In late 2006, the Department of Education changed the Title IX regulations to broaden the permissibility of single-sexeducation in primary and secondary schools. The changes took place in the context of a growing concern over the performance and well-being of boys in American schools. This article describes, dissects, and critically analyzes the narrative about boys, masculinity, and single-sexeducation that surrounded these changes. The public narrative about the need for single-sexeducation focused, (...) in substantial part, on what I call the essentialist myth of masculinity. This article catalogs the important components of this myth: heteronormativity, aggression, activity, sports-obsession, competitiveness, stoicism, and not being girls. The article then shows, using education and gender theory, that this conception of masculinity is harmful to both girls and boys. Instead of pushing this form of masculinity, the law and schools should make room for multiple and varied masculinities for boys (and girls). The article argues that the Title IX regulatory change that allows for the expansion of single-sex schooling can actually work to further empower and entrench the essentialist myth of masculinity, thus violating its own prohibition on sex stereotyping. By adopting strong interpretations of already-existing jurisprudence about gender stereotyping from both constitutional law and Title IX, the article shows how de-essentializing masculinity is possible and preferable in the law. The article concludes that schools that implement single-sexeducation must do so for reasons other than promoting an essentialized notion of masculinity and that the law must be vigilant in ensuring that schools' implementation not further reify dominant conceptions of what it means to be a boy. (shrink)
Debating Single-SexEducation provides both practitioners and policymakers with a timely, detailed, and focused compilation of the issues surrounding single-sexeducation. It includes qualitative case studies and quantitative evidence of the effects of single-sexeducation on student achievement.
Argued to ‘raise boys’ grades’ and ‘boost boys’ academic achievement’, single‐sex classes in coeducation schools is one strategy among a plethora aimed at raising standards. This paper explores the experiences of teachers in one coeducation post‐primary school that sought to raise academic performance, particularly among boys, and to improve classroom behaviour by introducing single‐sex classes. Funded by a local Education and Library Board the evaluation took place almost four years after the strategy was introduced and in a climate of (...) increasing teacher concern with the effectiveness of the strategy. The methods involved a questionnaire survey to all teachers in the school and one‐to‐one and small group interviews with teachers responsible for teaching single‐sex classes. Contrary to its stated aims, the majority of teachers believe that, since the introduction of single‐sex classes, academic performance and classroom behaviour have deteriorated. Findings are discussed in terms of teachers’ perceptions of the strategy and the importance organizational and contextual factors have on shaping teachers’ attitudes to new initiatives. (shrink)
In this timely book, Rosemary Salomone offers a reasoned educational and legal argument supporting single-sexeducation as an alternative to coeducation, particularly in the case of disadvantaged minority students. “A carefully organized, often lively... compendium of everything that matters in the debate: how boys and girls do in classes and on tests, their differing learning styles, and the legal tussles.”—Timothy A. Hacsi, _New York Times_ “Smart, objective, evenhanded. Must reading in this important debate.”—Susan Estrich, University of Southern California (...) Law School “Everyone concerned about inequalities in our schools and our society should want to read it.”—Michael Duffy, _Times Educational Supplement _ “If you have time for only one book and you really want to be informed about single-sexeducation, then make it _Same, Different, Equal._”—John Borst, _Education Today_ “The single best book I have read about single-sexeducation. A must-read for every educator who is concerned about the different outcomes for boys and girls in school.”—Michael Thompson, Ph.D, coauthor of _Raising Cain: Protecting the Emotional Life of Boys_. (shrink)
Rankings of school subject preferences were obtained from 321 male and 327 female pupils aged 11‐12 years, and 245 male and 240 female pupils aged 15‐16 years, from both single sex and co‐educational secondary schools. Overall rank orders showed an effect of school type for younger pupils only, in which evidence for less gender stereotyping of school subjects in single sex schools was found. The rankings of the older pupils, while not affected by school type, did show a clear effect (...) of gender, with higher rankings being given to mathematics, science and physical education by boys and to art by girls. (shrink)
It has been well established in the literature that girls are turning their backs on computing courses at all levels of the education system. One reason given for this is that the computer learning environment is not conducive to girls, and it is often suggested that they would benefit from learning computing in a single‐sex environment. The purpose of this study was to identify whether there were differences in perception between boys and girls and the type of school they (...) attended. The College and university classroom environment inventory was used as an instrument to measure the computing learning environment of 265 Year 12 and 13 secondary schools students in Wellington, New Zealand. The results showed that there were statistically significant differences in perceptions between sex, and between different types of school, and it is suggested that there may be a place for single‐sex computing classrooms in mixed‐sex schools. (shrink)
