Results for 'static contradiction'

999 found
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  1.  46
    A Token-Based Semantic Analysis of McTaggart's Paradox.Cheng-Chih Tsai - 2011 - Linguistic and Philosophical Investigations 10:107-124.
    In his famous argument for the unreality of time, McTaggart claims that i) being past, being present, and being future are incompatible properties of an event, yet ii) every event admits all these three properties. In this paper, I examine two key concepts involved in the formulation of i) and ii), namely that of “validity” and that of “contradiction”, and for each concept I distinguish a static version and a dynamic version of it. I then arrive at three (...)
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  2.  10
    Static Vs. Dynamic Paradoxes.Constantin Antonopoulos - 2010 - Epoché: A Journal for the History of Philosophy 14 (2):241-263.
    There are two antithetical classes of Paradoxes, The Runner and the Stadium, impregnated with infinite divisibility, which show that motion conflicts with the world, and which I call Static. And the Arrow, impregnated with nothing, which shows that motion conflicts with itself, and which I call Dynamic. The Arrow is stationary, because it cannot move at a point; or move, and be at more points than one at the same time, so being where it is not. Despite their contrast, (...)
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  3.  2
    Static Vs. Dynamic Paradoxes: In the End There Can Be Only One.Constantin Antonopoulos - 2010 - Epoché: A Journal for the History of Philosophy 14 (2):241-263.
    There are two antithetical classes of Paradoxes, The Runner and the Stadium, impregnated with infinite divisibility, which show that motion conflicts with the world, and which I call Static. And the Arrow, impregnated with nothing, which shows that motion conflicts with itself, and which I call Dynamic. The Arrow is stationary, because it cannot move at a point; or move, and be at more points than one at the same time, so being where it is not. Despite their contrast, (...)
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  4. Active Logic Semantics for a Single Agent in a Static World.Michael Anderson, Walid Gomaa, John Grant & Don Perlis - manuscript
    Artificial Intelligence, in press. Abstract: For some time we have been developing, and have had significant practical success with, a time-sensitive, contradiction-tolerant logical reasoning engine called the active logic machine (ALMA). The current paper details a semantics for a general version of the underlying logical formalism, active logic. Central to active logic are special rules controlling the inheritance of beliefs in general (and of beliefs about the current time in particular), very tight controls on what can be derived from (...)
     
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  5. In Contradiction: A Study of the Transconsistent.Graham Priest - 2006 - Oxford University Press.
    In Contradiction advocates and defends the view that there are true contradictions, a view that flies in the face of orthodoxy in Western philosophy since Aristotle. The book has been at the center of the controversies surrounding dialetheism ever since its first publication in 1987. This second edition of the book substantially expands upon the original in various ways, and also contains the author’s reflections on developments over the last two decades. Further aspects of dialetheism are discussed in the (...)
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  6. The Law of Non-Contradiction as a Metaphysical Principle.Tuomas E. Tahko - 2009 - Australasian Journal of Logic 7:32-47.
    The goals of this paper are two-fold: I wish to clarify the Aristotelian conception of the law of non-contradiction as a metaphysical rather than a semantic or logical principle, and to defend the truth of the principle in this sense. First I will explain what it in fact means that the law of non-contradiction is a metaphysical principle. The core idea is that the law of non-contradiction is a general principle derived from how things are in the (...)
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  7.  93
    The Law of Non-Contradiction : New Philosophical Essays.Graham Priest, Jc Beall & Bradley P. Armour-Garb (eds.) - 2004 - Oxford University Press.
    The Law of Non-Contradiction - that no contradiction can be true - has been a seemingly unassailable dogma since the work of Aristotle, in Book G of the Metaphysics. It is an assumption challenged from a variety of angles in this collection of original papers. Twenty-three of the world's leading experts investigate the 'law', considering arguments for and against it and discussing methodological issues that arise whenever we question the legitimacy of logical principles. The result is a balanced (...)
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  8.  36
    Quantum Logic as a Dynamic Logic.Alexandru Baltag & Sonja Smets - 2011 - Synthese 179 (2):285 - 306.
    We address the old question whether a logical understanding of Quantum Mechanics requires abandoning some of the principles of classical logic. Against Putnam and others (Among whom we may count or not E. W. Beth, depending on how we interpret some of his statements), our answer is a clear "no". Philosophically, our argument is based on combining a formal semantic approach, in the spirit of E. W. Beth's proposal of applying Tarski's semantical methods to the analysis of physical theories, with (...)
