Results for 'sex chromosomes'

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  1.  14
    Does the Speciation Clock Tick More Slowly in the Absence of Heteromorphic Sex Chromosomes?Barret C. Phillips & Suzanne Edmands - 2012 - Bioessays 34 (3):166-169.
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  2.  8
    Should Y Stay or Should Y Go: The Evolution of Non‐Recombining Sex Chromosomes.Sheng Sun & Joseph Heitman - 2012 - Bioessays 34 (11):938-942.
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  3.  19
    The Evolution of the Peculiarities of Mammalian Sex Chromosomes: An Epigenetic View.Eva Jablonka - 2004 - Bioessays 26 (12):1327-1332.
  4.  22
    How Mammalian Sex Chromosomes Acquired Their Peculiar Gene Content.Eric J. Vallender & Bruce T. Lahn - 2004 - Bioessays 26 (2):159-169.
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  5.  3
    A Note on Corballis and the Genetics and Evolution of Handedness: Developing a Unified Distributional Model From the Sex-Chromosomes Gene Hypothesis.Gregory V. Jones & Maryanne Martin - 2000 - Psychological Review 107 (1):213-218.
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  6.  3
    The Evolution of Heteromorphic Sex Chromosomes.John C. Lucchesi - 1994 - Bioessays 16 (2):81-83.
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  7.  12
    On the Origin of Sex Chromosomes.John C. Lucchesi - 1999 - Bioessays 21 (3):188-190.
  8.  20
    Polyploidy and the Sex Chromosomes.R. Ruggles Gates - 1953 - Acta Biotheoretica 11 (1):27-44.
  9.  4
    Do Sex Chromosomes Affect Speciation Rate?Jeffery Demuth - 2014 - Bioessays 36 (7):632-632.
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  10.  5
    Mammalian Sex Determination: More Than Mice and Men.Sex Chromosomes and Sex-Determining Genes. Edited by K. C. REEDand J. A. M. GRAVES. Harwood Academic Publishers, Chur, Switzerland. Xviii+410 Pp. US $98;£64. ISBN 3-7186-5276-5. [REVIEW]Adam S. Wilkins - 1994 - Bioessays 16 (10):779-779.
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  11. Sex Chromosomes and Sex-Determining Genes.K. C. Reed, J. A. M. Graves & Adam S. Wilkins - 1994 - Bioessays 16 (10):779.
     
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  12.  9
    Sex Differences in Early Embryogenesis: Inter‐Chromosomal Regulation Sets the Stage for Sex‐Biased Gene Networks.Nora Engel - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (9):1800073.
    Sex‐specific transcriptional and epigenomic profiles are detectable in the embryo very soon after fertilization. I propose that in male (XY) and female (XX) pre‐implantation embryos sex chromosomes establish sexually dimorphic interactions with the autosomes, before overt differences become apparent and long before gonadogenesis. Lineage determination restricts expression biases between the sexes, but the epigenetic differences are less constrained and can be perpetuated, accounting for dimorphisms that arise later in life. In this way, sexual identity is registered in the epigenome (...)
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  13.  5
    Nettie M. Stevens and the Discovery of Sex Determination by Chromosomes.Stephen Brush - 1978 - Isis: A Journal of the History of Science 69:162-172.
  14.  6
    Nettie M. Stevens and the Discovery of Sex Determination by Chromosomes.Stephen G. Brush - 1978 - Isis 69 (2):163-172.
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  15.  23
    The Riddle of Sex: Biological Theories of Sexual Difference in the Early Twentieth-Century. [REVIEW]Nathan Q. Ha - 2011 - Journal of the History of Biology 44 (3):505 - 546.
    At the turn of the twentieth century, biologists such as Oscar Riddle, Thomas Hunt Morgan, Frank Lillie, and Richard Goldschmidt all puzzled over the question of sexual difference, the distinction between male and female. They all offered competing explanations for the biological cause of this difference, and engaged in a fierce debate over the primacy of their respective theories. Riddle propounded a metabolic theory of sex dating from the late-nineteenth century suggesting that metabolism lay at the heart of sexual difference. (...)
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  16. The History of Biology and its Importance for Gender Studies.Yusuke Kaneko - 2016 - GÉNEROS –Multidisciplinary Journal of Gender Studies 5 (2).