This paper offers a critique of the “democratic state of education” proposed by Amy Gutmann in her influential book Democratic Education. In the democratic state of education, educational authority is shared among the state, parents and educational professionals; and educational objectives are geared toward equipping future citizens to participate in what Gutmann calls “conscious social reproduction”—the collective shaping of the future of society through democratic deliberation. Although I agree with some of Gutmann’s broad recommendations for civic (...) class='Hi'>education, I have misgivings about the centrality that she gives to conscious social reproduction in her theory of education. I argue that in focusing so intently on the facilitation of conscious social reproduction, Gutmann’s theory makes insufficient room for the basic interests of individual children, and in particular, their prospective interest in autonomy. Gutmann’s considered position on sex education policy—specifically, her willingness to allow local communities to deny their children access to sex education—exemplifies the shortcomings of her theory. Ultimately, her democratic state of education fails to acknowledge the fundamental moral importance of individual flourishing, and the contribution that education can and should make to it. (shrink)
This absorbing and accessible book provides an analysis of the principles, policy and practice of sex education. Utilizing unpublished research, the authors critically examine sex education within the growing discourse on the teaching of values and citizenship education.
This research focuses on the similarities and differences in the cognitive moral development of business professionals and graduate business students in two countries, India and the United States. Factors that potentially influence cognitive moral development, namely, culture, education, sex and gender are analyzed and discussed. Implications for ethics education in graduate business schools and professional associations are considered. Future research on the cognitive moral development of graduate business students and business professionals is recommended.
The influential liberal philosophical approach to sex education fails to appreciate the moral complexities of young people’s sexuality and relationships. The resultant pedagogies are limited to the morality of tolerance and acquisition of legal sexual consent, unaware that these very notions are supervened on by much wider and more complex interrelated moral principles. A virtue ethical approach to sex education troubles the liberal boundary between ‘thick’ and ‘thin’ sexual values and makes ethical sex and relationships its primary goal. (...) Grounding sex education in this way justifies a pedagogical approach that centres moral reasoning and the development of practical wisdom concerning intimate and emotional sexual and romantic-relational matters. Virtue ethical pedagogical strategies utilizing narrative vignettes represent one innovative alternative to the dominant liberal approach to sex education. (shrink)
Abstract Objections to contemporary practice in sex education are examined in the light of recent calls by Muslim leaders in Britain for Muslim parents to withdraw their children from sex education classes. The dilemma facing liberal policy makers is discussed, as they seek to reconcile the public interest, the wishes of parents with a wide diversity of beliefs and values and the perceived needs of children, and the paper concludes with a consideration of how far it is possible (...) to develop an approach to sex education in the common school which is broadly acceptable to all groups, including minorities such as Muslims. (shrink)
This paper surveys the range of philosophical positions currently found in school sex education materials. Five main positions are identified: school sex education should not occur; school sex education should promote physical health; school sex education should promote personal autonomy ; school sex education should promote responsible sexual behaviour; school sex education should take place within a religious framework. The strengths and weaknesses of each of these positions are examined. It is argued that valid (...) sex education in schools promotes rational sexual autonomy, requires pupils to consider the needs and wishes of others, and takes place within a moral framework. The identification of the moral framework within which sex education is taught is a matter of controversy. Once this is acknowledged, possible approaches towards the balanced teaching of school sex education become easier to identify. It is suggested that teachers should adopt a position which combines elements of affirmative and procedural neutrality. (shrink)
Abstract This paper argues for an integration of moral education and sex education curricula. In such an integration, the primary values that would be taught would not be those relating to specific sexual behaviour but those relating to the general treatment of human beings, suggesting that sex that involves coercion or exploitation as well as sex that causes harm is wrong. Sex educators must take as their goal the prevention of abuse, not by placing responsibility on girls to (...) avoid victimisation but by teaching boys how to express themselves sexually in moral??that is, considerate and respectful??ways. The paper discusses differential gender role socialisation and why integration of such material must be a part of every sex education curriculum. The paper also discusses how physical pleasure is not only a biological phenomenon but one that is culturally constructed, the discussion of which would be important to sex education. Finally, teaching about fantasy as well as sexual ?deviance? (in terms of the moral behaviours discussed above) may be the most important aspect of sex education to prepare or retrain boys to be ?good? sex partners rather than perpetrators of abuse. (shrink)
