Results for 'second-order explanations'

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  1. Social Pathologies as Second-Order Disorders.Christopher Zurn - 2011 - In Danielle Petherbridge (ed.), Axel Honneth: Critical Essays: With a Reply by Axel Honneth. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill Academic. pp. 345-370.
    Aside from the systematic theory of recognition, Honneth’s work in the last decade has also centered around a less commented-upon theme: the critical social theoretic diagnosis of social pathologies. This paper claims first that his diverse diagnoses of specific social pathologies can be productively united through the conceptual structure evinced by second-order disorders, where there are substantial disconnects, of various kinds, between first-order contents and second-order reflexive understandings of those contents. The second major claim of the paper is (...)
     
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  2.  52
    A Probabilistic Theory of Second Order Causation.Christopher Hitchcock - 1996 - Erkenntnis 44 (3):369 - 377.
    Larry Wright and others have advanced causal accounts of functional explanation, designed to alleviate fears about the legitimacy of such explanations. These analyses take functional explanations to describe second order causal relations. These second order relations are conceptually puzzling. I present an account of second order causation from within the framework of Eells' probabilistic theory of causation; the account makes use of the population-relativity of causation that is built into this theory.
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  3. Second-Order Logic.John Corcoran - 2001 - In M. Zeleny (ed.), Logic, Meaning, and Computation: Essays in Memory of Alonzo Church. KLUKER. pp. 61–76.
    Second-order Logic” in Anderson, C.A. and Zeleny, M., Eds. Logic, Meaning, and Computation: Essays in Memory of Alonzo Church. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 2001. Pp. 61–76. -/- Abstract. This expository article focuses on the fundamental differences between second- order logic and first-order logic. It is written entirely in ordinary English without logical symbols. It employs second-order propositions and second-order reasoning in a natural way to illustrate the fact that second-order logic is actually a familiar part of our traditional (...)
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  4.  23
    The Prehistory of the Subsystems of Second-Order Arithmetic.Walter Dean & Sean Walsh - 2017 - Review of Symbolic Logic 10 (2):357-396.
    This paper presents a systematic study of the prehistory of the traditional subsystems of second-order arithmetic that feature prominently in the reverse mathematics program of Friedman and Simpson. We look in particular at: (i) the long arc from Poincar\'e to Feferman as concerns arithmetic definability and provability, (ii) the interplay between finitism and the formalization of analysis in the lecture notes and publications of Hilbert and Bernays, (iii) the uncertainty as to the constructive status of principles equivalent to Weak (...)
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  5.  29
    Second-Order Logic of Paradox.Allen P. Hazen & Francis Jeffry Pelletier - 2018 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 59 (4):547-558.
    The logic of paradox, LP, is a first-order, three-valued logic that has been advocated by Graham Priest as an appropriate way to represent the possibility of acceptable contradictory statements. Second-order LP is that logic augmented with quantification over predicates. As with classical second-order logic, there are different ways to give the semantic interpretation of sentences of the logic. The different ways give rise to different logical advantages and disadvantages, and we canvass several of these, concluding that it will (...)
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  6.  55
    Expressing Second-Order Sentences in Intuitionistic Dependence Logic.Fan Yang - 2013 - Studia Logica 101 (2):323-342.
    Intuitionistic dependence logic was introduced by Abramsky and Väänänen [1] as a variant of dependence logic under a general construction of Hodges’ (trump) team semantics. It was proven that there is a translation from intuitionistic dependence logic sentences into second order logic sentences. In this paper, we prove that the other direction is also true, therefore intuitionistic dependence logic is equivalent to second order logic on the level of sentences.
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  7.  65
    Children’s First and Second-Order False-Belief Reasoning in a Verbal and a Low-Verbal Task.Bart Hollebrandse, Angeliek van Hout & Petra Hendriks - 2014 - Synthese 191 (3).
    We can understand and act upon the beliefs of other people, even when these conflict with our own beliefs. Children’s development of this ability, known as Theory of Mind, typically happens around age 4. Research using a looking-time paradigm, however, established that toddlers at the age of 15 months old pass a non-verbal false-belief task (Onishi and Baillargeon in Science 308:255–258, 2005). This is well before the age at which children pass any of the verbal false-belief tasks. In this study (...)
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  8. Second-Order Logic: Properties, Semantics, and Existential Commitments.Bob Hale - 2019 - Synthese 196 (7):2643-2669.
