Results for 'species problem'

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  1.  40
    The Species Problem: A Philosophical Analysis.Richard A. Richards - 2010 - Cambridge University Press.
    There is long-standing disagreement among systematists about how to divide biodiversity into species. Over twenty different species concepts are used to group organisms, according to criteria as diverse as morphological or molecular similarity, interbreeding and genealogical relationships. This, combined with the implications of evolutionary biology, raises the worry that either there is no single kind of species, or that species are not real. This book surveys the history of thinking about species from Aristotle to modern (...)
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  2. The Species Problem: Biological Species, Ontology, and the Metaphysics of Biology.David N. Stamos - 2003 - Lexington Books.
    Stamos squarely confronts the problem of determining what a biological species is, whether species are real, and the nature of their reality. He critically considers the evolution of the major contemporary views of species and also offers his own solution to the species problem.
     
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  3. The Species Problem and its Logic: Inescapable Ambiguity and Framework-Relativity.Steven James Bartlett - 2015 - Willamette University Faculty Research Website, ArXiv.Org, and Cogprints.Org.
    For more than fifty years, taxonomists have proposed numerous alternative definitions of species while they searched for a unique, comprehensive, and persuasive definition. This monograph shows that these efforts have been unnecessary, and indeed have provably been a pursuit of a will o’ the wisp because they have failed to recognize the theoretical impossibility of what they seek to accomplish. A clear and rigorous understanding of the logic underlying species definition leads both to a recognition of the inescapable (...)
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  4. The Species Problem: Biological Species, Ontology, and the Metaphysics of Biology.David N. Stamos - 2003 - Lexington Books.
    Stamos squarely confronts the problem of determining what a biological species is, whether species are real, and the nature of their reality. He critically considers the evolution of the major contemporary views of species and also offers his own solution to the species problem.
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  5. The Species Problem: A Philosophical Analysis. By Richard A. Richards. (Cambridge UP, 2010. Pp. X + 236. Price £50.00.).Catherine Kendig - 2012 - Philosophical Quarterly 62 (247):405-408.
  6. Microbiology and the Species Problem.Marc Ereshefsky - 2010 - Biology and Philosophy 25 (4):553-568.
    This paper examines the species problem in microbiology and its implications for the species problem more generally. Given the different meanings of ‘species’ in microbiology, the use of ‘species’ in biology is more multifarious and problematic than commonly recognized. So much so, that recent work in microbial systematics casts doubt on the existence of a prokaryote species category in nature. It also casts doubt on the existence of a general species category for (...)
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  7.  42
    Different Species Problems and Their Resolution.Kevin de Queiroz - 2005 - Bioessays 27 (12):1263-1269.
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  8. The Species Problem.Ernst Mayr (ed.) - 1957 - American Association for the Advancement of Science.
  9. The Species Problem: A Philosophical Analysis, by Richard Richards.: Book Reviews. [REVIEW]Makmiller Pedroso - 2013 - Mind 122 (488):1180-1182.
  10. A Radical Solution to the Species Problem.Michael T. Ghiselin - 1974 - Systematic Zoology 23:536-44.
    Traditionally, species have been treated as classes. In fact they may be considered individuals. The logical term “individual” has been confused with a biological synonym for “organism.” If species are individuals, then: 1) their names are proper, 2) there cannot be instances of them, 3) they do not have defining properties, 4) their constituent organisms are parts, not members. “ Species " may be defined as the most extensive units in the natural economy such that reproductive competition (...)
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  11.  45
    The Species Problem: Seeking New Solutions for Philosophers and Biologists.Geoff Chambers - 2012 - Biology and Philosophy 27 (5):755-765.
    The new millennium has opened with a perfectly splendid decade of scholarship relating to the ‘Species Problem’. So, at least we now have a clear idea of what this is, but still no clear solution that will suit both biologists and philosophers. Richards has recently attempted to capture this story and to fill the void with two projects in one book. The first project is a descriptive and analytical history of the problem, which provides links to other (...)
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  12.  61
    The Species Problem and History. [REVIEW]Phillip R. Sloan - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 44 (2):237-241.
  13. Species Problems and Beyond: Contemporary Issues in Philosophy and Practice.John S. Wilkins, Igor Pavlinov & Frank Zachos (eds.) - forthcoming - Boca Raton: CRC Press.
    Species, or ‘the Species Problem’, is a topic in science, in the philosophy of science, and in general philosophy. There is not one, but many, species problems, and these are dealt with in this volume. Species are often thought of as units of biology, to be used in ecology, conservation, classification, and theory. The chapters in this book present opposing views on the current philosophical and conceptual issues of the Species Problem in biology. (...)
     