This paper explores three interrelated themes in order to contextualise and then propose a values framework for school sex education within a modern plural society. First, it outlines some of the social changes that have contributed to a growing uncertainty about values in British society in the area of sexuality and personal relationships. Secondly, it considers the ways in which policy changes in the area of sex education over the last 10 years have reflected competing claims over the (...) moral legitimacy and content of this area of the curriculum. Thirdly, it describes the work of two related initiatives, that sought to renegotiate a consensus for values within school sex education. The paper suggests that it may not be possible to resolve what are fundamental conflicts of a plural society and argues that a moral agenda for sex education may be most appropriately realised as a pursuit of consistency between politics, policy and practice on the basis of confidence in the abilities of young people, and a recognition of social change. (shrink)
Abstract Two questionnaires, designated as Teachers? Questionnaire on Sex Education (TQSE) and Student Teachers? Questionnaire on Sex Education (SQSE) were administered to teachers and student teachers respectively to find out how interested, willing and prepared they are to be involved in sex education programmes in Nigerian secondary schools. This approach was predicated on the belief that teachers have a vital role to play in implementing any government policy on sex education particularly if such policies are to (...) be routed through the schools. Results show that teachers and student teachers alike are in favour of sex education. Thy are also willing, interested and prepared to participate in sex education programmes. They feel deficient, however, in their knowledge of sex education. (shrink)
Abstract Evidence exists about the increasing rate of sexual involvement, decrease in age of first sexual experience and the existence of different forms of sexual aberration such as prostitution, sexual exploitation and rape among Nigerian youth. In spite of these problems sex education has not been included in the framework of the formal education system in Nigeria. The introduction of sex education in our formal school system is now necessary not only to provide adolescents with valuable knowledge (...) about sex, but also as a means of averting risks associated with unplanned coital sex such as teenage pregnancy, illegitimacy and other medical and psychological risks. This paper attempts to answer questions related to such issues as who should teach sex education, whether sex education should be taught as a subject or integrated into some or all school subjects, the content of sex education and how sex education materials should be presented. It is anticipated that the introduction of sex education in the formal school system is likely to lead to some conflicts with cultural and religious norms and with existing sex knowledge which youths have from their peers, magazines, pictures and pornography. (shrink)
How should common schools in a liberal pluralist society approach sex education in the face of deep disagreement about sexual morality? Should they eschew sex education altogether? Should they narrow its focus to facts about biology, reproduction, and disease prevention? Should they, in addition to providing a broad palette of information about sex, attempt to cover a range of alternative views about sexual morality in a “value-neutral” manner? Should they seek to impart a “thick” conception of sexual morality, (...) which precisely articulates how individuals should lead their sexual lives? In this essay, Josh Corngold cautions against the adoption of each of these various approaches. He argues that schools should instead adopt an “autonomy-promoting” approach, which will aim to empower students, cognitively and emotionally, to exercise sovereignty over their own sexuality. (shrink)
In this essay, Paula McAvoy critiques a commonly held view that teaching young people to be good choice makers should be a central aim of sex education. Specifically, she argues against David Archard's recommendation that sex educators ought to focus on the development of autonomy and teaching young people that “choice should be accorded the central role in the legitimation of sexual conduct.” Instead, McAvoy argues that under conditions of gender inequality this view advantages boys and disadvantages girls. Juxtaposing (...) a case of a culturally arranged marriage with a spring break scene from Ariel Levy's Female Chauvinist Pigs: Women and the Rise of Raunch Culture, McAvoy shows that focusing on sexual choice making obscures and reifies the unequal social conditions that young people navigate. She concludes by suggesting an alternative that is in line with Sharon Lamb's argument in “Just the Facts? The Separation of Sex Education from Moral Education” that intimate encounters are better governed by attending to our ethical obligations to others. (shrink)
This paper contributes to debates on the benefits of single-sex and co-educational school environments by considering both single-sex versus co-educational schools and single-sex versus co-educational classes in co-educational schools. Two research studies provide the empirical basis for this discussion. One study was a 10-year-long investigation of two Australian secondary schools which had been single-sex schools and became co-educational secondary schools over a two-year period. The second study involved a two-year investigation in an English co-educational secondary school (...) where single-sex mathematics classes were introduced for one cohort of pupils for five school terms, after which mixed-sex classes were reintroduced. Evidence relating to academic self-concept, pupil, parent and staff perceptions and academic achievement are discussed. Overall, the evidence suggests that co-educational environments create possible social/interaction disadvantages for girls, but that academic self-concept is not adversely affected by transferring from single-sex environments into mixed-sex ones. (shrink)
