Results for 'sentence'

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  1. Sentence, Proposition, Judgment, Statement, and Fact: Speaking About the Written English Used in Logic.John Corcoran - 2009 - In W. A. Carnielli (ed.), The Many Sides of Logic. College Publications. pp. 71-103.
    The five English words—sentence, proposition, judgment, statement, and fact—are central to coherent discussion in logic. However, each is ambiguous in that logicians use each with multiple normal meanings. Several of their meanings are vague in the sense of admitting borderline cases. In the course of displaying and describing the phenomena discussed using these words, this paper juxtaposes, distinguishes, and analyzes several senses of these and related words, focusing on a constellation of recommended senses. One of the purposes of this (...)
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  2. Sentence Processing Strategies in Adult Bilinguals.Kerry Kilborn & Takehiko Ito - 1989 - In Brian MacWhinney & Elizabeth Bates (eds.), The Crosslinguistic Study of Sentence Processing. Cambridge University Press. pp. 257--291.
  3.  14
    Uncertainty and Expectation in Sentence Processing: Evidence From Subcategorization Distributions.Tal Linzen & T. Florian Jaeger - 2016 - Cognitive Science 40 (6):1382-1411.
    There is now considerable evidence that human sentence processing is expectation based: As people read a sentence, they use their statistical experience with their language to generate predictions about upcoming syntactic structure. This study examines how sentence processing is affected by readers' uncertainty about those expectations. In a self-paced reading study, we use lexical subcategorization distributions to factorially manipulate both the strength of expectations and the uncertainty about them. We compare two types of uncertainty: uncertainty about the (...)
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  4.  69
    Verbal Working Memory and Sentence Comprehension.David Caplan & Gloria S. Waters - 1999 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (1):77-94.
    This target article discusses the verbal working memory system used in sentence comprehension. We review the concept of working memory as a short-duration system in which small amounts of information are simultaneously stored and manipulated in the service of accomplishing a task. We summarize the argument that syntactic processing in sentence comprehension requires such a storage and computational system. We then ask whether the working memory system used in syntactic processing is the same as that used in verbally (...)
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  5.  18
    A Multiple‐Channel Model of Task‐Dependent Ambiguity Resolution in Sentence Comprehension.Pavel Logačev & Shravan Vasishth - 2016 - Cognitive Science 40 (2):266-298.
    Traxler, Pickering, and Clifton found that ambiguous sentences are read faster than their unambiguous counterparts. This so-called ambiguity advantage has presented a major challenge to classical theories of human sentence comprehension because its most prominent explanation, in the form of the unrestricted race model, assumes that parsing is non-deterministic. Recently, Swets, Desmet, Clifton, and Ferreira have challenged the URM. They argue that readers strategically underspecify the representation of ambiguous sentences to save time, unless disambiguation is required by task demands. (...)
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  6.  60
    Sentence-Internal Different as Quantifier-Internal Anaphora.Adrian Brasoveanu - 2011 - Linguistics and Philosophy 34 (2):93-168.
    The paper proposes the first unified account of deictic/sentence-external and sentence-internal readings of singular different . The empirical motivation for such an account is provided by a cross-linguistic survey and an analysis of the differences in distribution and interpretation between singular different , plural different and same (singular or plural) in English. The main proposal is that distributive quantification temporarily makes available two discourse referents within its nuclear scope, the values of which are required by sentence-internal uses (...)
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  7.  17
    Exploratory and Confirmatory Analyses in Sentence Processing: A Case Study of Number Interference in German.Bruno Nicenboim, Shravan Vasishth, Felix Engelmann & Katja Suckow - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (S4):1075-1100.
    Given the replication crisis in cognitive science, it is important to consider what researchers need to do in order to report results that are reliable. We consider three changes in current practice that have the potential to deliver more realistic and robust claims. First, the planned experiment should be divided into two stages, an exploratory stage and a confirmatory stage. This clear separation allows the researcher to check whether any results found in the exploratory stage are robust. The second change (...)
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  8.  13
    A Computational Investigation of Sources of Variability in Sentence Comprehension Difficulty in Aphasia.Paul Mätzig, Shravan Vasishth, Felix Engelmann, David Caplan & Frank Burchert - 2018 - Topics in Cognitive Science 10 (1):161-174.
