Results for 'stakes'

499 found
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  1.  1
    Action Research, Special Needs and School Development'.G. Bell, R. Stakes & G. Taylor - 1994 - British Journal of Educational Studies 42 (3):324-325.
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  2.  37
    Testing What’s at Stake: Defending Stakes Effects for Testimony.Michel Croce & Paul Poenicke - forthcoming - Teorema: International Journal of Philosophy.
    This paper investigates whether practical interests affect knowledge attributions in cases of testimony. It is argued that stakes impact testimonial knowledge attributions by increasing or decreasing the requirements for hearers to trust speakers and thereby gain the epistemic right to acquire knowledge via testimony. Standard, i.e. invariantist, reductionism and non-reductionism fail to provide a plausible account of testimony that is stakes sensitive, while non- invariantist versions of both traditional accounts can remedy this deficiency. Support for this conceptual analysis (...)
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  3.  17
    Against the Iterated Knowledge Account of High-Stakes Cases​.Jie Gao - forthcoming - Episteme.
    One challenge for moderate invariantists is to explain why we tend to deny knowledge to subjects in high stakes when the target propositions seem to be inappropriate premises for practical reasoning. According to an account suggested by Williamson, our intuitive judgments are erroneous due to an alleged failure to acknowledge the distinction between first-order and higher-order knowledge: the high-stakes subject lacks the latter but possesses the former. In this paper, I provide three objections to Williamson’s account: i) his (...)
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  4.  73
    Pragmatic Encroachment, Stakes, and Religious Knowledge.Aaron Rizzieri - 2011 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 70 (3):217-229.
    It is commonly held that epistemic standards for S ’s knowledge that p are affected by practical considerations, such as what is at stake in decisions that are guided by that p . I defend a particular view as to why this is, that is referred to as “pragmatic encroachment.” I then discuss a “new argument against miracles” that uses stakes considerations in order to explore the conditions under which stakes affect the level of epistemic support that is (...)
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  5. Two Kinds of Stakes.Alex Worsnip - 2015 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 96 (3):307-324.
    I distinguish two different kinds of practical stakes associated with propositions. The W-stakes track what is at stake with respect to whether the proposition is true or false. The A-stakes track what is at stake with respect to whether an agent believes the proposition. This poses a dilemma for those who claim that whether a proposition is known can depend on the stakes associated with it. Only the W-stakes reading of this view preserves intuitions about (...)
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  6. Stakes and Beliefs.Brad Armendt - 2010 - Philosophical Studies 147 (1):71 - 87.
    The idea that beliefs may be stake-sensitive is explored. This is the idea that the strength with which a single, persistent belief is held may vary and depend upon what the believer takes to be at stake. The stakes in question are tied to the truth of the belief—not, as in Pascal’s wager and other cases, to the belief’s presence. Categorical beliefs and degrees of belief are considered; both kinds of account typically exclude the idea and treat belief as (...)
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  7.  39
    High Stakes and Acceptance Behavior in Ultimatum Bargaining.Bertrand Munier & Costin Zaharia - 2002 - Theory and Decision 53 (3):187-207.
    This paper presents the results of a within-subject experiment testing whether an increase in the monetary stakes by a factor of 50 – which had never been done before – influences individual behavior in a simple ultimatum bargaining game. Contrary to current wisdom, we found that lowest acceptable offers stated by the responder are proportionally lower in the high-stake condition than in the low-stake condition. This result may be interpreted in terms of the type of utility functions which characterize (...)
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  8. Evidence That Stakes Don't Matter for Evidence.Mark Phelan - 2013 - Philosophical Psychology (4):1-25.
  9. Knowledge Ascriptions and the Psychological Consequences of Changing Stakes.Jennifer Nagel - 2008 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 86 (2):279-294.
    Why do our intuitive knowledge ascriptions shift when a subject's practical interests are mentioned? Many efforts to answer this question have focused on empirical linguistic evidence for context sensitivity in knowledge claims, but the empirical psychology of belief formation and attribution also merits attention. The present paper examines a major psychological factor (called ?need-for-closure?) relevant to ascriptions involving practical interests. Need-for-closure plays an important role in determining whether one has a settled belief; it also influences the accuracy of one's cognition. (...)