    Quine’s most important charge against second-, and more generally, higher-order logic is that it carries massive existential commitments. The force of this charge does not depend upon Quine’s questionable assimilation of second-order logic to set theory. Even if we take second-order variables to range over properties, rather than sets, the charge remains in force, as long as properties are individuated purely extensionally. I argue that if we interpret them as ranging over properties more reasonably construed, in accordance with (...)
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  9.  61
    Children's First and Second-Order False-Belief Reasoning in a Verbal and a Low-Verbal Task.Bart Hollebrandse, Angeliek Hout & Petra Hendriks - 2014 - Synthese 191 (3).
    We can understand and act upon the beliefs of other people, even when these conflict with our own beliefs. Children’s development of this ability, known as Theory of Mind, typically happens around age 4. Research using a looking-time paradigm, however, established that toddlers at the age of 15 months old pass a non-verbal false-belief task (Onishi and Baillargeon in Science 308:255–258, 2005). This is well before the age at which children pass any of the verbal false-belief tasks. In this study (...)
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  10. Second-Order Properties and Three Varieties of Functionalism.Eric Hiddleston - 2011 - Philosophical Studies 153 (3):397 - 415.
    This paper investigates whether there is an acceptable version of Functionalism that avoids commitment to second-order properties. I argue that the answer is "no". I consider two reductionist versions of Functionalism, and argue that both are compatible with multiple realization as such. There is a more specific type of multiple realization that poses difficulties for these views, however. The only apparent Functionalist solution is to accept second-order properties.
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  11.  32
    Uniform Versions of Some Axioms of Second Order Arithmetic.Nobuyuki Sakamoto & Takeshi Yamazaki - 2004 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 50 (6):587-593.
    In this paper, we discuss uniform versions of some axioms of second order arithmetic in the context of higher order arithmetic. We prove that uniform versions of weak weak König's lemma WWKL and Σ01 separation are equivalent to over a suitable base theory of higher order arithmetic, where is the assertion that there exists Φ2 such that Φf1 = 0 if and only if ∃x0 for all f. We also prove that uniform versions of some well-known theorems are equivalent to (...)
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  12.  45
    Strongly Millian Second-Order Modal Logics.Bruno Jacinto - 2017 - Review of Symbolic Logic (3):1-58.
    The most common first- and second-order modal logics either have as theorems every instance of the Barcan and Converse Barcan formulae and of their second-order analogues, or else fail to capture the actual truth of every theorem of classical first- and second-order logic. In this paper we characterise and motivate sound and complete first- and second-order modal logics that successfully capture the actual truth of every theorem of classical first- and second-order logic and yet do (...)
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  13.  42
    Yablo’s Paradox in Second-Order Languages: Consistency and Unsatisfiability.Lavinia María Picollo - 2013 - Studia Logica 101 (3):601-617.
    Stephen Yablo [23,24] introduces a new informal paradox, constituted by an infinite list of semi-formalized sentences. It has been shown that, formalized in a first-order language, Yablo’s piece of reasoning is invalid, for it is impossible to derive falsum from the sequence, due mainly to the Compactness Theorem. This result casts doubts on the paradoxical character of the list of sentences. After identifying two usual senses in which an expression or set of expressions is said to be paradoxical, since (...) languages are not compact, I study the paradoxicality of Yablo’s list within these languages. While non-paradoxical in the first sense, the second-order version of the list is a paradox in our second sense. I conclude that this suffices for regarding Yablo’s original list as paradoxical and his informal argument as valid. (shrink)
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  14. A Defense of Second-Order Logic.Otávio Bueno - 2010 - Axiomathes 20 (2-3):365-383.
    Second-order logic has a number of attractive features, in particular the strong expressive resources it offers, and the possibility of articulating categorical mathematical theories (such as arithmetic and analysis). But it also has its costs. Five major charges have been launched against second-order logic: (1) It is not axiomatizable; as opposed to first-order logic, it is inherently incomplete. (2) It also has several semantics, and there is no criterion to choose between them (Putnam, J Symbol Logic 45:464–482, 1980 (...)
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  15. Second Order Inductive Logic and Wilmers' Principle.M. S. Kliess & J. B. Paris - 2014 - Journal of Applied Logic 12 (4):462-476.
    We extend the framework of Inductive Logic to Second Order languages and introduce Wilmers' Principle, a rational principle for probability functions on Second Order languages. We derive a representation theorem for functions satisfying this principle and investigate its relationship to the first order principles of Regularity and Super Regularity.