    We present a computational evaluation of three hypotheses about sources of deficit in sentence comprehension in aphasia: slowed processing, intermittent deficiency, and resource reduction. The ACT-R based Lewis and Vasishth model is used to implement these three proposals. Slowed processing is implemented as slowed execution time of parse steps; intermittent deficiency as increased random noise in activation of elements in memory; and resource reduction as reduced spreading activation. As data, we considered subject vs. object relative sentences, presented in a (...)
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  9.  24
    A Computational Evaluation of Sentence Processing Deficits in Aphasia.Umesh Patil, Sandra Hanne, Frank Burchert, Ria De Bleser & Shravan Vasishth - 2016 - Cognitive Science 40 (1):5-50.
    Individuals with agrammatic Broca's aphasia experience difficulty when processing reversible non-canonical sentences. Different accounts have been proposed to explain this phenomenon. The Trace Deletion account attributes this deficit to an impairment in syntactic representations, whereas others propose that the underlying structural representations are unimpaired, but sentence comprehension is affected by processing deficits, such as slow lexical activation, reduction in memory resources, slowed processing and/or intermittent deficiency, among others. We test the claims of two processing accounts, slowed processing and intermittent (...)
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  10. Uncertainty Reduction as a Measure of Cognitive Load in Sentence Comprehension.Stefan L. Frank - 2013 - Topics in Cognitive Science 5 (3):475-494.
    The entropy-reduction hypothesis claims that the cognitive processing difficulty on a word in sentence context is determined by the word's effect on the uncertainty about the sentence. Here, this hypothesis is tested more thoroughly than has been done before, using a recurrent neural network for estimating entropy and self-paced reading for obtaining measures of cognitive processing load. Results show a positive relation between reading time on a word and the reduction in entropy due to processing that word, supporting (...)
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  11.  25
    Perception of Sentence Stress in Speech Correlates With the Temporal Unpredictability of Prosodic Features.Sofoklis Kakouros & Okko Räsänen - 2016 - Cognitive Science 40 (7):1739-1774.
    Numerous studies have examined the acoustic correlates of sentential stress and its underlying linguistic functionality. However, the mechanism that connects stress cues to the listener's attentional processing has remained unclear. Also, the learnability versus innateness of stress perception has not been widely discussed. In this work, we introduce a novel perspective to the study of sentential stress and put forward the hypothesis that perceived sentence stress in speech is related to the unpredictability of prosodic features, thereby capturing the attention (...)
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  12.  13
    Notes on Cardinals That Are Characterizable by a Complete Sentence.Ioannis Souldatos - 2014 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 55 (4):533-551.
    This is the first part of a study on cardinals that are characterizable by Scott sentences. Building on previous work of Hjorth, Malitz, and Baumgartner, we study which cardinals are characterizable by a Scott sentence $\phi$, in the sense that $\phi$ characterizes $\kappa$, if $\phi$ has a model of size $\kappa$ but no models of size $\kappa^{+}$. We show that the set of cardinals that are characterized by a Scott sentence is closed under successors, countable unions, and countable (...)
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  13. Probabilistic Modeling of Discourse‐Aware Sentence Processing.Amit Dubey, Frank Keller & Patrick Sturt - 2013 - Topics in Cognitive Science 5 (3):425-451.
    Probabilistic models of sentence comprehension are increasingly relevant to questions concerning human language processing. However, such models are often limited to syntactic factors. This restriction is unrealistic in light of experimental results suggesting interactions between syntax and other forms of linguistic information in human sentence processing. To address this limitation, this article introduces two sentence processing models that augment a syntactic component with information about discourse co-reference. The novel combination of probabilistic syntactic components with co-reference classifiers permits (...)
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  14.  23
    A Study on Proposition and Sentence in English Grammar.Mudasir A. Tantray - 2016 - International Journal Of Humanities and Social Studies 4 (02):20-25.
    Proposition and sentence are two separate entities indicating their specific purposes, definitions and problems. A proposition is a logical entity. A proposition asserts that something is or not the case, any proposition may be affirmed or denied, all proportions are either true (1’s) or false (0’s). All proportions are sentences but all sentences are not propositions. Propositions are factual contains three terms: subject, predicate and copula and are always in indicative or declarative mood. While sentence is a grammatical (...)
