is evidential support transitive? The answer is negative when evidential support is understood as confirmation so that X evidentially supports Y if and only if p(Y | X) > p(Y). I call evidential support so understood “support” (for short) and set out three alternative ways of understanding evidential support: support-t (support plus a sufficiently high probability), support-t* (support plus a substantial degree of support), and support-tt* (support plus both a sufficiently high probability and a substantial degree of support). I also (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  30.  11
    Confirmation, Transitivity, and Moore: The Screening-Off Approach.William Roche & Tomoji Shogenji - 2014 - Philosophical Studies 168 (3):797-817.
    It is well known that the probabilistic relation of confirmation is not transitive in that even if E confirms H1 and H1 confirms H2, E may not confirm H2. In this paper we distinguish four senses of confirmation and examine additional conditions under which confirmation in different senses becomes transitive. We conduct this examination both in the general case where H1 confirms H2 and in the special case where H1 also logically entails H2. Based on these analyses, we argue that (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  31. Is Evidence of Evidence Evidence? Screening-Off Vs. No-Defeaters.Roche William - 2018 - Episteme 15 (4):451-462.
    I argue elsewhere (Roche 2014) that evidence of evidence is evidence under screening-off. Tal and Comesaña (2017) argue that my appeal to screening-off is subject to two objections. They then propose an evidence of evidence thesis involving the notion of a defeater. There is much to learn from their very careful discussion. I argue, though, that their objections fail and that their evidence of evidence thesis is open to counterexample.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  32.  47
    The Role of the Global Reporting Initiative's Sustainability Reporting Guidelines in the Social Screening of Investments.Alan Willis - 2003 - Journal of Business Ethics 43 (3):233 - 237.
    Social screening of investments calls not only for investment policy and criteria, but also for information about companies, their policies, practices and performance. The Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) and its June 2000 Sustainability Reporting Guidelines have the potential to significantly improve the usefulness and quality of information reported by companies about their environmental, social and economic impacts and performance. The GRI aims to develop a voluntary reporting framework that will elevate sustainability reporting practices to a level equivalent to that (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   17 citations  
  33.  20
    Prenatal Screening, Reproductive Choice, and Public Health.Stephen Wilkinson - 2015 - Bioethics 29 (1):26-35.
    One widely held view of prenatal screening is that its foremost aim is, or should be, to enable reproductive choice; this is the Pure Choice view. The article critiques this position by comparing it with an alternative: Public Health Pluralism. It is argued that there are good reasons to prefer the latter, including the following. Public Health Pluralism does not, as is often supposed, render PNS more vulnerable to eugenics-objections. The Pure Choice view, if followed through to its logical (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  34.  83
    Transitivity and Partial Screening Off.David Atkinson & Jeanne Peijnenburg - 2013 - Theoria 79 (4):294-308.
    The notion of probabilistic support is beset by well-known problems. In this paper we add a new one to the list: the problem of transitivity. Tomoji Shogenji has shown that positive probabilistic support, or confirmation, is transitive under the condition of screening off. However, under that same condition negative probabilistic support, or disconfirmation, is intransitive. Since there are many situations in which disconfirmation is transitive, this illustrates, but now in a different way, that the screening-off condition is too (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  35.  88
    Ethical and Scientific Issues in Cancer Screening and Prevention.Anya Plutynski - 2012 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 37 (3):310-323.
    November 2009’s announcement of the USPSTF’s recommendations for screening for breast cancer raised a firestorm of objections. Chief among them were that the panel had insufficiently valued patients’ lives or allowed cost considerations to influence recommendations. The publicity about the recommendations, however, often either simplified the actual content of the recommendations or bypassed significant methodological issues, which a philosophical examination of both the science behind screening recommendations and their import reveals. In this article, I discuss two of the (...)
    Direct download (9 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  36. Older Adults and Forgoing Cancer Screening.Alexia M. Torke, Peter H. Schwartz, Laura R. Holtz, Kianna Montz & Greg A. Sachs - 2013 - Journal of the American Medical Association Internal Medicine 173 (7):526-531.
    Although there is a growing recognition that older adults and those with extensive comorbid conditions undergo cancer screening too frequently, there is little information about patients’ perceptions regarding cessation of cancer screening. Information on older adults’ views of screening cessation would be helpful both for clinicians and for those designing interventions to reduce overscreening.