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  9.  33
    Contradiction and Kant’s Formula of Universal Law.Pauline Kleingeld - forthcoming - Kant-Studien 108 (1):89-115.
    Kant’s most prominent formulation of the Categorical Imperative, known as the Formula of Universal Law (FUL), is generally thought to demand that one act only on maxims that one can will as universal laws without this generating a contradiction. Kant's view is standardly summarized as requiring the 'universalizability' of one's maxims and described in terms of the distinction between 'contradictions in conception' and 'contradictions in the will'. Focusing on the underappreciated significance of the simultaneity condition included in the FUL, (...)
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  10.  6
    Contradiction and the Instant of Change Revisited.Graham Priest - 2017 - Vivarium 55 (1-3):217-226.
    _ Source: _Volume 55, Issue 1-3, pp 217 - 226 Instantaneous changes may well be thought to give rise to contradiction. If one endorses an explosive logic, where contradictions entail everything, this is entirely unacceptable. However, if one deploys a paraconsistent logic, which keeps contradictions under control, one may give perfectly coherent and precise models of such changes. In _In Contradiction_ the author showed how and he explored the philosophical implications of the model. Here, the author revisits the issue (...)
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  11.  28
    Differential Calculus Based on the Double Contradiction.Kazuhiko Kotani - 2016 - Open Journal of Philosophy 6 (4):420-427.
    The derivative is a basic concept of differential calculus. However, if we calculate the derivative as change in distance over change in time, the result at any instant is 0/0, which seems meaningless. Hence, Newton and Leibniz used the limit to determine the derivative. Their method is valid in practice, but it is not easy to intuitively accept. Thus, this article describes the novel method of differential calculus based on the double contradiction, which is easier to accept intuitively. Next, (...)
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  12. On McTaggart's Theory of Time.Edward Freeman - 2010 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 27 (4):389-401.
    McTaggart’s theory of time is the locus classicus of the contemporary philosophy of time. However, despite its prominence, there is little agreement as to what the theory actually amounts. In this paper, it is first argued that, contrary to the received opinion, McTaggart’s A-time/B-time distinction is not a distinction between static and fluid temporal series. Rather, it is a certain distinction between two types of static temporal series. It is then shown that in his temporal transience paradox, McTaggart (...)
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  13. Logic, Ontological Neutrality, and the Law of Non-Contradiction.Achille C. Varzi - 2014 - In Elena Ficara (ed.), Contradictions. Logic, History, Actuality. De Gruyter. pp. 53–80.
    Abstract. As a general theory of reasoning—and as a general theory of what holds true under every possible circumstance—logic is supposed to be ontologically neutral. It ought to have nothing to do with questions concerning what there is, or whether there is anything at all. It is for this reason that traditional Aristotelian logic, with its tacit existential presuppositions, was eventually deemed inadequate as a canon of pure logic. And it is for this reason that modern quantification theory, too, with (...)
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  14. How to Sell a Contradiction.Francesco Berto - 2007 - College Publications.
    There is a principle in things, about which we cannot be deceived, but must always, on the contrary, recognize the truth – viz. that the same thing cannot at one and the same time be and not be": with these words of the Metaphysics, Aristotle introduced the Law of Non-Contradiction, which was to become the most authoritative principle in the history of Western thought. However, things have recently changed, and nowadays various philosophers, called dialetheists, claim that this Law does (...)
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  15. Contradiction in Motion: Hegel's Organic Concept of Life and Value.Songsuk Susan Hahn - 2007 - Cornell University Press.
    In this analysis of one of the most difficult and neglected topics in Hegelian studies, Songsuk Susan Hahn tackles the status of contradiction in Hegel's ...
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  16. The Principles of Contradiction, Sufficient Reason, and Identity of Indiscernibles.Gonzalo Rodriguez-Pereyra - forthcoming - In Maria Rosa Antognazza (ed.), Oxford Handbook of Leibniz. Oxford University Press.