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  16.  48
    On Second Order Intuitionistic Propositional Logic Without a Universal Quantifier.Konrad Zdanowski - 2009 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 74 (1):157-167.
    We examine second order intuitionistic propositional logic, IPC². Let $F_\exists $ be the set of formulas with no universal quantification. We prove Glivenko's theorem for formulas in $F_\exists $ that is, for φ € $F_\exists $ φ is a classical tautology if and only if ¬¬φ is a tautology of IPC². We show that for each sentence φ € $F_\exists $ (without free variables), φ is a classical tautology if and only if φ is an intuitionistic tautology. As a corollary (...)
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  17.  87
    Somehow Things Do Not Relate: On the Interpretation of Polyadic Second-Order Logic.Marcus Rossberg - 2015 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 44 (3):341-350.
    Boolos has suggested a plural interpretation of second-order logic for two purposes: to escape Quine’s allegation that second-order logic is set theory in disguise, and to avoid the paradoxes arising if the second-order variables are given a set-theoretic interpretation in second-order set theory. Since the plural interpretation accounts only for monadic second-order logic, Rayo and Yablo suggest an new interpretation for polyadic second-order logic in a Boolosian spirit. The present paper argues that Rayo and (...)
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  18. Extensionalizing Intensional Second-Order Logic.Jonathan Payne - 2015 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 56 (1):243-261.
    Neo-Fregean approaches to set theory, following Frege, have it that sets are the extensions of concepts, where concepts are the values of second-order variables. The idea is that, given a second-order entity $X$, there may be an object $\varepsilon X$, which is the extension of X. Other writers have also claimed a similar relationship between second-order logic and set theory, where sets arise from pluralities. This paper considers two interpretations of second-order logic—as being either extensional or (...)
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  19.  26
    Boolean-Valued Second-Order Logic.Daisuke Ikegami & Jouko Väänänen - 2015 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 56 (1):167-190.
    In so-called full second-order logic, the second-order variables range over all subsets and relations of the domain in question. In so-called Henkin second-order logic, every model is endowed with a set of subsets and relations which will serve as the range of the second-order variables. In our Boolean-valued second-order logic, the second-order variables range over all Boolean-valued subsets and relations on the domain. We show that under large cardinal assumptions Boolean-valued second-order logic is (...)
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  20. Constructing Formal Semantics From an Ontological Perspective. The Case of Second-Order Logics.Thibaut Giraud - 2014 - Synthese 191 (10):2115-2145.
    In a first part, I defend that formal semantics can be used as a guide to ontological commitment. Thus, if one endorses an ontological view \(O\) and wants to interpret a formal language \(L\) , a thorough understanding of the relation between semantics and ontology will help us to construct a semantics for \(L\) in such a way that its ontological commitment will be in perfect accordance with \(O\) . Basically, that is what I call constructing formal semantics from an (...)
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  21.  90
    Second-Order Preferences and Instrumental Rationality.Donald W. Bruckner - 2011 - Acta Analytica 26 (4):367-385.
    A second-order preference is a preference over preferences. This paper addresses the role that second-order preferences play in a theory of instrumental rationality. I argue that second-order preferences have no role to play in the prescription or evaluation of actions aimed at ordinary ends. Instead, second-order preferences are relevant to prescribing or evaluating actions only insofar as those actions have a role in changing or maintaining first-order preferences. I establish these claims by examining and rejecting the (...)
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  22.  29
    Complex Analysis in Subsystems of Second Order Arithmetic.Keita Yokoyama - 2007 - Archive for Mathematical Logic 46 (1):15-35.
    This research is motivated by the program of Reverse Mathematics. We investigate basic part of complex analysis within some weak subsystems of second order arithmetic, in order to determine what kind of set existence axioms are needed to prove theorems of basic analysis. We are especially concerned with Cauchy’s integral theorem. We show that a weak version of Cauchy’s integral theorem is proved in RCAo. Using this, we can prove that holomorphic functions are analytic in RCAo. On the other hand, (...)
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  23. A Secondary Semantics for Second Order Intuitionistic Propositional Logic.Mauro Ferrari, Camillo Fiorentini & Guido Fiorino - 2004 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 50 (2):202-210.
