Results for 'social phenomena'

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  1.  4
    How Can Theories Represent Social Phenomena?Jan A. Fuhse - forthcoming - Sociological Theory:073527512210877.
    Discussions in sociological theory often focus on ontological questions on the nature of social reality. Against the underlying epistemological realism, I argue for a constructivist notion of theory: Theories are webs of concepts that we use to guide empirical observations and to make sense of them. We cannot know the real features of the social world, only what our theoretical perspectives make us see. Theories therefore represent social phenomena by highlighting certain features and relating them in (...)
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  2. Extended MR with Nesting of Predicate Expressions as a Basic Logic for Social Phenomena.Aleksander Parol, Krzysztof Pietrowicz & Joanna Szalacha-Jarmużek - 2021 - Bulletin of the Section of Logic 50 (2):205-227.
    In this article, we present the positional logic that is suitable for the formalization of reasoning about social phenomena. It is the effect of extending the Minimal Realisation logic with new expressions. These expressions allow, inter alia, to consider different points of view of social entities. In the article, we perform a metalogical analysis of this logic. Finally, we present some simple examples of its application.
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  3.  33
    Explaining Social Phenomena.Daniel N. Robinson - 1986 - Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 6 (1):18-22.
    Philosophers of science have devoted volumes to the question of explanation; I've devoted some pages to it myself. In this highly contracted essay I shall offer no more than a comment on the problem of explanation, some vagrant but critical assessments of the dominant approaches to it, and a caution lest we take comfort in some of the recent "success"—or alleged success—in Psychology. I begin with this question: What does it mean to explain an occurrence? And then: What is it (...)
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  4.  1
    Reasoning About Social Phenomena.Tomasz Jarmużek, Fengkui Ju, Piotr Kulicki & Beishui Liao - 2021 - Bulletin of the Section of Logic 50 (2):125-129.
  5.  2
    Explaining Social Phenomena.Wactaw Mejbaum - 1996 - Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 47:313-324.
  6.  35
    Bootstrapping Knowledge About Social Phenomena Using Simulation Models.Bruce Edmonds - unknown
    Formidable difficulties face anyone trying to model social phenomena using a formal system, such as a computer program. The differences between formal systems and complex, multi-facetted and meaning-laden social systems are so fundamental that many will criticise any attempt to bridge this gap. Despite this, there are those who are so bullish about the project of social simulation that they appear to believe that simple computer models, that are also useful and reliable indicators of how aspects (...)
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  7.  9
    The Reflection of Negative Social Phenomena in Contemporary Opera Practice.Michaela Mojžišová - 2013 - Human Affairs 23 (1):66-74.
    There are two approaches that dominate contemporary opera performances. The first may be characterised as producing a subtle, aesthetic and stylistic means of expression. The second runs up visual, interpretation and content means to their maximum expressivity and the audience is exposed to violence, sex and experience disgust. This paper analyses specific productions by renowned European theatre and opera directors, in order to shed light on the way in which opera directors cope with the threat of terrorism, sexual violence, and (...)
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  8.  53
    Explanations of Social Phenomena: Competing and Complementary Accounts.Todd Jones - 2008 - Metaphilosophy 39 (4-5):621-650.
    Abstract: Situations that social scientists and others explain by using concepts like "custom" and "norm" often tend to be situations in which many other kinds of explanations (for example, biological, psychological, economic, historical) seem plausible as well. Do these other explanations compete with the custom or norm explanations, or do they complement them? We need to consider this question carefully and not just assume that various accounts are all permissible at different levels of analysis. In this article I describe (...)
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  9.  40
    Usefulness of Simulating Social Phenomena: Evidence. [REVIEW]Pablo Lucas - 2011 - AI and Society 26 (4):355-362.
    This paper discusses partial results of an ongoing project focused on analysing the current usefulness and implications of developing research on agent-based social simulation models beyond academic, hobbyist or educational purposes. Design, development and testing phases of such modelling are discussed along with common issues evidence-driven modellers often face whilst collecting, analysing and modelling quantitative and qualitative data into social simulations. It also includes a discussion on the evidence gathered in published literature and structured interviews with researchers that (...)
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  10. On The Study of Social Phenomena By Albert Danielsson.Albert Danielsson - 1979 - In Jan Bärmark (ed.), Perspectives in Metascience. Kungl. Vetenskaps- Och Vitterhets-Samhället. pp. 2--89.