    Leibniz was a philosopher of principles: the principles of Contradiction, of Sufficient Reason, of Identity of Indiscernibles, of Plenitude, of the Best, and of Continuity are among the most famous Leibnizian principles. In this article I shall focus on the first three principles; I shall discuss various formulations of the principles (sect. 1), what it means for these theses to have the status of principles or axioms in Leibniz’s philosophy (sect. 2), the fundamental character of the Principles of (...) and Sufficient Reason (sect. 3), some attempts to demonstrate the Principles of Contradiction and Sufficient Reason (sect. 4), and one attempt to demonstrate the Principle of Identity of Indiscernibles (sect. 5). The main results of the chapter are summarized in a short conclusion (sect. 6). (shrink)
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  17.  93
    Semantic Relationism, Belief Reports and Contradiction.Paolo Bonardi - 2013 - Philosophical Studies 166 (2):273-284.
    In his book Semantic Relationism, Kit Fine propounds an original and sophisticated semantic theory called ‘semantic relationism’ or ‘relational semantics’, whose peculiarity is the enrichment of Kaplan’s, Salmon’s and Soames’ Russellian semantics (more specifically, the semantic content of simple sentences and the truth-conditions of belief reports) with coordination, “the very strongest relation of synonymy or being semantically the same”. In this paper, my goal is to shed light on an undesirable result of semantic relationism: a report like “Tom believes that (...)
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  18.  67
    Vagueness and Contradiction.Roy A. Sorensen - 2001 - Oxford University Press.
    Roy Sorenson offers a unique exploration of an ancient problem: vagueness. Did Buddha become a fat man in one second? Is there a tallest short giraffe? According to Sorenson's epistemicist approach, the answers are yes! Although vagueness abounds in the way the world is divided, Sorenson argues that the divisions are sharp; yet we often do not know where they are. Written in Sorenson'e usual inventive and amusing style, this book offers original insight on language and logic, the way world (...)
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  19.  73
    Non-Contradiction: Oh Yeah and So What?Mark T. Nelson - 2013 - Think 12 (34):87-91.
    The Law of Non-contradiction, the claim that a proposition cannot be both true and false, enjoys a special status in philosophy. Most philosophers think that finding a contradiction – the assertion of both P and not-P – in one’s reasoning is the best possible evidence that something has gone wrong, the ultimate refutation of a position. But what reason do we have to believe this? Some philosophers say that we must believe the Law because any attempt to deny (...)
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  20.  84
    On Hegel's Doctrine of Contradiction.Michael Wolff - 1999 - The Owl of Minerva 31 (1):1-22.
    Here I attempt to clarify the general sense of the question that forms the background of Hegel's section on contradiction: What is the essence of contradiction? To what extent does this question pose a philosophical problem for Hegel? By considering this problem can we come to understand contradiction as a relation pertaining to "objective logic"? Translated by Erin Flynn & Kenneth R. Westphal. Originally published as "Über Hegels Lehre vom Widerspruch," in: Dieter Henrich, ed., Probleme der Hegelschen (...)
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  21.  52
    Infinitesimals.J. L. Bell - 1988 - Synthese 75 (3):285 - 315.
    The infinitesimal methods commonly used in the 17th and 18th centuries to solve analytical problems had a great deal of elegance and intuitive appeal. But the notion of infinitesimal itself was flawed by contradictions. These arose as a result of attempting to representchange in terms ofstatic conceptions. Now, one may regard infinitesimals as the residual traces of change after the process of change has been terminated. The difficulty was that these residual traces could not logically coexist with the static (...)
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  22.  12
    Disentangling Contradiction From Contrariety Via Incompatibility.Jean-Yves Beziau - 2016 - Logica Universalis 10 (2-3):157-170.
    Contradiction is often confused with contrariety. We propose to disentangle contrariety from contradiction using the hexagon of opposition, providing a clear and distinct characterization of three notions: contrariety, contradiction, incompatibility. At the same time, this hexagonal structure describes and explains the relations between them.
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  23.  3
    On Pain of Self-Contradiction?Friedrich Reinmuth - 2017 - In Micha H. Werner, Robert Stern & Jens Peter Brune (eds.), Transcendental Arguments in Moral Theory. De Gruyter. pp. 47-70.
    Claims that agents must accept or reject certain propositions “on pain of self-contradiction” play a key role in Alan Gewirth’s dialectically necessary method. The aim of this paper is to investigate Gewirth’s method with respect to the relation between such claims, entailment and self-contradiction. I will identify certain bridge principles connecting obligatory acceptance, rejection and entailment that seem to be presupposed by Gewirth. Contrary to what seems to be Gewirth’s view, these principles, e. g., that one must accept (...)