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  10. Knowledge, Stakes, and Mistakes.Wesley Buckwalter & Jonathan Schaffer - 2015 - Noûs 49 (2):201–234.
    According to a prominent claim in recent epistemology, people are less likely to ascribe knowledge to a high stakes subject for whom the practical consequences of error are severe, than to a low stakes subject for whom the practical consequences of error are slight. We offer an opinionated "state of the art" on experimental research about the role of stakes in knowledge judgments. We draw on a first wave of empirical studies--due to Feltz & Zarpentine (2010), May (...)
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  11.  18
    Small Stakes Give You the Blues: The Skeptical Costs of Pragmatic Encroachment.Clayton Littlejohn - forthcoming - Manuscrito: Revista Internacional de Filosofía.
    According to the fallibilist, it is possible for us to know things when our evidence doesn't entail that our beliefs are correct. Even if there is some chance that we're mistaken about p, we might still know that p is true. Fallibilists will tell you that an important virtue of their view is that infallibilism leads to skepticism. In this paper, we'll see that fallibilist impurism has considerable skeptical consequences of its own. We've missed this because we've focused our attention (...)
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  12. The Mystery of Stakes and Error in Ascriber Intuitions.Wesley Buckwalter - 2014 - In James Beebe (ed.), Advances in Experimental Epistemology. Bloomsbury Academic.
    Research in experimental epistemology has revealed a great, yet unsolved mystery: why do ordinary evaluations of knowledge ascribing sentences involving stakes and error appear to diverge so systematically from the predictions professional epistemologists make about them? Two recent solutions to this mystery by Keith DeRose (2011) and N. Ángel Pinillos (2012) argue that these differences arise due to specific problems with the designs of past experimental studies. This paper presents two new experiments to directly test these responses. Results vindicate (...)
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  13.  17
    Principles of Stakes Fairness in Sport.A. Brown - 2015 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 14 (2):152-186.
    Fairness in sport is not just about assigning the top prizes to the worthiest competitors. It is also about the way the prize structure itself is organised. For many sporting competitions, although it may be acceptable for winners to receive more than losers, it can seem unfair for winners to take everything and for losers to get nothing. Yet this insight leaves unanswered some difficult questions about what stakes fairness requires and which principles of stakes fairness are appropriate (...)
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  14.  26
    The Natural Cyborg: The Stakes of Bergson's Philosophy of Evolution.Paola Marrati - 2010 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 48 (s1):3-17.
    Bergson's engagement with evolutionary theory was remarkably up to date with the science of his time. One century later, the scientific and social landscape is undoubtedly quite different, but some of his insights remain of critical importance for the present. This paper aims at discussing three related aspects of Bergson's philosophy of evolution and their relevance for contemporary debates: first, the stark distinction between the affirmation of the reality of change and becoming, on the one hand, and any notion of (...)
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  15. Probing the Improbable: Methodological Challenges for Risks with Low Probabilities and High Stakes.Toby Ord, Rafaela Hillerbrand & Anders Sandberg - unknown
    Some risks have extremely high stakes. For example, a worldwide pandemic or asteroid impact could potentially kill more than a billion people. Comfortingly, scientific calculations often put very low probabilities on the occurrence of such catastrophes. In this paper, we argue that there are important new methodological problems which arise when assessing global catastrophic risks and we focus on a problem regarding probability estimation. When an expert provides a calculation of the probability of an outcome, they are really providing (...)
     
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  16.  6
    High Stakes Instrumentalism.John Halstead - 2017 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 20 (2):295-311.
    In this paper, I aim to establish that, according to almost all democratic theories, instrumentalist considerations often dominate intrinsic proceduralist considerations in our decisions about whether to make extensive use of undemocratic procedures. The reason for this is that almost all democratic theorists, including philosophers commonly thought to be intrinsic proceduralists, accept ‘High Stakes Instrumentalism’. According to HSI, we ought to use undemocratic procedures in order to prevent high stakes errors - very substantively bad or unjust outcomes. However, (...)