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  15.  98
    Adding Sentence Types to a Model of Syntactic Category Acquisition.Stella Frank, Sharon Goldwater & Frank Keller - 2013 - Topics in Cognitive Science 5 (3):495-521.
    The acquisition of syntactic categories is a crucial step in the process of acquiring syntax. At this stage, before a full grammar is available, only surface cues are available to the learner. Previous computational models have demonstrated that local contexts are informative for syntactic categorization. However, local contexts are affected by sentence-level structure. In this paper, we add sentence type as an observed feature to a model of syntactic category acquisition, based on experimental evidence showing that pre-syntactic children (...)
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  16.  14
    How Sensorimotor Interactions Enable Sentence Imitation.Tzu-Wei Hung - 2015 - Minds and Machines 25 (4):321-338.
    Despite intensive debates regarding action imitation and sentence imitation, few studies have examined their relationship. In this paper, we argue that the mechanism of action imitation is necessary and in some cases sufficient to describe sentence imitation. We first develop a framework for action imitation in which key ideas of Hurley’s shared circuits model are integrated with Wolpert et al.’s motor selection mechanism and its extensions. We then explain how this action-based framework clarifies sentence imitation without a (...)
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  17. Sentence, Proposition and Identity.Jean-Yves Béziau - 2007 - Synthese 154 (3):371 - 382.
    In this paper we discuss the distinction between sentence and proposition from the perspective of identity. After criticizing Quine, we discuss how objects of logical languages are constructed, explaining what is Kleene’s congruence—used by Bourbaki with his square—and Paul Halmos’s view about the difference between formulas and objects of the factor structure, the corresponding boolean algebra, in case of classical logic. Finally we present Patrick Suppes’s congruence approach to the notion of proposition, according to which a whole hierarchy of (...)
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  18.  21
    Response to Tudor: Remorse-Based Sentence Reductions in Theory and Practice.Richard L. Lippke - 2008 - Criminal Law and Philosophy 2 (3):259-268.
    Steven Tudor defends the mitigation of criminal sentences in cases in which offenders are genuinely remorseful for their crimes. More than this, he takes the principle that such remorse-based sentence reductions are appropriate to be a ‘well-settled legal principle’—so well settled, in fact, that ‘it is among those deep-seated commitments which can serve to test general theories as much as they are tested by them’. However, his account of why remorse should reduce punishment is strongly philosophical in character. He (...)
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  19.  26
    Syntactic Complexity Effects in Sentence Production: A Reply to MacDonald, Montag, and Gennari.Gregory Scontras, William Badecker & Evelina Fedorenko - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (8):2280-2287.
    In our article, “Syntactic complexity effects in sentence production”, we reported two elicited production experiments and argued that there is a cost associated with planning and uttering syntactically complex, object-extracted structures that contain a non-local syntactic dependency. MacDonald et al. () have argued that the results of our investigation provide little new information on the topic. We disagree. Examining the production of subject versus object extractions in two constructions across two experimental paradigms—relative clauses in Experiment 1 and wh-questions in (...)
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  20. The Sentence in Language and Cognition.Tista Bagchi - 2008 - Lexington Books.
    The Sentence in Language and Cognition is about the significant role of the sentence in linguistic cognition and in the practical domains of human existence. Dr. Tista Bagchi has written a comprehensive assessment of the structure and cognitive function of the sentence and the clause in the context of real-world discourse and activities.The notions of sentencehood and clausehood with special reference to the semantic histories of the terms sentence and clause, including their ethical, legal, and administrative (...)
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  21.  17
    An Activation‐Based Model of Sentence Processing as Skilled Memory Retrieval.Richard L. Lewis & Shravan Vasishth - 2005 - Cognitive Science 29 (3):375-419.
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  22.  27
    Incrementality and Prediction in Human Sentence Processing.Gerry T. M. Altmann & Jelena Mirković - 2009 - Cognitive Science 33 (4):583-609.
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  23.  10
    Lossy‐Context Surprisal: An Information‐Theoretic Model of Memory Effects in Sentence Processing.Richard Futrell, Edward Gibson & Roger P. Levy - 2020 - Cognitive Science 44 (3).