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  11.  22
    Pragmatism and the Study of Large-Scale Social Phenomena.Neil Gross - 2018 - Theory and Society 47 (1):87-111.
    Pragmatism has recently gained ground as a theoretical perspective in sociology. The approach is not without its critics, however. One common charge is that pragmatism is oriented toward the micro and not well suited for the explanation of meso- or macro-level events, processes, or outcomes. In this paper—a review essay—I consider whether the charge has merit. I examine four studies that draw heavily on pragmatism and give some indication of its explanatory potential. Taken together, these studies suggest that pragmatism has (...)
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  12.  9
    Emotions as Individual and Social Phenomena: Seeking New Answers to Old Questions.Dorota Szczygieł, Aleksandra Jasielska & Tomasz Maruszewski - 2015 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 46 (3):320-325.
    The paper presents state of art in the area of emotion studies. It is stressed that emotions are multicomponent processes including neural, expression, subjective and social elements. We have tried to show that synchronization and coordination of these elements from elementary through intermediate to the most complex level may be understood in terms of emergent processes. Manifestations of emergence may be observed both in social aspects of emotions, as well as subjective and expression ones. Although the idea of (...)
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  13. Sarte: Dialectical Reason and Social Phenomena.George J. Stack - 1974 - Diálogos. Revista de Filosofía de la Universidad de Puerto Rico 10 (26):37.
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  14.  1
    Symbolism and Social Phenomena: Toward the Integration of Past and Current Theoretical Approaches.Elżbieta Hałas - 2002 - European Journal of Social Theory 5 (3):351-366.
    This article takes up, but in a different key, an argument of postmodernists that the over-rationalized conception of society tends to ignore important phenomena such as those belonging to the symbolic domain. It is suggested that the emerging programme of symbolic sociology may contribute toward a new synthetic and interdisciplinary thinking in social sciences. The concept of symbolism as a social phenomenon rather than as an autonomous linguistic or semiotic system is presented; and the argument is made (...)
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  15. The Scientific Limits of Understanding the (Potential) Relationship Between Complex Social Phenomena: The Case of Democracy and Inequality.Alexander Krauss - 2016 - Journal of Economic Methodology 23 (1):97-109.
    This paper outlines the methodological and empirical limitations of analysing the potential relationship between complex social phenomena such as democracy and inequality. It shows that the means to assess how they may be related is much more limited than recognised in the existing literature that is laden with contradictory hypotheses and findings. Better understanding our scientific limitations in studying this potential relationship is important for research and policy because many leading economists and other social scientists such as (...)
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  16.  94
    Two Approaches to Shared Intention: An Essay in the Philosophy of Social Phenomena.Margaret Gilbert - 2008 - Analyse & Kritik 30 (2):483-514.
    Drawing on earlier work of the author that is both clarified and amplified here, this article explores the question: what is it for two or more people to intend to do something in the future? In short, what is it for people to share an intention? It argues for three criteria of adequacy for an account of shared intention and offers an account that satisfies them. According to this account, in technical terms explained in the paper, people share an intention (...)
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  17.  2
    Social Ontology of Whoness: Rethinking Core Phenomena of Political Philosophy.Michael Eldred - 2018 - De Gruyter.
    How are core social phenomena to be understood as modes of being? This book offers an alternative approach to social ontology. Recent interest in social ontology on the part of mainstream philosophy and the social sciences presupposes from the outset that the human being can be cast as a conscious subject whose intentionality can be collective. By contrast, the present study insistently poses the crucial question of who the human being is and how they sociate (...)
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  18. The Unsteady State: General Jurisprudence for Dynamic Social Phenomena.Keith Culver & Michael Giudice - 2017 - Cambridge University Press.
    Analytical jurisprudence often proceeds with two key assumptions: that all law is either contained in or traceable back to an authorizing law-state, and that states are stable and in full control of the borders of their legal systems. What would a general theory of law be like and do if these long-standing presumptions were loosened? The Unsteady State aims to assess the possibilities by enacting a relational approach to explanation of law, exploring law's relations to the environment, security, and technology. (...)
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  19. The Conformity to Natural Law of Social Phenomena.S. N. Balhakof - 1897 - Philosophical Review 6:428.
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  20. Do We Necessarily Need the Concept of Rule in Defining Social Phenomena?Tatiana Sedova - 2012 - Filozofia 67 (7).