In this essay Sharon Lamb considers how progressives have begun to win the longstanding battle to shape sex education and what they have had to give up in the process. After framing the battle in historical context, Lamb uses discourse analysis to explore the hidden values in the “evidence-based” (EB) curricula that progressives currently favor and that pass for neutral today. As her analysis reveals, EB curricula privilege three discourses — a discourse of science, a discourse of healthy choices (...) (with an emphasis on individuals), and a discourse of efficacy — all of which are grounded in ideology and serve to legitimize certain kinds of knowledge while undermining other kinds. Lamb concludes by proposing eight tenets for the future of sexuality education, which are intended to displace the eight tenets codified by proponents of abstinence-only-until-marriage sexuality education. (shrink)
With reference to the unsuccessful attempt of the Labour Government to make sex education a statutory part of the National Curriculum, this paper argues in favour of making liberal sex education compulsory at all state schools. First, the main characteristics of a liberal sex education are briefly explained. Promoting the virtue of respect for every adults right of sexual self-determination is presented as one of its central aims. Then the paper shows that state enforcement of liberal sex (...)education is justifiable to reasonable citizens in several ways and therefore meets the liberal criterion of political legitimacy. Finally, the relevant clauses of the Bill of the Labour Government are briefly evaluated. (shrink)
(1984). Gender Differences in Subject Preference and Perception of Subject Importance among Third Year Secondary School Pupils in Single‐sex and Mixed Comprehensive Schools. Educational Studies: Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 243-253.
ABSTRACTThis study examines the types of verbal, pictorial, and multimodal metaphors in the genre of sex education picture books for young children in Mainland China. Although being an educational discourse genre that is essentially concerned with transmitting scientific facts, sex education picture books employ a range of metaphors that categorize and construe the biological knowledge of human reproduction in a way that not only facilitates young children’s understanding of scientific concepts but also instills in them particular values and (...) moralities that are socioculturally conditioned. An examination of the source domains from which the metaphors are drawn and the target domains onto which the metaphors are mapped reveals three types of metaphor, namely, personification, domestication, and cross-experience metaphors. The analysis of seven sex education picture books for pre-school children suggests that these types of metaphor are used purposefully for addressing pedagogical as well as ideological con... (shrink)
The aim of the present study was to further examine the impact over time of single‐sex and coeducational school environments on girls’ motivation in language arts and mathematics. Two cohorts comprising 340 girls from eight coeducational and two single‐sex schools were followed during a period of three academic years in a longitudinal research scheme. Data were collected with a self‐reported questionnaire including several scales: parental and teachers’ support, competence beliefs, utility‐value and achievement goals. In general, mixed‐design repeated measures analyses of (...) variance indicated no effect of the environment or of the interaction between environment and time of measurement. Significant time effects on several variables indicated a general decline of achievement motivation over time. Consequently, the multiplication of non‐mixed high schools, as proposed by some, would constitute an expensive and inefficient social policy, as far as girls’ motivation is concerned. (shrink)
Summary Knowledge is an important but largely neglected variable in sex education research. This study aimed to develop a measure to assess young people's knowledge about puberty and sexual development, and to examine knowledge in relation to age, gender and school. The main results of the study were that knowledge increased more between age 11/12 and 13/14 than between 13/14 and 15/16, girls knew more than boys at every age, and there were few differences in knowledge between the four (...) schools involved in the study. The research has a number of implications for sex education in schools. First, it was found that even by age 15?16 some young people lack information which is essential if they are to avoid unwanted pregnancy. Second, it may be that boys and girls need to be taught separately to enable the different needs of each gender to be addressed. Third, young people know more about some aspects of puberty and sexual development than others, and there are particular times when knowledge develops most rapidly. Giving teachers this information could help them to target areas of particular ignorance. The questionnaire developed to assess knowledge proved to be accurate and reliable, and a measure that is straightforward to score and analyse. As such, it has considerable potential for use in the classroom. (shrink)
In this article, we interpret sex education from the perspective of feminist care ethics, emphasizing the concept of caring democracy, advanced by Joan Tronto one of the most influential feminist political theorists. According to Tronto, these theories show that a deficit of care and a lack of democracy are mutually conducive. We argue that, as in other areas of life, a lack of care in sexuality and sex education leads to social inequalities that eventually translate into an unequal (...) approach to freedom, equality, and justice, and to a deficit of democracy in the lives of some people. At the same time, we believe that, as a moral theory, care ethics, with its emphasis on the needs of men and women, can be adequately applied to the design of research projects, as well as to sexuality policies and practices. This may contribute to overcoming the stalemate in the debate on sex education and other topics in Slovakia. (shrink)
The book also provides insight into overlooked discourses about public sex education by analyzing a previously understudied campaign targeted at African American men in the 1920s, offering theoretical categorizations of discursive ...