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  24.  11
    The Action–Sentence Compatibility Effect: It's All in the Timing.Kristin L. Borreggine & Michael P. Kaschak - 2006 - Cognitive Science 30 (6):1097-1112.
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  25.  71
    The Cognitive Dynamics of Negated Sentence Verification.Rick Dale & Nicholas D. Duran - 2011 - Cognitive Science 35 (5):983-996.
  26.  56
    Syntactic Complexity Effects in Sentence Production.Gregory Scontras, William Badecker, Lisa Shank, Eunice Lim & Evelina Fedorenko - 2015 - Cognitive Science 39 (3):559-583.
    Syntactic complexity effects have been investigated extensively with respect to comprehension . According to one prominent class of accounts , certain structures cause comprehension difficulty due to their scarcity in the language. But why are some structures less frequent than others? In two elicited-production experiments we investigated syntactic complexity effects in relative clauses and wh-questions varying in whether or not they contained non-local dependencies. In both experiments, we found reliable durational differences between subject-extracted structures and object-extracted structures : Participants took (...)
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  27.  28
    The Wind Chilled the Spectators, but the Wine Just Chilled: Sense, Structure, and Sentence Comprehension.Mary Hare, Jeffrey L. Elman, Tracy Tabaczynski & Ken McRae - 2009 - Cognitive Science 33 (4):610-628.
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  28.  33
    A Probabilistic Model of Semantic Plausibility in Sentence Processing.Ulrike Padó, Matthew W. Crocker & Frank Keller - 2009 - Cognitive Science 33 (5):794-838.
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  29.  16
    Speed and Accuracy of Sentence Recall: Effects of Ear of Presentation, Semantics, and Grammar.Robert J. Jarvella & Steven J. Herman - 1973 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 97 (1):108.
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  30.  21
    One Word at a Time: Mental Representations of Object Shape Change Incrementally During Sentence Processing.Manami Sato, Amy J. Schafer & Benjamin K. Bergen - 2013 - Language and Cognition 5 (4):345-373.
    Name der Zeitschrift: Language and Cognition - An Interdisciplinary Journal of Language and Cognitive Science Jahrgang: 5 Heft: 4 Seiten: 345-373.
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  31.  11
    Rare Constructions Are More Often Sentence‐Initial.David Temperley - 2019 - Cognitive Science 43 (2):e12714.
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  32.  14
    A Conjecture Concerning the Spectrum of a Sentence.Christopher J. Ash - 1994 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 40 (3):393-397.
    We give a plausible-sounding conjecture involving the number of n-equivalence classes of structures of size m which would imply that the complement of a spectrum is also a spectrum.
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  33.  9
    Developmental Timescale of Rapid Adaptation to Conflicting Cues in Real‐Time Sentence Processing.Angele Yazbec, Michael P. Kaschak & Arielle Borovsky - 2019 - Cognitive Science 43 (1):e12704.
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  34.  25
    Semantic Coding and Incidental Sentence Recall.Sheldon Rosenberg & William J. Schiller - 1971 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 90 (2):345.
  35.  11
    Learning About Added Sentence Fragments Following Repeated Inspection of Written Discourse.Ernst Z. Rothkopf & Esther U. Coke - 1968 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 78 (2p1):191.
  36. On Skinner's Treatment of the First-Person, Third-Person Psychological Sentence Distinction.Willard F. Day - 1977 - Behaviorism 5 (1):33-37.
     
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  37.  7
    The Influence of Globally Ungrammatical Local Syntactic Constraints on Real‐Time Sentence Comprehension: Evidence From the Visual World Paradigm and Reading.Yuki Kamide & Anuenue Kukona - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (8):2976-2998.
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  38.  19
    Sentence-Picture Comparison: A Test of Additivity of Processing Time for Feature Matching and Negation Coding.Lester E. Krueger - 1972 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 95 (2):275.
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  39.  17
    Context Effects in Sentence Memory.Marcia K. Johnson, Theodore J. Doll, John D. Bransford & Robert H. Lapinski - 1974 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 103 (2):358.
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  40.  13
    Semantic Memory and Sentence Verification Time.Theodore J. Doll, James R. Tweedy, Marcia K. Johnson, John D. Bransford & Carl Flatow - 1973 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 100 (2):429.