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  21. Economic Materialism and the Conformity to Natural Law of Social Phenomena.N. J. Karejef - 1897 - Philosophical Review 6:428.
     
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  22.  8
    Truth and Its Companions in Interpretation and Evaluation of Social Phenomena.Enis Zebić - 2012 - Filozofska Istrazivanja 32 (3-4):515-519.
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  23.  5
    The Use of" Adaptation" Language and the Conviction About its Usefulness in Building the Biological and Social Theories Bring About an Opinion That the Adaptive Approach is Opposed to the Causal One. The Latter is Considered to Be Peculiar to the World of Physical Phenomena, While the First One to the World of Animated Nature and Social Phenomena. Leaving. [REVIEW]Andrzej Klawiter - 1989 - In Leszek Nowak (ed.), Dimensions of the Historical Process. Rodopi. pp. 13--129.
  24.  15
    Chasing Phenomena. Studies on Classification and Conceptual Change in the Social and Behavioral Sciences.Samuli Pöyhönen - 2013 - Dissertation, University of Helsinki
    The articles comprising this dissertation concern classification and concept formation in the social and behavioral sciences. In particular, the emphasis in the study is on the philosophical analysis of interdisciplinary settings created by the recent intellectual developments on the interfaces between the social sciences, psychology, and neuroscience. The need for a systematic examination of the problems of conceptual coordination and integration across disciplinary boundaries is illustrated by focusing on phenomena whose satisfactory explanation requires drawing together the theoretical (...)
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  25.  76
    Social Action: A Teleological Account.Seumas Miller - 2001 - Cambridge University Press.
    Social action is central to social thought. This centrality reflects the overwhelming causal significance of action for social life, the centrality of action to any account of social phenomena, and the fact that conventions and normativity are features of human activity. This book provides philosophical analyses of fundamental categories of human social action, including cooperative action, conventional action, social norm governed action, and the actions of the occupants of organizational roles. A distinctive feature (...)
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  26.  11
    Social, Not Individual, Identification is the Key to Understanding Group Phenomena.Rupert Brown - 2016 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 39.
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  27. Social Emergence: Societies as Complex Systems.R. Keith Sawyer - 2005 - Cambridge University Press.
    Can we understand important social issues by studying individual personalities and decisions? Or are societies somehow more than the people in them? Sociologists have long believed that psychology can't explain what happens when people work together in complex modern societies. In contrast, most psychologists and economists believe that if we have an accurate theory of how individuals make choices and act on them, we can explain pretty much everything about social life. Social Emergence takes a new approach (...)
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  28.  9
    Change And Variability Of Phenomena In Complex Social Systems.Vardgues Pogosyan - 2019 - Wisdom 13 (2):95-103.
    The discourse of chaos theory is used in the description of non-linear processes of social change. Comparing to the mainstream theories of the linear pattern, chaos theory shows significant expansion of the heuristic capabilities in the interpretation of asynchrony and polyvariance of the observed phenomena. A methodological separation of predictability and determinism in the study of socio-dynamics has been carried out. The circumstance that determines the formation of the corresponding attractors is the invariant components of the civilization matrix (...)
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  29. Social Entities.Asya Passinsky - 2020 - In Michael J. Raven (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Metaphysical Grounding. pp. 510-520.
    In recent years there has been an increased interest in applying the tools and methods of analytic metaphysics to the study of social phenomena. This essay examines how one such tool – the notion of metaphysical ground – may be used to elucidate some central notions, debates, and positions in the philosophy of race and gender, social ontology, and the philosophy of social science. Three main applications are examined: how the notion of social construction may (...)
     
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  30.  49
    Socially Adaptive Belief.Daniel Williams - 2020 - Mind and Language 36 (3):333-354.
    I clarify and defend the hypothesis that human belief formation is sensitive to social rewards and punishments, such that beliefs are sometimes formed based on unconscious expectations of their likely effects on other agents – agents who frequently reward us when we hold ungrounded beliefs and punish us when we hold reasonable ones. After clarifying this phenomenon and distinguishing it from other sources of bias in the psychological literature, I argue that the hypothesis is plausible on theoretical grounds and (...)
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  31.  77
    Mechanisms in the Analysis of Social Macro-Phenomena.Renate Mayntz - 2004 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 34 (2):237-259.
    mechanism" is frequently encountered in the social science literature, but there is considerable confusion about the exact meaning of the term. The article begins by addressing the main conceptual issues. Use of this term is the hallmark of an approach that is critical of the explanatory deficits of correlational analysis and of the covering-law model, advocating instead the causal reconstruction of the processes that account for given macro-phenomena. The term "social mechanisms" should be used to refer to (...)