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  14.  80
    Sympathy and Approbation in Hume and Smith: A Solution to the Other Rational Species Problem 1.David M. Levy & Sandra J. Peart - 2004 - Economics and Philosophy 20 (2):331-349.
    David Hume's sympathetic principle applies to physical equals. In his account, we sympathize with those like us. By contrast, Adam Smith's sympathetic principle induces equality. We consider Hume's “other rational speciesproblem to see whether Smith's wider sympathetic principle would alter Hume's conclusion that “superior” beings will enslave “inferior” beings. We show that Smith introduces the notion of “generosity,” which functions as if it were Hume's justice even when there is no possibility of contract.
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  15.  59
    Species Problems: Richard A. Richards: The Species Problem: A Philosophical Analysis. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010, X+236pp, $89 HB.Matthew H. Haber - 2013 - Metascience 22 (2):339-342.
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  16.  20
    The Species Problem in Hegel's Philosophy of Nature.Martin Krahn - 2019 - The Owl of Minerva 50 (1):47-68.
    In this article, I argue that species are mutable in Hegel’s philosophy of biology. While scholars have argued for the compatibility of Hegel’s philosophy and Darwin’s theory of evolution, none have dealt with the ontological status of species in their respective accounts. In order to make the case that for Hegel species are mutable, I first deal with a textual problem that in the 1827 edition of the Encyclopedia, the species concept appears after the sexual (...)
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  17. Phylogenetic Systematics and the Species Problem.Kevin De Queiroz & Michael J. Donoghue - 1988 - Cladistics 4:317-38.
  18.  61
    The Species Problem: A Reply to Hull.Michael Ruse - 1971 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 22 (4):369-371.
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  19. Darwin’s Solution to the Species Problem.Marc Ereshefsky - 2010 - Synthese 175 (3):405 - 425.
    Biologists and philosophers that debate the existence of the species category fall into two camps. Some believe that the species category does not exist and the term 'species' should be eliminated from biology. Others believe that with new biological insights or the application of philosophical ideas, we can be confident that the species category exists. This paper offers a different approach to the species problem. We should be skeptical of the species category, but (...)
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  20. Species as Family Resemblance Concepts: The (Dis-)Solution of the Species Problem?Massimo Pigliucci - 2003 - Bioessays 25 (6):596-602.
    The so-called ‘‘species problem’’ has plagued evolution- ary biology since before Darwin’s publication of the aptly titled Origin of Species. Many biologists think the problem is just a matter of semantics; others complain that it will not be solved until we have more empirical data. Yet, we don’t seem to be able to escape discussing it and teaching seminars about it. In this paper, I briefly examine the main themes of the biological and philosophical liter- atures (...)
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  21.  39
    The Species Problem.J. D. Velasco - 2011 - Philosophical Review 120 (4):598-602.
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  22.  14
    The Species Problem in Hegel's Philosophy of Nature in Advance.Martin Krahn - forthcoming - The Owl of Minerva.
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  23.  11
    Why Does the Species Problem Still Persist?Thomas A. C. Reydon - 2004 - Bioessays 26 (3):300-305.
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  24.  18
    The Species Problem: A Philosophical Analysis.Zdenka Brzović - 2010 - Croatian Journal of Philosophy 10 (3):296-300.
  25.  10
    The Species Problem: Biological Species, Ontology, and the Metaphysics of Biology. [REVIEW]Thomas Reydon - 2004 - Acta Biotheoretica 52 (3):229-232.
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  26.  12
    The Species Problem: A Philosophical Analysis. By Richard A. Richards.Joseph W. Koterski - 2013 - International Philosophical Quarterly 53 (2):218-220.
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  27. Consilience, Historicity, and the Species Problem.Marc Ereshefsky - 2014 - In R. Paul Thompson & Denis Walsh (eds.), Evolutionary biology: conceptual, ethical, and religious issues. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 65-86.
     