    In this paper we propose a Kripke-style semantics for second order intuitionistic propositional logic and we provide a semantical proof of the disjunction and the explicit definability property. Moreover, we provide a tableau calculus which is sound and complete with respect to such a semantics.
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  24.  51
    Characterizing Definability of Second-Order Generalized Quantifiers.Juha Kontinen & Jakub Szymanik - 2011 - In L. Beklemishev & R. de Queiroz (eds.), Proceedings of the 18th Workshop on Logic, Language, Information and Computation, Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence 6642. Springer.
    We study definability of second-order generalized quantifiers. We show that the question whether a second-order generalized quantifier $\sQ_1$ is definable in terms of another quantifier $\sQ_2$, the base logic being monadic second-order logic, reduces to the question if a quantifier $\sQ^{\star}_1$ is definable in $\FO(\sQ^{\star}_2,<,+,\times)$ for certain first-order quantifiers $\sQ^{\star}_1$ and $\sQ^{\star}_2$. We use our characterization to show new definability and non-definability results for second-order generalized quantifiers. In particular, we show that the monadic second-order majority (...)
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  25.  11
    From Finitary to Infinitary Second‐Order Logic.George Weaver & Irena Penev - 2005 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 51 (5):499-506.
    A back and forth condition on interpretations for those second-order languages without functional variables whose non-logical vocabulary is finite and excludes functional constants is presented. It is shown that this condition is necessary and sufficient for the interpretations to be equivalent in the language. When applied to second-order languages with an infinite non-logical vocabulary, excluding functional constants, the back and forth condition is sufficient but not necessary. It is shown that there is a class of infinitary second-order (...)
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  26.  35
    Subsystems of Second-Order Arithmetic Between RCA0 and WKL0.Carl Mummert - 2008 - Archive for Mathematical Logic 47 (3):205-210.
    We study the Lindenbaum algebra ${\fancyscript{A}}$ (WKL o, RCA o) of sentences in the language of second-order arithmetic that imply RCA o and are provable from WKL o. We explore the relationship between ${\Sigma^1_1}$ sentences in ${\fancyscript{A}}$ (WKL o, RCA o) and ${\Pi^0_1}$ classes of subsets of ω. By applying a result of Binns and Simpson (Arch. Math. Logic 43(3), 399–414, 2004) about ${\Pi^0_1}$ classes, we give a specific embedding of the free distributive lattice with countably many generators into (...)
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  27.  29
    The Strong Soundness Theorem for Real Closed Fields and Hilbert’s Nullstellensatz in Second Order Arithmetic.Nobuyuki Sakamoto & Kazuyuki Tanaka - 2004 - Archive for Mathematical Logic 43 (3):337-349.
    By RCA 0 , we denote a subsystem of second order arithmetic based on Δ0 1 comprehension and Δ0 1 induction. We show within this system that the real number system R satisfies all the theorems (possibly with non-standard length) of the theory of real closed fields under an appropriate truth definition. This enables us to develop linear algebra and polynomial ring theory over real and complex numbers, so that we particularly obtain Hilbert’s Nullstellensatz in RCA 0.
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  28.  7
    Abstraction Principles and the Classification of Second-Order Equivalence Relations.Sean C. Ebels-Duggan - 2019 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 60 (1):77-117.
    This article improves two existing theorems of interest to neologicist philosophers of mathematics. The first is a classification theorem due to Fine for equivalence relations between concepts definable in a well-behaved second-order logic. The improved theorem states that if an equivalence relation E is defined without nonlogical vocabulary, then the bicardinal slice of any equivalence class—those equinumerous elements of the equivalence class with equinumerous complements—can have one of only three profiles. The improvements to Fine’s theorem allow for an analysis (...)
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  29.  82
    Pure Second-Order Logic with Second-Order Identity.Alexander Paseau - 2010 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 51 (3):351-360.
    Pure second-order logic is second-order logic without functional or first-order variables. In "Pure Second-Order Logic," Denyer shows that pure second-order logic is compact and that its notion of logical truth is decidable. However, his argument does not extend to pure second-order logic with second-order identity. We give a more general argument, based on elimination of quantifiers, which shows that any formula of pure second-order logic with second-order identity is equivalent to a member (...)
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  30.  72
    What is a Second Order Theory Committed To?Charles Sayward - 1983 - Erkenntnis 20 (1):79 - 91.
    The paper argues that no second order theory is ontologically commited to anything beyond what its individual variables range over.