    The aim of this paper is to call the attention, especially that of feminists, to the current progress in biology. It appears gender studies still confine themselves to outdated ideas of sex chromosomes like XX, XY (§10). However, science has been making progress. It no longer sticks to such matters as XX, XY. Its interest is now in Sry, a kind of gene (§11), and MIS, a kind of sex hormone (§14). Abnormalities of sex chromosomes are no longer (...)
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  17.  22
    Evolution of Sex Differences in Lifespan and Aging: Causes and Constraints.Alexei A. Maklakov & Virpi Lummaa - 2013 - Bioessays 35 (8):717-724.
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  18.  7
    Ohno's Hypothesis and Muller's Paradox: Sex Chromosome Dosage Compensation May Serve Collective Gene Functions.Donald R. Forsdyke - 2012 - Bioessays 34 (11):930-933.
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  19.  12
    No Amicable Divorce? Challenging the Notion That Sexual Antagonism Drives Sex Chromosome Evolution.Joseph E. Ironside - 2010 - Bioessays 32 (8):718-726.
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  20.  6
    Sex Itself: The Search for Male and Female in the Human Genome by Sarah S. Richardson.Maayan Sudai - 2019 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 28 (4):1-8.
    Following the tradition of feminist philosophers and scholars of science from the 1980s onward such as Evelyn Fox-Keller, Helen Longino, Anne Fausto-Sterling, and others who revealed how popular notions of masculinity and femininity infiltrated and shaped the content of scientific knowledge, Sarah S. Richardson's book Sex Itself: The Search for Male and Female in the Human Genome deserves a place on the shelf with this canonical literature. It addresses one of the most celebrated symbols of biological sex binary: the X (...)
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  21.  4
    Did Sex Chromosome Turnover Promote Divergence of the Major Mammal Groups?Jennifer A. M. Graves - 2016 - Bioessays 38 (8):734-743.
    Comparative mapping and sequencing show that turnover of sex determining genes and chromosomes, and sex chromosome rearrangements, accompany speciation in many vertebrates. Here I review the evidence and propose that the evolution of therian mammals was precipitated by evolution of the male‐determining SRY gene, defining a novel XY sex chromosome pair, and interposing a reproductive barrier with the ancestral population of synapsid reptiles 190 million years ago (MYA). Divergence was reinforced by multiple translocations in monotreme sex chromosomes, the (...)
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  22.  8
    Mammalian X Chromosome Dosage Compensation: Perspectives From the Germ Line.Mahesh N. Sangrithi & James M. A. Turner - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (6):1800024.
  23.  10
    On the Sex in Bonellia Viridis.Jan Wilczynski - 1968 - Acta Biotheoretica 18 (1-4):338-360.
    Oogenesis being performed in the ovary shows two different kinds of nuclei in the nursing cells. The above mentioned nuclei are transferred and incorporated into the nuclei of developing eggs, which become sexually differentiated and showWolanski's methyl-green reaction. The sex determination is, therefore, cytologically progamic and genotypical. The spawned eggs in the jelly strings appear first of identical shape and are all coated from the very beginning with grainy bonellian pigment, but afterwards, being reared in free water cultures in the (...)
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  24.  23
    How Theories Became Knowledge: Morgan's Chromosome Theory of Heredity in America and Britain. [REVIEW]Stephen G. Brush - 2002 - Journal of the History of Biology 35 (3):471-535.
    T. H. Morgan, A. H. Sturtevant, H. J. Muller and C. B. Bridges published their comprehensive treatise "The Mechanism of Mendelian Heredity" in 1915. By 1920 Morgan 's "Chromosome Theory of Heredity" was generally accepted by geneticists in the United States, and by British geneticists by 1925. By 1930 it had been incorporated into most general biology, botany, and zoology textbooks as established knowledge. In this paper, I examine the reasons why it was accepted as part of a series of (...)
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  25. The Symbolic-Consequences Argument in the Sex Robot Debate.John Danaher - 2017 - In John Danaher & Neil McArthur (eds.), Robot Sex: Social and Ethical Implications. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    This chapter examines a common objection to sex robots: the symbolic-consequences argument. According to this argument sex robots are problematic because they symbolise something disturbing about our attitude to sex-related norms such as consent and the status of our sex partners, and because of the potential consequences of this symbolism. After formalising this objection and considering several real-world uses of it, the chapter subjects it to critical scrutiny. It argues that while there are grounds for thinking that sex robots could (...)
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  26. Bodies That Matter: On the Discursive Limits of "Sex".Judith Butler - 1993 - Routledge.