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  24.  35
    Peirce’s ‘Entanglement’ with the Principles of Excluded Middle and Contradiction.Robert Lane - 1997 - Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 33 (3):680 - 703.
    Charles Peirce claimed that "anything is general in so far as the principle of excluded middle does not apply to it and is vague in so far as the principle of contradiction does not apply to it." This seems to imply that general propositions are neither true nor false and that vague propositions are both true and false. But this is not the case. I argue that Peirce's claim was intended to underscore relatively simple facts about quantification and negation, (...)
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  25.  31
    Une Approche Volontariste du Droit Naturel Et de la Contradiction. Une Façon de Bâtir la Notion de Hiérarchie Dans la Pensée Latine Médiévale.Luca Parisoli - 2013 - Revus 21:219-236.
    L’analyse des juristes médiévaux nous montre comment la manipulation des contradictions déontiques prima facie est associée, dans l’argumentation interprétative, à la théorie de la légitimité de la hiérarchie normative, entendue non seulement comme instrument politique mais aussi et essentiellement comme un instrument de rationalité au sein d’une science juridique orientée vers une théologie politique. La notion de droit naturel telle qu’elle apparaît dans certains documents emblématiques dont le Decretum de Gratien du XIIe s., ne peut être réduite au modèle intellectualiste (...)
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  26.  49
    Łukasiewicz on the Principle of Contradiction.Venanzio Raspa - 1999 - Journal of Philosophical Research 24:57-112.
    Łukasiewicz distinguishes three formulations of the principle of contradiction in Aristotle’s works: ontological, logical, and psychological. The first two formulations are equivalent though not synonymous, but neither of them is equivalent to the psychological one, which expresses not a principle but only an empirical law. Furthermore, the principle of contradiction is neither a simple and ultimate law nor is it necessary for conducting an inference, because the syllogism is independent of it. The further explanation of this concept leads (...)
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  27.  12
    Liberating Paraconsistency From Contradiction.Jonas R. Becker Arenhart - 2015 - Logica Universalis 9 (4):523-544.
    In this paper we propose to take seriously the claim that at least some kinds of paraconsistent negations are subcontrariety forming operators. We shall argue that from an intuitive point of view, by considering paraconsistent negations as formalizing that particular kind of opposition, one needs not worry with issues about the meaning of true contradictions and the like, given that “true contradictions” are not involved in these paraconsistent logics. Our strategy will consist in showing that, on the one hand, the (...)
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  28.  48
    Performative Contradiction and the Regrounding for Philosophical Paradigms.Donghui Han - 2008 - Frontiers of Philosophy in China 3 (4):607-621.
    As a unique method of philosophical argument, performative contradiction attracted general attention after the change in direction of pragmatics in the twentieth century. Hintikka used this method to conduct an in-depth analysis of Descartes’ proposition “I think, therefore I am,” providing a proof which is a model in the philosophical history; Apel absorbed performative contradiction into his own framework of a priori pragmatics; and Habermas introduced it into the theory of formal pragmatics and rendered it an effective weapon (...)
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  29.  17
    Contradiction in Buddhist Argumentation.Mark Siderits - 2008 - Argumentation 22 (1):125-133.
    Certain Buddhist texts contain statements that are prima facie contradictions. The scholarly consensus has been that such statements are meant to serve a rhetorical function that depends on the apparent contradictions being resolvable. But recently it has been claimed that such statements are meant to be taken literally: their authors assert as true statements that are of the form ‘p and not p’. This claim has ramifications for our understanding of the role played by the principle of non-contradiction in (...)
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  30.  14
    Human Dignity and the Right to Dignity in Terms of Legal Personalism (From Conception of Static Dignity to Conception of Dynamic Dignity).Alfonsas Vaišvila - 2009 - Jurisprudence 3 (117):111-127.
    The article critically analyzes the conservative conception of passive or static human dignity in accordance with which human’s value is seen as value coming from the exterior (from God or from a biological human’s nature), or value seen as existing per se. In opposition to this conception, a conception of active or created dignity is being developed, which aims at treating human’s dignity not like a social relationship, but rather like a person’s individual ability to live properly in the (...)
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  31.  7
    Józef Bocheński and Static Religion.Piotr Kostyło - 2013 - Studies in East European Thought 65 (1-2):101-113.