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  37.  63
    Challenging the Rhetoric of Choice in Prenatal Screening.Victoria Seavilleklein - 2009 - Bioethics 23 (1):68-77.
    Prenatal screening, consisting of maternal serum screening and nuchal translucency screening, is on the verge of expansion, both by being offered to more pregnant women and by screening for more conditions. The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists have each recently recommended that screening be extended to all pregnant women regardless of age, disease history, or risk status. This screening is commonly justified by appeal to (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   8 citations  
  38.  12
    Strong Programme Against Scientific Knowledge and Its Autonomy.Alper Bilgehan Yardımcı - 2017 - Posseible Düşünme Dergisi 6 (11):34-40.
    Science and scientific knowledge have been questioned in many ways for a long period of time. Especially, after the scientific revolution of 16th- and 17th-century Europe, science and its knowledge have been mainly accepted one of the most valuable and trustable information. However, in 20th century, autonomy of scientific knowledge and its dominant position over other kinds of knowledge have been mainly criticised. Social and other factors that were tried to be excluded before have been incorporated into the work by (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  39.  32
    A Puzzle About Experts, Evidential Screening-Off and Conditionalization.Ittay Nissan-Rozen - forthcoming - Episteme:1-9.
    I present a puzzle about the epistemic role beliefs about experts' beliefs play in a rational agent's system of beliefs. It is shown that accepting the claim that an expert's degree of belief in a proposition, A, screens off the evidential support another proposition, B, gives to A in case the expert knows and is certain about whether B is true, leads in some cases to highly unintuitive conclusions. I suggest a solution to the puzzle according to which evidential (...) off is rejected, but show that the price of this solution is either giving up on the mere idea of deferring to expert's opinion or giving up on Bayesian conditionalization. (shrink)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  40. Patient Understanding of Benefits, Risks, and Alternatives to Screening Colonoscopy.Peter H. Schwartz, Elizabeth Edenberg, Patrick R. Barrett, Susan M. Perkins, Eric M. Meslin & Thomas F. Imperiale - 2013 - Family Medicine 45 (2):83-89.
    While several tests and strategies are recommended for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, studies suggest that primary care providers often recommend colonoscopy without providing information about its risks or alternatives. These observations raise concerns about the quality of informed consent for screening colonoscopy.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  41. Explaining Games: The Epistemic Programme in Game Theory.Boudewijn de Bruin - 2010 - Springer.
    Contents. Introduction. 1. Preliminaries. 2. Normal Form Games. 3. Extensive Games. 4. Applications of Game Theory. 5. The Methodology of Game Theory. Conclusion. Appendix. Bibliography. Index. Does game theory—the mathematical theory of strategic interaction—provide genuine explanations of human behaviour? Can game theory be used in economic consultancy or other normative contexts? Explaining Games: The Epistemic Programme in Game Theory—the first monograph on the philosophy of game theory—is an attempt to combine insights from epistemic logic and the philosophy of science (...)
    Direct download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  42.  23
    Prenatal Screening: Current Practice, New Developments, Ethical Challenges.Antina Jong, Idit Maya & Jan M. M. Lith - 2015 - Bioethics 29 (1):1-8.
    Prenatal screening pathways, as nowadays offered in most Western countries consist of similar tests. First, a risk-assessment test for major aneuploides is offered to pregnant women. In case of an increased risk, invasive diagnostic tests, entailing a miscarriage risk, are offered. For decades, only conventional karyotyping was used for final diagnosis. Moreover, several foetal ultrasound scans are offered to detect major congenital anomalies, but the same scans also provide relevant information for optimal support of the pregnancy and the delivery. (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  43.  23
    Individual Responsibility, Solidarity and Differentiation in Healthcare.I. Stegeman, D. L. Willems, E. Dekker & P. M. Bossuyt - 2014 - Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (11):770-773.
    Objectives Access to healthcare in most western societies is based on equality. Rapidly rising costs have fuelled debates about differentiation in access to healthcare. We assessed the public's perceptions and attitudes about differentiation in healthcare according to lifestyle behaviour. Methods A vignette study was undertaken in participants in a colorectal cancer screening pilot programme in the Netherlands. Screenees with a negative test result received a questionnaire in which nine hypothetical situations were described: three different healthcare settings (screening, (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  44.  15
    Informed Choice Requires Information About Both Benefits and Harms.K. J. Jorgensen, J. Brodersen, O. J. Hartling, M. Nielsen & P. C. Gotzsche - 2009 - Journal of Medical Ethics 35 (4):268-269.