    In ____Bodies That Matter,__ Judith Butler further develops her distinctive theory of gender by examining the workings of power at the most "material" dimensions of sex and sexuality. Deepening the inquiries she began in _Gender_ _Trouble,_ Butler offers an original reformulation of the materiality of bodies, examining how the power of heterosexual hegemony forms the "matter" of bodies, sex, and gender. Butler argues that power operates to constrain "sex" from the start, delimiting what counts as a viable sex. She offers (...)
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  27. Should We Be Thinking About Sex Robots?John Danaher - 2017 - In John Danaher & Neil McArthur (eds.), Robot Sex: Social Implications and Ethical. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    The chapter introduces the edited collection Robot Sex: Social and Ethical Implications. It proposes a definition of the term 'sex robot' and examines some current prototype models. It also considers the three main ethical questions one can ask about sex robots: (i) do they benefit/harm the user? (ii) do they benefit/harm society? or (iii) do they benefit/harm the robot?
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  28. Regulating Child Sex Robots: Restriction or Experimentation?John Danaher - forthcoming - Medical Law Review.
    In July 2014, the roboticist Ronald Arkin suggested that child sex robots could be used to treat those with paedophilic predilections in the same way that methadone is used to treat heroin addicts. Taking this onboard, it would seem that there is reason to experiment with the regulation of this technology. But most people seem to disagree with this idea, with legal authorities in both the UK and US taking steps to outlaw such devices. In this paper, I subject these (...)
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  29.  43
    Artificial Ef-Femination.Marla Morton-Brown - 2004 - Philosophy in the Contemporary World 11 (1):27-34.
    Many feminist and queer scholars believe that one way to fight racism, sexism and homophobia is to challenge identity labels---ideas of what it means to be “black,” “gay,” “white,” “woman,” “lesbian.” Biology, however, continues to thwart this political agenda; the Body---the biological reality of skin color and sex chromosomes---makes it difficult to propose the idea that identity labels are merely social constructs, not natural facts. Female bodybuilding is a performance that literalizes the body as a site of artificial construction, (...)
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  30. Building Better Sex Robots: Lessons From Feminist Pornography.John Danaher - forthcoming - In Yuefang Zhou & Martin Fischer (eds.), AI Love You- Developments on Human-Robot Intimate Relations. Dordrecht: Springer.
    How should we react to the development of sexbot technology? Taking their cue from anti-porn feminism, several academic critics lament the development of sexbot technology, arguing that it objectifies and subordinates women, is likely to promote misogynistic attitudes toward sex, and may need to be banned or restricted. In this chapter I argue for an alternative response. Taking my cue from the sex positive ‘feminist porn’ movement, I argue that the best response to the development of ‘bad’ sexbots is to (...)
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  31. Should We Campaign Against Sex Robots?John Danaher, Brian D. Earp & Anders Sandberg - 2017 - In John Danaher & Neil McArthur (eds.), Robot Sex: Social and Ethical Implications. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    In September 2015 a well-publicised Campaign Against Sex Robots (CASR) was launched. Modelled on the longer-standing Campaign to Stop Killer Robots, the CASR opposes the development of sex robots on the grounds that the technology is being developed with a particular model of female-male relations (the prostitute-john model) in mind, and that this will prove harmful in various ways. In this chapter, we consider carefully the merits of campaigning against such a technology. We make three main arguments. First, we argue (...)
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  32. Prostitution and the Good of Sex.Sascha Settegast - 2018 - Social Theory and Practice 44 (3):377-403.
    On some accounts, prostitution is just another form of casual sex and as such not particularly harmful in itself, if regulated properly. I claim that, although casual sex in general is not inher-ently harmful, prostitution in fact is. To show this, I defend an account of sex as joint action characteristically aimed at sexual enjoyment, here understood as a tangible experience of com-munity among partners, and argue that prostitution fails to achieve this good by incentivizing partners to mistreat each other. (...)
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  33. Sex, Lies, and Consent.Tom Dougherty - 2013 - Ethics 123 (4):717-744.
    How wrong is it to deceive someone into sex by lying, say, about one's profession? The answer is seriously wrong when the liar's actual profession would be a deal breaker for the victim of the deception: this deception vitiates the victim's sexual consent, and it is seriously wrong to have sex with someone while lacking his or her consent.