  41.  12
    Effect of Sentence Context on Word Perception.Gloria Leventhal - 1973 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 101 (2):318.
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  42.  13
    Sentence Processing Assessed Through Intrasentence Word Associations.Robert W. Weisberg - 1969 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 82 (2):332.
  43.  8
    Effect of Verb and Object Meaning on the Connotative Evaluation of Sentence Subjects.William E. Gumenik & Richard Dolinsky - 1971 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 87 (3):436-438.
  44. Information Structure and Sentence Form: Topic, Focus, and the Mental Representations of Discourse Referents.Knud Lambrecht - 1994 - Cambridge University Press.
    Why do speakers of all languages use different grammatical structures under different communicative circumstances to express the same idea? In this comprehensive study, Professor Lambrecht explores the relationship between the structure of sentences and the linguistic and extra-linguistic contexts in which they are used. His analysis is based on the observation that the structure of a sentence reflects a speaker's assumptions about the hearer's state of knowledge and consciousness at the time of the utterance. This relationship between speaker assumptions (...)
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  45.  38
    Illocutionary Acts and Sentence Meaning. [REVIEW]Mandy Simons - 2002 - Philosophical Review 111 (1):152.
    In this book, Alston articulates and argues for a use-based and normative account of sentence meaning. He proposes that sentence meaning consists in illocutionary act potential, the usability of a sentence for the performance of a certain illocutionary act type. This potential is itself explained in terms of illocutionary rules, normative rules governing the acceptable use of sentences.
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  46.  45
    Quantification and ACD: Evidence From Real-Time Sentence Processing.M. Hackl, J. Koster-Hale & J. Varvoutis - 2012 - Journal of Semantics 29 (2):145-206.
    Quantifiers, unlike proper names or definite descriptions, cannot be given the semantics of referring expressions. This fact has triggered a long-standing debate in formal semantics and syntax as to the combinatorial means by which quantifiers are integrated into a sentence. The present paper contributes to this debate through an investigation of quantifier comprehension during real-time sentence processing. We present evidence showing that two potentially independent processes—the integration of a quantifier in object position and the resolution of antecedent-contained deletion (...)
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  47. Scan Patterns Predict Sentence Production in the Cross-Modal Processing of Visual Scenes.Moreno I. Coco & Frank Keller - 2012 - Cognitive Science 36 (7):1204-1223.
    Most everyday tasks involve multiple modalities, which raises the question of how the processing of these modalities is coordinated by the cognitive system. In this paper, we focus on the coordination of visual attention and linguistic processing during speaking. Previous research has shown that objects in a visual scene are fixated before they are mentioned, leading us to hypothesize that the scan pattern of a participant can be used to predict what he or she will say. We test this hypothesis (...)
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  48. The Four-Sentence Paper.Dennis Earl - 2015 - Teaching Philosophy 38 (1):49-76.
    They say that argumentative writing skills are best learned through writing argumentative essays. I say that while this is excellent practice for argumentative writing, an important exercise to practice structuring such essays and build critical thinking skills simultaneously is what I call the four-sentence paper. The exercise has the template They say..., I say..., one might object..., I reply... One might object that the assignment oversimplifies argumentative writing, stifles creativity, promotes an adversarial attitude, or that students can’t consider objections (...)
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  49.  53
    Overcoming Logical Positivism From Within: The Emergence of Neurath’s Naturalism in the Vienna Circle’s Protocol Sentence Debate.Thomas E. Uebel (ed.) - 1992 - Rodopi.
    Chapter INTRODUCTION: OTTO NEURATH, THE VIENNA CIRCLE AND THE PROTOCOL SENTENCE DEBATE Everybody familiar with contemporary analytical philosophy is likely ...
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  50.  69
    Evidence for Anti-Intellectualism About Know-How From a Sentence Recognition Task.Ian Harmon & Zachary Horne - 2016 - Synthese 193 (9).
    An emerging trend in cognitive science is to explore central epistemological questions using psychological methods. Early work in this growing area of research has revealed that epistemologists’ theories of knowledge diverge in various ways from the ways in which ordinary people think of knowledge. Reflecting the practices of epistemology as a whole, the vast majority of these studies have focused on the concept of propositional knowledge, or knowledge-that. Many philosophers, however, have argued that knowing how to do something is importantly (...)
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