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  28. The Hunting of the SNaRC: A Snarky Solution to the Species Problem.Brent D. Mishler & John S. Wilkins - 2018 - Philosophy, Theory, and Practice in Biology 10 (1).
    We argue that the logical outcome of the cladistics revolution in biological systematics, and the move towards rankless phylogenetic classification of nested monophyletic groups as formalized in the PhyloCode, is to eliminate the species rank along with all the others and simply name clades. We propose that the lowest level of formally named clade be the SNaRC, the Smallest Named and Registered Clade. The SNaRC is an epistemic level in the classification, not an ontic one. Naming stops at that (...)
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  29. Wittgenstein Solves (Posthumously) the Species Problem.Massimo Pigliucci - 2005 - Philosophy Now (Mar/Apr):51.
    Can Wittgenstein's famous family resemblance concept be applied to resolve the problem of defining species in biology?
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  30.  68
    On the Nature of the Species Problem and the Four Meanings of 'Species'.Thomas A. C. Reydon - 2005 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 36 (1):135-158.
    Present-day thought on the notion of species is troubled by a mistaken understanding of the nature of the issue: while the species problem is commonly understood as concerning the epistemology and ontology of one single scientific concept, I argue that in fact there are multiple distinct concepts at stake. An approach to the species problem is presented that interprets the term ‘species’ as the placeholder for four distinct scientific concepts, each having its own role (...)
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  31.  17
    The Problem with the Species Problem.Mark W. Ellis - 2011 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 33 (3).
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  32.  72
    Species Are Processes: A Solution to the ‘Species Problem’ Via an Extension of Ulanowicz’s Ecological Metaphysics. [REVIEW]Jeffrey A. Lockwood - 2012 - Axiomathes 22 (2):231-260.
    Abstract The ‘species problem’ in the philosophy of biology concerns the nature of species. Various solutions have been proposed, including arguments that species are sets, classes, natural kinds, individuals, and homeostatic property clusters. These proposals parallel debates in ecology as to the ontology and metaphysics of populations, communities and ecosystems. A new solution—that species are processes—is proposed and defended, based on Robert Ulanowicz’s metaphysics of process ecology. As with ecological systems, species can be understood (...)
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  33.  10
    Aesthetics at the Intersection of the Species Problem and De-Extinction Technology.Michael Aaron Lindquist - 2020 - Environmental Values 29 (5):605-624.
    De-extinction technology aims to bring extinct species back into existence, often with the goal of releasing created organisms into natural environments. In this paper, I argue that there are aesthetic reasons to avoid engaging in de-extinction and release projects, even if they pass moral permissibility criteria. The strength of these reasons depends on conclusions regarding species authenticity - a problem that arises at the intersection of de-extinction technology and the 'species problem' in the philosophy of (...)
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  34. Prototypical Reasoning About Species and the Species Problem.Yuichi Amitani - 2015 - Biological Theory 10 (4):289-300.
    The species problem is often described as the abundance of conflicting definitions of _species_, such as the biological species concept and phylogenetic species concepts. But biologists understand the notion of species in a non-definitional as well as a definitional way. In this article I argue that when they understand _species_ without a definition in their mind, their understanding is often mediated by the notion of _good species_, or prototypical species, as the idea of ``prototype'' (...)
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  35.  20
    Systematic Generalization, Historical Fate, and the Species Problem.Robert J. O'Hara - 1993 - Systematic Biology 42 (3): 231–246.
    The species problem is one of the oldest controversies in natural history. Its persistence suggests that it is something more than a problem of fact or definition. Considerable light is shed on the species problem when it is viewed as a problem in the representation of the natural system (sensu Griffiths, 1974, Acta Biotheor. 23: 85–131; de Queiroz, 1998, Philos. Sci. 55: 238–259). Just as maps are representations of the earth, and are subject to (...)
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  36. Infinite Graphs in Systematic Biology, with an Application to the Species Problem.Samuel A. Alexander - 2013 - Acta Biotheoretica 61 (2):181--201.
    We argue that C. Darwin and more recently W. Hennig worked at times under the simplifying assumption of an eternal biosphere. So motivated, we explicitly consider the consequences which follow mathematically from this assumption, and the infinite graphs it leads to. This assumption admits certain clusters of organisms which have some ideal theoretical properties of species, shining some light onto the species problem. We prove a dualization of a law of T.A. Knight and C. Darwin, and sketch (...)
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  37. 'Reflections on the Species Problem: What Marjorie Grene Can Teach Us About a Perennial Issue.Phillip R. Sloan - 2002 - In R. E. Auxier & L. E. Hahn (eds.), The Philosophy of Marjorie Grene. La Salle, Illinois: Open Court.
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  38. The Cladistic Solution to the Species Problem.Mark Ridley - 1989 - Biology and Philosophy 4 (1):1-16.
    The correct explanation of why species, in evolutionary theory, are individuals and not classes is the cladistic species concept. The cladistic species concept defines species as the group of organisms between two speciation events, or between one speciation event and one extinction event, or (for living species) that are descended from a speciation event. It is a theoretical concept, and therefore has the virtue of distinguishing clearly the theoretical nature of species from the practical (...)
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  39.  4
    Evolutionary History and the Species Problem.Robert J. O'Hara - 1994 - American Zoologist 34 (1): 12–22.
    In the last thirty years systematics has transformed itself from a discipline concerned with classification into a discipline concerned with reconstructing the evolutionary history of life. This transformation has been driven by cladistic analysis, a set of techniques for reconstructing evolutionary trees. Long interested in the large-scale structure of evolutionary history, cladistically oriented systematists have recently begun to apply "tree thinking" to problems near the species level. ¶ In any local ("non-dimensional") situation species are usually well-defined, but across (...)
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  40.  37
    A Commentary on Ridley's Cladistic Solution to the Species Problem.Mark Wilkinson - 1990 - Biology and Philosophy 5 (4):433-446.
    The cladistic species concept proposed by Ridley (1989) rests on an undefined notion of speciation and its meaning is thus indeterminate. If the cladistic concept is made determinate through the definition of speciation, then it reduces to a form of whatever species concept is implicit in the definition of speciation and fails to be a truly alternative species concept. The cladistic formalism advocated by Ridley is designed to ensure that species are monophyletic, that they are objectively (...)
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  41.  12
    From Anomaly to Unification: Tracy Sonneborn and the Species Problem in Protozoa, 1954--1957. [REVIEW]Judy Johns Schloegel - 1999 - Journal of the History of Biology 32 (1):93 - 132.
    This article examines the critique of the biological species concept advanced by protozoan geneticist Tracy Sonneborn at the 1955 AAAS symposium on "the species problem," published subsequently in 1957. Although Sonneborn was a strong proponent of a population genetical conception of species, he became critical of the biological species concept for its failure to incorporate asexual and obligatory inbreeding organisms. It is argued that Sonneborn's intimate knowledge of the ciliate protozoan Paramecium aurelia species complex (...)
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  42.  9
    The Communication Puzzle of the Species Problem.Yuichi Amitani - 2013 - Annals of the Japan Association for Philosophy of Science 21:1-20.
    The species problem is the longstanding puzzle regarding the nature of species. This paper aims to describe how biologists experience little communication breakdown when they have different conceptions of species. For this purpose, I analyze two debates on species and speciation between Guy Bush and Jerry Coyne & H. Allen Orr. Although they have radically different ideas on species, they experience little communication difficulty. I will argue that this is because they implicitly agreed on (...)
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  43.  26
    Richard A. Richards: The Species Problem: A Philosophical Analysis.Thomas A. C. Reydon - 2013 - Science & Education 22 (2):381-389.
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  44. Richard A. Richards, The Species Problem: A Philosophical Analysis (Studies in Philosophy and Biology).Zdenka Brzović - 2010 - Croatian Journal of Philosophy 30:124-128.
     