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  17.  57
    The Testing Culture and the Persistence of High Stakes Testing Reforms.Michele S. Moses & Michael J. Nanna - 2007 - Education and Culture 23 (1):55-72.
    : The purposes of this critical analysis are to clarify why high stakes testing reforms have become so prevalent in the United States and to explain the connection between current federal and state emphases on standardized testing reforms and educational opportunities. The article outlines the policy context for high stakes examinations, as well as the ideas of testing and accountability as major tenets of current education reform and policy. In partial explanation of the widespread acceptance and use of (...)
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  18.  11
    Raising the Stakes of Perversion: A Response to Tracy McNulty.Steven Miller - 2013 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 51 (S1):40-47.
    The work of Alain Badiou attempts to refound the project of Western philosophy by returning to the platonic celebration of mathematics as the basis for any transmissible knowledge. In “The New Man's Fetish,” Tracy McNulty shows that Badiou's return to Plato is secretly mediated by the French libertine tradition. Badiou derives the militant figure of mathematics less from Plato than from Lautréamont—in whose “Songs of Maldoror” she (mathematics) appears as a stern mistress. Reading McNulty, within the framework of psychoanalytic debates (...)
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  19.  10
    Gerald Nissenbaum, JD and John Sedgwick. 2010. Sex, Love and Money: Revenge and Ruin in the World of High-Stakes Divorce. [REVIEW]Katrina A. Bramstedt - 2010 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 7 (3):335-336.
    Gerald Nissenbaum, JD and John Sedgwick. 2010. Sex, love and money: Revenge and ruin in the world of high-stakes divorce Content Type Journal Article DOI 10.1007/s11673-010-9243-5 Authors Katrina A. Bramstedt, Clinical Ethicist, Program in Medicine & Human Values, California Pacific Medical Center, 2395 Sacramento St, 3rd floor, San Francisco, CA 94115, USA Journal Journal of Bioethical Inquiry Online ISSN 1872-4353 Print ISSN 1176-7529 Journal Volume Volume 7 Journal Issue Volume 7, Number 3.
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  20. Collateral Damage: How High-Stakes Testing Corrupts America's Schools.Sharon L. Nichols, David C. Berliner & Nel Noddings - 2007 - Harvard Education Press.
    Drawing on their extensive research, Nichols and Berliner document and categorize the ways that high-stakes testing threatens the purposes and ideals of the American education system. For more than a decade, the debate over high-stakes testing has dominated the field of education. This passionate and provocative book provides a fresh perspective on the issue and powerful ammunition for opponents of high-stakes tests. Their analysis is grounded in the application of Campbell’s Law, which posits that the greater the (...)
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  21. Stanley and the Stakes Hypothesis.Michael J. Shaffer - 2017 - The Reasoner 11:73-74.
    The main examples of pragmatic encroachment presented by Jason Stanley involve the idea that knowledge ascription occurs more readily in cases where stakes are low rather than high. This is the stakes hypothesis. In this paper an example is presented showing that in some cases knowledge ascription is more readily appropriate where stakes are high rather than low.
     
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  22. Stakes, Withholding, and Pragmatic Encroachment on Knowledge.Mark Schroeder - 2012 - Philosophical Studies 160 (2):265 - 285.
    Several authors have recently endorsed the thesis that there is what has been called pragmatic encroachment on knowledge—in other words, that two people who are in the same situation with respect to truth-related factors may differ in whether they know something, due to a difference in their practical circumstances. This paper aims not to defend this thesis, but to explore how it could be true. What I aim to do, is to show how practical factors could play a role in (...)
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  23. Stakes and Kidneys: Why Markets in Human Body Parts Are Morally Imperative.James Stacey Taylor - 2006 - Philosophical Quarterly 56 (225):627-629.
     
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  24.  26
    Adaptation or Selection? Old Issues and New Stakes in the Postwar Debates Over Bacterial Drug Resistance.Angela N. H. Creager - 2007 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 38 (1):159-190.