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  31.  18
    Rudimentary Languages and Second‐Order Logic.Malika More & Frédéric Olive - 1997 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 43 (3):419-426.
    The aim of this paper is to point out the equivalence between three notions respectively issued from recursion theory, computational complexity and finite model theory. One the one hand, the rudimentary languages are known to be characterized by the linear hierarchy. On the other hand, this complexity class can be proved to correspond to monadic second-order logic with addition. Our viewpoint sheds some new light on the close connection between these domains: We bring together the two extremal notions by (...)
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  32.  24
    Modal Deduction in Second-Order Logic and Set Theory - II.Johan van Benthem, Giovanna D'Agostino, Angelo Montanari & Alberto Policriti - 1998 - Studia Logica 60 (3):387-420.
    In this paper, we generalize the set-theoretic translation method for poly-modal logic introduced in [11] to extended modal logics. Instead of devising an ad-hoc translation for each logic, we develop a general framework within which a number of extended modal logics can be dealt with. We first extend the basic set-theoretic translation method to weak monadic second-order logic through a suitable change in the underlying set theory that connects up in interesting ways with constructibility; then, we show how to (...)
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  33.  25
    Querying Linguistic Treebanks with Monadic Second-Order Logic in Linear Time.Stephan Kepser - 2004 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 13 (4):457-470.
    In recent years large amounts of electronic texts have become available. While the first of these corpora had only a low level of annotation, the more recent ones are annotated with refined syntactic information. To make these rich annotations accessible for linguists, the development of query systems has become an important goal. One of the main difficulties in this task consists in the choice of the right query language, a language which at the same time should be powerful enough to (...)
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  34.  25
    The Axiom of Choice in Second‐Order Predicate Logic.Christine Gaßner - 1994 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 40 (4):533-546.
    The present article deals with the power of the axiom of choice within the second-order predicate logic. We investigate the relationship between several variants of AC and some other statements, known as equivalent to AC within the set theory of Zermelo and Fraenkel with atoms, in Henkin models of the one-sorted second-order predicate logic with identity without operation variables. The construction of models follows the ideas of Fraenkel and Mostowski. It is e. g. shown that the well-ordering theorem (...)
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  35.  12
    Second-Order Modal Logic.Andrew Parisi - 2017 - Dissertation, University of Connecticut
    This dissertation develops an inferentialist theory of meaning. It takes as a starting point that the sense of a sentence is determined by the rules governing its use. In particular, there are two features of the use of a sentence that jointly determine its sense, the conditions under which it is coherent to assert that sentence and the conditions under which it is coherent to deny that sentence. From this starting point the dissertation develops a theory of quantification as marking (...)
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  36.  93
    Rationality & Second‐Order Preferences.Alejandro Pérez Carballo - 2018 - Noûs 52 (1):196-215.
    It seems natural to think of an unwilling addict as having a pattern of preferences that she does not endorse—preferences that, in some sense, she does not ‘identify’ with. Following Frankfurt (1971), Jeffrey (1974) proposed a way of modeling those features of an agent’s preferences by appealing to preferences among preferences.Th„e addict’s preferences are preferences she does not prefer to have. I argue that this modeling suggestion will not do, for it follows from plausible assumptions that a minimally rational agent (...)
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  37.  10
    Regular Subgraphs in Graphs and Rooted Graphs and Definability in Monadic Second‐Order Logic.Iain A. Stewart - 1997 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 43 (1):1-21.
    We investigate the definability in monadic ∑11 and monadic Π11 of the problems REGk, of whether there is a regular subgraph of degree k in some given graph, and XREGk, of whether, for a given rooted graph, there is a regular subgraph of degree k in which the root has degree k, and their restrictions to graphs in which every vertex has degree at most k, namely REGkk and XREGkk, respectively, for k ≥ 2 . Our motivation partly stems from (...)
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  38.  40
    Representationalism, First-Person Authority, and Second-Order Knowledge.Sven Bernecker - 2011 - In Anthony E. Hatzimoysis (ed.), Self-Knowledge. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. pp. 33-52.
    This paper argues that, given the representational theory of mind, one cannot know a priori that one knows that p as opposed to being incapable of having any knowledge states; but one can know a priori that one knows that p as opposed to some other proposition q.
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  39.  20
    The Jordan Curve Theorem and the Schönflies Theorem in Weak Second-Order Arithmetic.Nobuyuki Sakamoto & Keita Yokoyama - 2007 - Archive for Mathematical Logic 46 (5-6):465-480.