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  32. On Social Facts.Margaret Gilbert - 1989 - Routledge.
    This book offers original accounts of a number of central social phenomena, many of which have received little if any prior philosophical attention. These phenomena include social groups, group languages, acting together, collective belief, mutual recognition, and social convention. In the course of developing her analyses Gilbert discusses the work of Emile Durkheim, Georg Simmel, Max Weber, David Lewis, among others.
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  33.  38
    Agent-Based Social Simulation and its Necessity for Understanding Socially Embedded Phenomena.Bruce Edmonds - unknown
    Some issues and varieties of computational and other approaches to understanding socially embedded phenomena are discussed. It is argued that of all the approaches currently available, only agent-based simulation holds out the prospect for adequately representing and understanding phenomena such as social norms.
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  34. Social Inquiry After Wittgenstein and Kuhn: Leaving Everything as It Is.John G. Gunnell - 2014 - Cambridge University Press.
    A distinctive feature of Ludwig Wittgenstein's work after 1930 was his turn to a conception of philosophy as a form of social inquiry, John G. Gunnell argues, and Thomas Kuhn's approach to the philosophy of science exemplified this conception. In this book, Gunnell shows how these philosophers address foundational issues in the social and human sciences, particularly the vision of social inquiry as an interpretive endeavor and the distinctive cognitive and practical relationship between social inquiry and (...)
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  35.  4
    What a Theory of Social Norms and Institutions Should Look Like: Experimental Economics, Rational Choice Sociology, and the Explanation of Normative Phenomena.Karl-Dieter Opp - 2020 - Analyse & Kritik 42 (2):313-342.
    In the previous issue of Analyse & Kritik Alexander Vostroknutov aims at a ‘synthesis’ of economics with ‘psychology, sociology, and evolutionary human biology.’ This paper argues that his approach needs to be complemented at least by work from sociologists and social psychologists. Starting with problems of defining and measuring norms it is then claimed that a theory of norms should address the origin, change and effects of norms and model micromacro processes. This should also be the goal of a (...)
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  36.  97
    La teodicea social de Adam Smith.Sergio Volodia Marcello Cremaschi - 2010 - Empresa y Humanismo 13 (1):333-374.
    I argue the existence of two tensions in Smith's system of ideas: the first is that between the postulate of an invisible noumenal order of the universe and the imaginary principles by means of which we connect the phenomena; the second is a tension between the noumenal order of the world where 'is' and 'ought' converge, and the various partial orders that may be reconstructed in social phenomena that leave room for irrationality and injustice. My first claim (...)
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  37. The Nature of Social Reality: Issues in Social Ontology.Tony Lawson - 2019 - Routledge.
    The social sciences often fail to examine in any systematic way the nature of their subject matter. Demonstrating that this is a central explanation of the widely acknowledged failings of the social sciences, not least of modern economics, this book sets about rectifying matters. Providing an account of the nature of social material in general, as well as of the specific natures of central components of the modern world, such as money and the corporation, Lawson also considers (...)
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  38.  84
    The Individual and the Social in Human Phenomena.André Delobelle & Jeanne Ferguson - 1982 - Diogenes 30 (117):58-92.
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  39.  12
    Ideology and Social Knowledge. Harold J. Bershady. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, I973. Pp. I78. £3.25. Psychoanalytic Sociology : An Essay on the Interpretation of Historical and the Phenomena of Collective Behaviour. Fred Weinstein and Gerald M. Platt. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, I973. Pp. XI+I24. $8.50. [REVIEW]Eileen Barner - 1975 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 5 (2):215-221.
  40.  16
    Primary Error Detection and Minimization Strategies in Social Cognition: A Reinterpretation of Confirmation Bias Phenomena.James Friedrich - 1993 - Psychological Review 100 (2):298-319.
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  41.  96
    Classical and Quantum Mechanics on Information Spaces with Applications to Cognitive, Psychological, Social, and Anomalous Phenomena.Andrei Khrennivov - 1999 - Foundations of Physics 29 (7):1065-1098.