    The 1940s and 1950s were marked by intense debates over the origin of drug resistance in microbes. Bacteriologists had traditionally invoked the notions of ‘training’ and ‘adaptation’ to account for the ability of microbes to acquire new traits. As the field of bacterial genetics emerged, however, its participants rejected ‘Lamarckian’ views of microbial heredity, and offered statistical evidence that drug resistance resulted from the selection of random resistant mutants. Antibiotic resistance became a key issue among those disputing physiological vs. genetic (...)
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  25.  32
    The Stakes in Bayh-Dole: Public Values Beyond the Pace of Innovation.Walter Valdivia - 2011 - Minerva 49 (1):25-46.
    Evaluation studies of the Bayh-Dole Act are generally concerned with the pace of innovation or the transgressions to the independence of research. While these concerns are important, I propose here to expand the range of public values considered in assessing Bayh-Dole and formulating future reforms. To this end, I first examine the changes in the terms of the Bayh-Dole debate and the drift in its design. Neoliberal ideas have had a definitive influence on U.S. innovation policy for the last thirty (...)
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  26.  22
    Normalizing the Educated Subject: A Foucaultian Analysis of High-Stakes Accountability.Michael G. Gunzenhauser - 2006 - Educational Studies 39 (3):241-259.
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  27.  32
    Risk Aversion When Gains Are Likely and Unlikely: Evidence From a Natural Experiment with Large Stakes[REVIEW]Pavlo Blavatskyy & Ganna Pogrebna - 2008 - Theory and Decision 64 (2-3):395-420.
    In the television show Deal or No Deal a contestant is endowed with a sealed box, which potentially contains a large monetary prize. In the course of the show the contestant learns more information about the distribution of possible monetary prizes inside her box. Consider two groups of contestants, who learned that the chances of their boxes containing a large prize are 20% and 80% correspondingly. Contestants in both groups receive qualitatively similar price offers for selling the content of their (...)
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  28. The Philosophical Stakes in Arendt's Genealogy of Totalitarianism.Jacques Taminiaux - 2002 - Social Research: An International Quarterly 69 (2):423-446.
     
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  29.  1
    Raising the Stakes in the Ultimatum Game: Experimental Evidence From Indonesia, 37 ECON.Lisa A. Cameron - 1999 - Economic Inquiry 37 (1).
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  30.  3
    Bourdieu's Work on Literature: Contexts, Stakes and Perspectives.A. Boschetti - 2006 - Theory, Culture and Society 23 (6):135-155.
    What explanation can be given for the relevance of literature to Bourdieu's theoretical work? In order to explain this choice of object, in the first part of this article I consider the national and international context within which Bourdieu's theory has been built. In the French intellectual space literature was a central theoretical object. In the international context, the attention paid to literature was justified by the importance given to the symbolic phenomena in the main contemporary theoretical traditions. In order (...)
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  31.  43
    The High Stakes of Temporality.Andrea Staiti - 2011 - Continental Philosophy Review 44 (1):131-140.
  32.  8
    Recognition Today. The Theoretical, Ethical and Political Stakes of the Concept.Christian Lazzeri & Alain Caillé - 2006 - Critical Horizons 7 (1):63.
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  33.  17
    High-Stakes Gambling with Unknown Outcomes: Justifying the Precautionary Principle.Anton Petrenko & Dan McArthur - 2011 - Journal of Social Philosophy 42 (4):346-362.
  34.  36
    A Litmus Test for Exploitation: James Stacey Taylor's Stakes and Kidneys.J. R. Kuntz - 2009 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 34 (6):552-572.
    James Stacy Taylor advances a thorough argument for the legalization of markets in current (live) human kidneys. The market is seemly the most abhorrent type of market, a market where the least well-off sell part of their body to the most well off. Though rigorously defended overall, his arguments concerning exploitation are thin. I examine a number of prominent bioethicists’ account of exploitation: most importantly, Ruth Sample’s exploitation as degradation. I do so in the context of Taylor’s argument, with the (...)
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  35.  20
    What Can Be Known and How People Grow: The Philosophical Stakes of the Assessment Debate.Rachel Wahl - 2017 - Studies in Philosophy and Education 36 (5):499-515.