    A study found that women participating in mammography screening were content with the programme and the paternalistic invitations that directly encourage participation and include a pre-specified time of appointment. We argue that this merely reflects that the information presented to the invited women is seriously biased in favour of participation. Women are not informed about the major harms of screening, and the decision to attend has already been made for them by a public authority. This short-circuits informed (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  45.  85
    Overmathematisation in Game Theory: Pitting the Nash Equilibrium Refinement Programme Against the Epistemic Programme.Boudewijn de Bruin - 2009 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 40 (3):290-300.
    The paper argues that the Nash Equilibrium Refinement Programme was less successful than its competitor, the Epistemic Programme. The prime criterion of success is the extent to which the programmes were able to reach the key objective guiding non-cooperative game theory for much of the twentieth century, namely, to develop a complete characterisation of the strategic rationality of economic agents in the form of the ultimate solution concept for any normal form and extensive game. The paper explains this (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  46.  13
    Bioethical Concepts in Theory and Practice: An Exploratory Study of Prenatal Screening in Iceland. [REVIEW]Helga Gottfreðsdóttir & Vilhjálmur Árnason - 2011 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 14 (1):53-61.
    A hallmark of good antenatal care is to respect prospective parent’s choices and provide information in a way that encourages their autonomy and informed decision making. In this paper, we analyse the meaning of autonomous and informed decision making from the theoretical perspective and attempt to show how those concepts are described among prospective parents in early pregnancy and in the public media in a society where NT screening is almost a norm. We use interviews with Icelandic prospective parents (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  47.  10
    Biologists and the Promotion of Birth Control Research, 1918-1938.Merriley Borell - 1987 - Journal of the History of Biology 20 (1):51-87.
    In spite of these efforts in the 1920s and 1930s to initiate ongoing research on contraception, the subject of birth control remained a problem of concern primarily to the social activist rather than to the research scientist or practicing physician.80 In the 1930s, as has been shown, American scientists turned to the study of other aspects of reproductive physiology, while American physicians, anxious to eliminate the moral and medical dangers of contraception, only reluctantly accepted birth control as falling within their (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   10 citations  
  48. Contrastive Explanation and the 'Strong Programme' in the Sociology of Scientific Knowledge.Jeff Kochan - 2010 - Social Studies of Science 40 (1):127-44.
    In this essay, I address a novel criticism recently levelled at the Strong Programme by Nick Tosh and Tim Lewens. Tosh and Lewens paint Strong Programme theorists as trading on a contrastive form of explanation. With this, they throw valuable new light on the explanatory methods employed by the Strong Programme. However, as I shall argue, Tosh and Lewens run into trouble when they accuse Strong Programme theorists of unduly restricting the contrast space in which legitimate (...)
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  49.  25
    A Risk Screening Tool for Ethical Appraisal of Evidence-Generating Initiatives.Nancy K. Ondrusek, Donald J. Willison, Vinita Haroun, Jennifer A. H. Bell & Catherine C. Bornbaum - 2015 - BMC Medical Ethics 16 (1):1-8.
    BackgroundThe boundaries between health-related research and practice have become blurred as initiatives traditionally considered to be practice increasingly use the same methodology as research. Further, the application of different ethical requirements based on this distinction raises concerns because many initiatives commonly labelled as “non-research” are associated with risks to patients, participants, and other stakeholders, yet may not be subject to any ethical oversight. Accordingly, we sought to develop a tool to facilitate the systematic identification of risks to human participants and (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  50.  20
    Ethical Issues Surrounding the Provider Initiated Opt – Out Prenatal HIV Screening Practice in Sub – Saharan Africa: A Literature Review.Luchuo Engelbert Bain, Kris Dierickx & Kristien Hens - 2015 - BMC Medical Ethics 16 (1):1-12.
    BackgroundPrevention of mother to child transmission of HIV remains a key public health priority in most developing countries. The provider Initiated Opt – Out Prenatal HIV Screening Approach, recommended by the World Health Organization lately has been adopted and translated into policy in most Sub – Saharan African countries. To better ascertain the ethical reasons for or against the use of this approach, we carried out a literature review of the ethics literature.MethodsPapers published in English and French Languages between (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
1 — 50 / 1000