    In this paper, we show within ${\mathsf{RCA}_0}$ that both the Jordan curve theorem and the Schönflies theorem are equivalent to weak König’s lemma. Within ${\mathsf {WKL}_0}$ , we prove the Jordan curve theorem using an argument of non-standard analysis based on the fact that every countable non-standard model of ${\mathsf {WKL}_0}$ has a proper initial part that is isomorphic to itself (Tanaka in Math Logic Q 43:396–400, 1997).
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  40.  30
    Pains, Pills and Properties - Functionalism and the First-Order/Second-Order Distinction.Raphael van Riel - 2012 - Dialectica 66 (4):543-562.
  41.  92
    Strong Normalization of a Symmetric Lambda Calculus for Second-Order Classical Logic.Yoriyuki Yamagata - 2002 - Archive for Mathematical Logic 41 (1):91-99.
  42.  5
    Being Deceived: Information Asymmetry in Second‐Order False Belief Tasks.Torben Braüner, Patrick Blackburn & Irina Polyanskaya - forthcoming - Topics in Cognitive Science.
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  43.  51
    Evaluating Second-Order Probability Judgments with Strictly Proper Scoring Rules.Kathleen M. Whitcomb & P. George Benson - 1996 - Theory and Decision 41 (2):165-178.
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  44.  39
    Methodological Issues of Second-Order Model Building.P. J. Sánchez Gómez - 2014 - Constructivist Foundations 9 (3):344-346.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Constructivist Model Building: Empirical Examples From Mathematics Education” by Catherine Ulrich, Erik S. Tillema, Amy J. Hackenberg & Anderson Norton. Upshot: I argue that radical constructivism poses a series of deep methodological constraints on educational research. We focus on the work of Ulrich et al. to illustrate the practical implications of these constraints.
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  45.  23
    Extended Curry‐Howard Terms for Second‐Order Logic.Pimpen Vejjajiva - 2013 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 59 (4-5):274-285.
  46.  9
    A Failure to Find Second-Order Semantic Generalization.Irving Maltzman & Lloyd O. Brooks - 1956 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 51 (6):413.
  47. Getting It Together: Psychological Unity and Deflationary Accounts of Animal Metacognition.Gary Comstock & William A. Bauer - 2018 - Acta Analytica 33 (4):431-451.
    Experimenters claim some nonhuman mammals have metacognition. If correct, the results indicate some animal minds are more complex than ordinarily presumed. However, some philosophers argue for a deflationary reading of metacognition experiments, suggesting that the results can be explained in first-order terms. We agree with the deflationary interpretation of the data but we argue that the metacognition research forces the need to recognize a heretofore underappreciated feature in the theory of animal minds, which we call Unity. The disparate mental states (...)
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  48. Against Second‐Order Reasons.Daniel Whiting - 2017 - Noûs 51 (2):398-420.
    A normative reason for a person to? is a consideration which favours?ing. A motivating reason is a reason for which or on the basis of which a person?s. This paper explores a connection between normative and motivating reasons. More specifically, it explores the idea that there are second-order normative reasons to? for or on the basis of certain first-order normative reasons. In this paper, I challenge the view that there are second-order reasons so understood. I then show that (...)
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  49. Foundations Without Foundationalism: A Case for Second-Order Logic.Stewart Shapiro - 1991 - Oxford University Press.
    The central contention of this book is that second-order logic has a central role to play in laying the foundations of mathematics. In order to develop the argument fully, the author presents a detailed description of higher-order logic, including a comprehensive discussion of its semantics. He goes on to demonstrate the prevalence of second-order concepts in mathematics and the extent to which mathematical ideas can be formulated in higher-order logic. He also shows how first-order languages are often insufficient (...)
  50. Fallibilism, Contextualism and Second‐Order Skepticism.Alexander S. Harper - 2010 - Philosophical Investigations 33 (4):339-359.
    Fallibilism is ubiquitous in contemporary epistemology. I argue that a paradox about knowledge, generated by considerations of truth, shows that fallibilism can only deliver knowledge in lucky circumstances. Specifically, since it is possible that we are brains‐in‐vats, it is possible that all our beliefs are wrong. Thus, the fallibilist can know neither whether or not we have much knowledge about the world nor whether or not we know any specific proposition, and so the warrant of our knowledge‐claims is much reduced (...)
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