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  34. Sexual Rights, Disability and Sex Robots.Ezio Di Nucci - forthcoming - In John Danaher & Neil McArthur (eds.), Sex Robots. MIT Press.
    I argue that the right to sexual satisfaction of severely physically and mentally disabled people and elderly people who suffer from neurodegenerative diseases can be fulfilled by deploying sex robots; this would enable us to satisfy the sexual needs of many who cannot provide for their own sexual satisfaction; without at the same time violating anybody’s right to sexual self-determination. I don’t offer a full-blown moral justification of deploying sex robots in such cases, as not all morally relevant concerns can (...)
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  35. From Sex Robots to Love Robots: Is Mutual Love with a Robot Possible?Sven Nyholm & Lily Frank - forthcoming - In John Danaher & Neil McArthur (eds.), Robot Sex: Social Implications and Ethical. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Some critics of sex-robots worry that their use might spread objectifying attitudes about sex, and common sense places a higher value on sex within love-relationships than on casual sex. If there could be mutual love between humans and sex-robots, this could help to ease the worries about objectifying attitudes. And mutual love between humans and sex-robots, if possible, could also help to make this sex more valuable. But is mutual love between humans and robots possible, or even conceivable? We discuss (...)
     
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  36. Sex and the Virtuous Kantian Agent.Lara Denis - 2006 - In Raja Halwani (ed.), Sex and Ethics: Essays in Sexuality, Virtue, and the Good Life. Palgrave-Macmillan.
    This paper explores how a virtuous Kantian agent would regard and express her sexuality. I argue both that Kant has a rich account of virtue, and that a virtuous Kantian agent should view her sexuality as a good thing–as an important aspect of her animal nature. On my view, the virtuous agent does not seek to suppress her sexuality, but rather to find modes and contexts for its expression that allow the agent to maintain her self-respect and to avoid degrading (...)
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  37. Is Sex Binary?Alex Byrne - 2018 - Arc Digital (nov 1).
    Response to Anne Fausto-Sterling's New York Times Op-Ed, in which she purports to explain why sex isn't binary.
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  38. Epicurus on Sex, Marriage, and Children.Tad Brennan - 1996 - Classical Philology 91:346-52.
    Epicurus strongly discouraged sex, marriage, and the rearing of children. This paper looks at some of the primary evidence for these claims, clears up a translation of one passage, and emends another passage. (The emendation has been accepted into Dorandi's new edition of Diogenes Laertius).
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  39. Religious Conservatives and Safe Sex: Reconciliation by Nonpublic Reason.Robert S. Taylor - 2014 - American Political Thought 3 (2):322-340.
    Religious conservatives in the U.S. have frequently opposed public-health measures designed to combat STDs among minors, such as sex education, condom distribution, and HPV vaccination. Using Rawls’s method of conjecture, I will clear up what I take to be a misunderstanding on the part of religious conservatives: even if we grant their premises regarding the nature and source of sexual norms, the wide-ranging authority of parents to enforce these norms against their minor children, and the potential sexual-disinhibition effects of the (...)
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  40.  48
    The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex.Charles Darwin - 1898 - Plume.
    The most accessible edition ever published of Darwin’s incendiary classic, edited by “as fine a science essayist as we have” ( New York Times ) The Descent of Man , Darwin’s second landmark work on evolutionary theory (following The Origin of the Species ), marked a turning point in the history of science with its modern vision of human nature as the product of evolution. Darwin argued that the noblest features of humans, such as language and morality, were the result (...)
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  41.  55
    Is Sex Socially Constructed?Alex Byrne - 2018 - Arc Digital (nov 30).
    Three arguments for the thesis that sex is socially constructed are examined and rejected. No such argument could succeed, because sex is not socially constructed.
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  42. Designing Virtuous Sex Robots.Anco Peeters & Pim Haselager - manuscript
    We apply virtue ethics to evaluate the ethical implications of intimate human-robot relationships. Our evaluation develops in four steps. First, we present virtue ethics as a suitable framework for the evaluation of human-robot relationships. Second, we compare our account to instrumentalist approaches which draw on the work done by David Levy to show how our account avoids certain fundamental problems. Third, we examine how a virtue ethical analysis of intimate human-robot relationships could inspire the design of robots that support the (...)
     
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  43. Sex Work, Technological Unemployment and the Basic Income Guarantee.John Danaher - 2014 - Journal of Evolution and Technology 24 (1):113-130.