    We use the system of p-adic numbers for the description of information processes. Basic objects of our models are so-called transformers of information, basic processes are information processes and statistics are information statistics (thus we present a model of information reality). The classical and quantum mechanical formalisms on information p-adic spaces are developed. It seems that classical and quantum mechanical models on p-adic information spaces can be applied for the investigation of flows of information in cognitive and social systems, (...)
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  42. The Constitution of Social Practices.Kevin McMillan - 2017 - Milton Park, UK; New York, USA: Routledge.
    Practices – specific, recurrent types of human action and activity – are perhaps the most fundamental "building blocks" of social reality. This book argues that the detailed empirical study of practices is essential to effective social-scientific inquiry. It develops a philosophical infrastructure for understanding human practices, and argues that practice theory should be the analytical centrepiece of social theory and the philosophy of the social sciences. -/- What would social scientists’ research look like if they (...)
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  43.  17
    VI. Frustration Phenomena in the Social and Political Sphere.G. W. Hartmann - 1941 - Psychological Review 48 (4):362-363.
  44. Classification of Social Science Phenomena.Ernest S. Griffith - 1940 - Journal of Social Philosophy and Jurisprudence 6:230.
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  45. Social Change in a Material World: How Activity and Material Processes Dynamize Practices.Theodore R. Schatzki - 2019 - Routledge.
    Social Change in a Material Worldoffers a new, practice theoretical account of social change and its explanation. Extending the author's earlier account of social life, and drawing on general ideas about events, processes, and change, the book conceptualizes social changes as configurations of significant differences in bundles of practices and material arrangements. Illustrated with examples from the history of bourbon distillation and the formation and evolution of digitally-mediated associations in contemporary life, the book argues that chains (...)
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  46.  32
    Threshold Phenomena in Epistemic Networks.Patrick Grim - 2006 - In Proceedings, AAAI Fall Symposium on Complex Adaptive Systems and the Threshold Effect. AAAI Press.
    A small consortium of philosophers has begun work on the implications of epistemic networks (Zollman 2008 and forthcoming; Grim 2006, 2007; Weisberg and Muldoon forthcoming), building on theoretical work in economics, computer science, and engineering (Bala and Goyal 1998, Kleinberg 2001; Amaral et. al., 2004) and on some experimental work in social psychology (Mason, Jones, and Goldstone, 2008). This paper outlines core philosophical results and extends those results to the specific question of thresholds. Epistemic maximization of certain types does (...)
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  47.  8
    Quantum Mind and Social Science: Unifying Physical and Social Ontology.Alexander Wendt - 2015 - Cambridge University Press.
    There is an underlying assumption in the social sciences that consciousness and social life are ultimately classical physical/material phenomena. In this ground-breaking book, Alexander Wendt challenges this assumption by proposing that consciousness is, in fact, a macroscopic quantum mechanical phenomenon. In the first half of the book, Wendt justifies the insertion of quantum theory into social scientific debates, introduces social scientists to quantum theory and the philosophical controversy about its interpretation, and then defends the quantum (...)
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  48. The Importance of Us: A Philosophical Study of Basic Social Notions.Raimo Tuomela - 1995 - Stanford University Press.
    This book develops a systematic philosophical theory of social action and group phenomena, in the process presenting detailed analyses of such central social notions as 'we-attitude' (especially 'we-intention' and mutual belief, social norm, joint action, and - most important - group goal, group belief, and group action). Though this is a philosophical work, it presents a unified conceptual framework that may be useful to social scientists, especially social psychologists, as well as philosophers. The book (...)
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  49.  73
    Evolution of the Social Contract.Brian Skyrms - 1996 - Cambridge University Press.
    In this pithy and highly readable book, Brian Skyrms, a recognised authority on game and decision theory, investigates traditional problems of the social contract in terms of evolutionary dynamics. Game theory is skilfully employed to offer new interpretations of a wide variety of social phenomena, including justice, mutual aid, commitment, convention and meaning. The author eschews any grand, unified theory. Rather, he presents the reader with tools drawn from evolutionary game theory for the purpose of analysing and (...)
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  50.  15
    The Dominance of the Individual in Intergroup Relations Research: Understanding Social Change Requires Psychological Theories of Collective and Structural Phenomena.Elizabeth Levy Paluck - 2012 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 35 (6):443-444.
    Dixon et al. suggest that the psychological literature on intergroup relations should shift from theorizing to A focus on social change exposes the importance of psychological theories involving collective phenomena like social norms and institutions. Individuals' attitudes and emotions may follow, rather than cause, changes in social norms and institutional arrangements.
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