Over the last decade, philosophers of education have begun taking a renewed interest in Rousseau’s educational thought. This is a welcome development as his ideas are rich with educational insights. His philosophy is not without its flaws, however. One significant flaw is his educational project for females, which is sexist in the highest degree. Rousseau argues that females should be taught to “please men…and make [men’s] lives agreeable and sweet.” The question becomes how could Rousseau make such strident claims, (...) especially in light of his far more insightful ideas concerning the education of males. This paper attempts to make sense of Rousseau’s ideas on the education of females. While I maintain that Rousseau’s project for Sophie ought to be rejected, I argue that we should try to understand how this otherwise insightful thinker could make such surprising claims. Is it a bizarre inconsistency in his philosophical reasoning or an expression of his unabashed misogyny, as so many have claimed? I argue that it is neither. Rather, it is a product of his conception of human happiness and his belief in the irreducible role human sexual relations has in achieving and prolonging that happiness. For Rousseau, sex, love and happiness are inextricably connected, and he believes that men and women will be happiest when they inhabit certain sex roles—not because sex roles are valuable in themselves, but because only through them can either men or women hope to be happy. (shrink)
This study examined the impact of sex, age, and level of education on the perception of various business practices by managers of a large non-profit organization. Female managers perceived the acceptance of gifts and favors in exchange for preferential treatment significantly more unethical than male managers. Older managers (40 plus) perceived five practices significantly more unethical than younger managers (giving gifts/favors in exchange for preferential treatment, divulging confidential information, concealing ones error, falsifying reports, and calling in sick to take (...) a day off). The practice of padding expense account by over 10% was reported to be significantly more unethical by managers with a graduate degree. (shrink)
(1983). The evolving policy of equal curricular opportunity in England: A case study of the implementation of sex equality in physical education. British Journal of Educational Studies: Vol. 31, No. 3, pp. 229-251.
How did Casanova learn the theory of sex? Why did male pornographers write in the characters of women? What happens when philosophers take sexuality seriously and the sex-writers present their outrageous fantasies as an educational, philosophical quest? Schooling Sex is the first full history of early modern libertine literature and its reception, from Aretino and Tullia d'Aragona in 16th century Italy to Pepys, Rochester, and Behn in late 17th century England. James Turner explores the idea of sexual education, from (...) the simple instructional dialogue to the advanced experiments of the philosophical libertine, analysing the hard-core curiculum that defined sexuality centuries before the Marquis de Sade. He shows how close, nuanced readings of neglected but compelling texts - like the searingly explicit Alcibiade fanciullo, L'escole des filles, and Aloisia Sigea - link them to larger issues of gender politics, aesthetics, literary criticism, sexual history, medical science, mind-body philosophy, and the educational revolution. (shrink)
Abstract Writing in the January 1986 issue of the Journal of Moral Education, Walkling and Brannigan draw attention to an apparent conflict between antiracist and antisexist education. They argue that antiracists, by accepting demands from sections of the Muslim community for single?sex and denominational schools, may be seen as inhibiting the emancipation of Muslim girls. We attempt to highlight the conservative implications of their argument and show, among otherthings, that it is premissed upon an impoverished understanding of both (...) antiracist and antisexist initiatives, a simplistic and misleading portrayal of Muslim culture (and in particular family life), and a specious juxtaposition of state education as ?transformative? and single?sex Muslim schools as ?transmissionist? (shrink)