    Is sex work (specifically, prostitution) vulnerable to technological unemployment? Several authors have argued that it is. They claim that the advent of sophisticated sexual robots will lead to the displacement of human prostitutes, just as, say, the advent of sophisticated manufacturing robots have displaced many traditional forms of factory labour. But are they right? In this article, I critically assess the argument that has been made in favour of this displacement hypothesis. Although I grant the argument a degree of credibility, (...)
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  44.  41
    A Socio-Relational Framework of Sex Differences in the Expression of Emotion.Jacob Miguel Vigil - 2009 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (5):375.
    Despite a staggering body of research demonstrating sex differences in expressed emotion, very few theoretical models (evolutionary or non-evolutionary) offer a critical examination of the adaptive nature of such differences. From the perspective of a socio-relational framework, emotive behaviors evolved to promote the attraction and aversion of different types of relationships by advertising the two most parsimonious properties of reciprocity potential, or perceived attractiveness as a prospective social partner. These are the individual's (a) perceived capacity or ability to provide expedient (...)
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  45.  32
    Factors Related to the Cognitive Moral Development of Business Students and Business Professionals in India and the United States: Nationality, Education, Sex and Gender. [REVIEW]Beverly Kracher, Abha Chatterjee & Arlene R. Lundquist - 2002 - Journal of Business Ethics 35 (4):255-268.
    This research focuses on the similarities and differences in the cognitive moral development of business professionals and graduate business students in two countries, India and the United States. Factors that potentially influence cognitive moral development, namely, culture, education, sex and gender are analyzed and discussed. Implications for ethics education in graduate business schools and professional associations are considered. Future research on the cognitive moral development of graduate business students and business professionals is recommended.
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  46. Sex and Circumcision.Brian D. Earp - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics 15 (2):43-45.
    What are the effects of circumcision on sexual function and experience? And what does sex—in the sense related to gender—have to do with the ethics of circumcision? Jacobs and Arora (2015) give short shrift to the first of these questions; and they do not seem to have considered the second. In this commentary, I explore the relationship between sex (in both senses) and infant male circumcision, and draw some conclusions about the ongoing debate regarding this controversial practice.
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  47. The Metaphysics of Sex and Gender.Ásta Kristjana Sveinsdóttir - 2011 - In Charlotte Witt (ed.), Feminist Metaphysics. Springer.
    In this chapter I offer an interpretation of Judith Butler’s metaphysics of sex and gender and situate it in the ontological landscape alongside what has long been the received view of sex and gender in the English speaking world, which owes its inspiration to the works of Simone de Beauvoir. I then offer a critique of Butler’s view, as interpreted, and subsequently an original account of sex and gender, according to which both are constructed—or conferred, as I would put it— (...)
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  48. Modelling Sex/Gender.Helen L. Daly - 2017 - Think 16 (46):79-92.
    People often assume that everyone can be divided by sex/gender (that is, by physical and social characteristics having to do with maleness and femaleness) into two tidy categories: male and female. Careful thought, however, leads us to reject that simple ‘binary’ picture, since not all people fall precisely into one group or the other. But if we do not think of sex/gender in terms of those two categories, how else might we think of it? Here I consider four distinct models; (...)
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  49. Aspects of Sex Differences: Social Intelligence Vs. Creative Intelligence.Ferdinand Fellmann & Esther Redolfi Widmann - 2017 - Advances in Anthropology 7:298-317.
    In this article, we argue that there is an essential difference between social intelligence and creative intelligence, and that they have their foundation in human sexuality. For sex differences, we refer to the vast psychological, neurological, and cognitive science research where problem-solving, verbal skills, logical reasoning, and other topics are dealt with. Intelligence tests suggest that, on average, neither sex has more general intelligence than the other. Though people are equals in general intelligence, they are different in special forms of (...)
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  50. Same-Sex Marriage and the Charge of Illiberality.Peter Brian Barry - 2011 - Social Theory and Practice 37 (2):333-357.
    However liberalism is best understood, liberals typically seek to defend a wide range of liberty. Since same-sex marriage [henceforth: SSM] prohibitions limit the liberty of citizens, there is at least some reason to suppose that they are inconsistent with liberal commitments. But some have argued that it is the recognition of SSM—not its prohibition—that conflicts with liberalism’s commitments. I refer to the thesis that recognition of SSM is illiberal as “The Charge.” As a sympathetic liberal, I take The Charge seriously (...)
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