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  45. Solving the Species Problem: Kitcherandhullon Sets and Individuals.Richard A. Richards - 2007 - In Mohan Matthen & Christopher Stephens (eds.), Philosophy of Biology. Elsevier. pp. 144--215.
     
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  46.  30
    Richard A. Richards. The Species Problem: A Philosophical Analysis. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010. Pp. X+236. $85.00. [REVIEW]Gal Kober - 2014 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 4 (1):169-172.
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  47. David N. Stamos, The Species Problem: Biological Species, Ontology, and the Metaphysics of Biology Reviewed By.Bryson Brown - 2004 - Philosophy in Review 24 (5):371-374.
     
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  48. Mystery of Mysteries: Darwin and the Species Problem.Marc Ereshefsky - unknown
    Darwin offered an intriguing answer to the species problem. He doubted the existence of the species category as a real category in nature, but he did not doubt the existence of those taxa called ‘‘species’’. And despite his scepticism of the species category, Darwin continued using the word ‘‘species’’. Many have said that Darwin did not understand the nature of species. Yet his answer to the species problem is both theoretically sound (...)
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  49.  31
    On the Nature of the Species Problem and the Four Meanings of ‘Species’.Thomas A. C. Reydon - 2005 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 36 (1):135-158.
  50.  30
    A Historical Taxonomy of Origin of Species Problems and Its Relevance to the Historiography of Evolutionary Thought.Koen B. Tanghe - 2017 - Journal of the History of Biology 50 (4):927-987.
    Historians tend to speak of the problem of the origin of species or the species question, as if it were a monolithic problem. In reality, the phrase refers to a, historically, surprisingly fluid and pluriform scientific issue. It has, in the course of the past five centuries, been used in no less than ten different ways or contexts. A clear taxonomy of these separate problems is useful or relevant in two ways. It certainly helps to disentangle (...)
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