    Fierce debates over standardized assessments in teacher preparation have revolved around flaws in implementation and the politics of privatization. While important, this focus obscures the philosophical divide between proponents and opponents of standardized assessments. This article examines how faculty in New York State argue for and against a controversial performance assessment for teacher candidates, the edTPA. Revealing the distinctive ways that teacher educators on opposing sides of this debate understand the nature of knowledge, human development, professionalism, and social justice clarifies (...)
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  36.  9
    Upping the Stakes.Daniel E. Palmer - 1999 - Business Ethics Quarterly 9 (4):699-706.
    This essay responds to Hasnas’s recent article “The Normative Theories of Business Ethics: A Guide for the Perplexed” in Business Ethics Quarterly. Hasnas claims that the stockholder theory is more plausible than commonly supposed and that the stakeholder theory is prone to significant difficulties. I argue that Hasnas’s reasons for favoring the stockholder over the stakeholder theory are not asstrong as he suggests. Following Hasnas, I examine both theories in light of two sets of normative considerations: utilitarian anddeontological. First, I (...)
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  37.  7
    High Stakes: Inertia or Transformation?Henry Shue - 2016 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 40 (1):63-75.
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  38.  1
    Adaptation or Selection? Old Issues and New Stakes in the Postwar Debates Over Bacterial Drug Resistance.Angela N. H. Creager - 2007 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 38 (1):159-190.
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  39.  41
    Agency and Other Stakes of Poverty.C. I. Jiwei - 2013 - Journal of Political Philosophy 21 (2):125-150.
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  40.  16
    Connoisseurship and the Stakes of Style.Richard Neer - 2005 - Critical Inquiry 32 (1):1-26.
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  41.  23
    Legislating Competence: High-Stakes Testing Policies and Their Relations with Psychological Theories and Research.Richard M. Ryan & Kirk W. Brown - 2005 - In Andrew J. Elliot & Carol S. Dweck (eds.), Handbook of Competence and Motivation. The Guilford Press. pp. 354--372.
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  42. Salisburian Stakes-the Uses of Tyranny in John-of-Salisbury'policraticus'.Kate Langdon Forhan - 1990 - History of Political Thought 11 (3):397-407.
     
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  43.  20
    Dewey, Bruner, and" Seas of Stories" in the High Stakes Testing Debate.Kristen Campbell Wilcox - 2003 - Education and Culture 19 (1):4.
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  44.  24
    C.S. Peirce and Artificial Intelligence: Historical Heritage and (New) Theoretical Stakes.Pierre Steiner - 2013 - SAPERE - Special Issue on Philosophy and Theory of AI 5:265-276.
  45.  18
    Agency and Other Stakes of Poverty.Jiwei Ci - 2013 - Journal of Political Philosophy 21 (2):125-150.
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  46.  2
    The Impact of a High Stakes Teacher Evaluation System: Educator Perspectives on Accountability.Renee M. R. Moran - 2017 - Educational Studies: Journal of the American Educational Studies Association 53 (2):178-193.
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  47.  9
    The International Stakes of Biotechnology and the Patent War: Considerations After the Uruguay Round. [REVIEW]Paolo Bifani - 1993 - Agriculture and Human Values 10 (2):47-59.
    The article explores briefly some problems associated with Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) for biotechnological inventions. IPR are inadequate for the protection of new advanced technologies and particularly for biotechnology. The problem is not only legal but mainly economic, for IPR has emerged as the major competitive weapon in the world economy. In this context, the main role of IPR is as a mechanism for the appropriation of new inventions, and as an instrument to deter rivals and control markets. The current (...)
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  48.  7
    Stakes, Fetishes, Merchandise.Michel Serres & Raymond Federman - 1985 - Substance 14 (1):3.
  49.  3
    From the Rhetoric of War to the Ethics of Witnessing: The Political Stakes of Kelly Oliver's Philosophy.Plonowska Ziarek Ewa - 2011 - Philosophy Today 55 (9999):28-31.
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  50.  20
    Stakes and Kidneys: Why Markets in Human Body Parts Are Morally Imperative.David Resnik - 2008 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 5 (1):169-170.
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