    One of the most interesting aspects of Józef Bocheński’s philosophy was its relation to Henri Bergson’s thought, particularly to his philosophy of religion. Unlike the majority of the Catholic philosophers at that time, Bocheński did not stress the significance of dynamic religion, but rather focused on the role of static religion in human life. In his view, what was of particular interest within this religion was its fabulation function. This direction of the philosopher’s research stemmed from the realism and (...)
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  32.  13
    Paradoxes in the Argumentation of the Comic Double and Classemic Contradiction.Benjamín García-Hernández - 2003 - Argumentation 17 (1):99-111.
    In the comedies of errors, and more precisely in the comedies of double, in which two identities become confused, the characters get into paradoxical situations reigned by the principle of contradiction. The classemic relationships that are based on the criterion of subjectivity are broken due to the intervention of the character appearing as the double, for the doubled and the double can appear as one subject or as two. In fact, in the added double one + one equals one (...)
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  33.  2
    Platonic Contrariety : Ancestor of the Aristotelian Notion of Contradiction ?Geneviève Lachance - 2016 - Logica Universalis 10 (2-3):143-156.
    The aim of the present paper is to analyse the archeology of the concept of contradiction, more precisely in Plato, and to reveal the influence that the latter had on Aristotle’s reflection on contradiction and contrariety. This paper will show that it is possible to find examples of a notion of contradiction in Plato’s refutative dialogues, in which Socrates is described as refuting his interlocutors by demonstrating the contrary of their initial thesis. However, Plato never used the (...)
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  34.  4
    From 'Activity' to 'Labour': Commodification, Labourpower and Contradiction in Engeström's Activity Theory.Paul Warmington - 2008 - Outlines. Critical Practice Studies 10 (2):4-19.
    Engeström’s (1987, 1999) innovations in cultural-historical activity theory emphasise the role of contradictions in analysing and transforming learning in practice. This paper considers some of the problems and possibilities contained in his analytical understanding of contradictions, in relation to activity and to what he terms ‘expansive learning’ (Engeström, 2001, 2004, 2007). In doing so, it builds upon Engeström’s stated concern with theorising activities ‘in capitalism’. Its goal is to problematise the underlying practical definition of contradictions and the claims made for (...)
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  35.  6
    A Living Life, A Living Death: Bessie Head's Writing as a Survival Strategy. [REVIEW]Sue Atkinson - 2011 - Journal of Medical Humanities 32 (4):269-278.
    This paper explores Bessie Head’s writing as a survival strategy through which she transformed her lived experience into imaginative literature, giving meaning and purpose to a life under permanent threat from the dominant group first in South Africa and later in Botswana. This threat included the destructive effect of the many fixed labels imposed upon her including: a ‘Coloured’ woman, the daughter of a woman designated mad, an exile, a psychotic, a tragic black woman, and a Third World woman writer. (...)
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  36.  31
    Hume, Reason and Morality: A Legacy of Contradiction.Sophie Botros - 2006 - Routledge.
    Covering an important theme in Humean studies, this book focuses on Hume's hugely influential attempt in book three of his _Treatise of Human Nature _to derive the conclusion that morality is a matter of feeling, not reason, from its link with action. Claiming that Hume's argument contains a fundamental contradiction that has gone unnoticed in modern debate, this fascinating volume contains a refreshing combination of historical-scholarly work and contemporary analysis that seeks to expose this contradiction and therefore provide (...)
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  37.  45
    Sense and Contradiction: A Study in Aristotle.R. M. Dancy - 1975 - D. Reidel Pub. Co..
    ARISTOTLE'S PROGRAM Aristotle says outright that the law of non-contradiction cannot be demonstrated: you can't prove everything, and among the things you ...
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  38.  41
    Is Hume Attempting to Introduce a New, Pragmatic Conception of a Contradiction in His Treatise?Alan Schwerin - 2016 - Principia: An International Journal of Epistemology 20 (3):315-323.
    Hume’s Treatise, with its celebrated bundle theory of the self, is a significant contribution to the embryonic Newtonian experimental philosophy of the enlightenment. But the theory is inadequate as it stands, as the appendix to the Treatise makes clear. For this account of the self, apparently, rests on contradictory principles — propositions, fortunately, that can be reconciled, according to Hume. My paper is a critical exploration of Hume’s argument for this intriguing suggestion.
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  39. A Lady, Her Philosopher And A Contradiction.Alan Schwerin - 1999 - Russell: The Journal of Bertrand Russell Studies 19 (1).
    Nineteen eleven was a tumultuous year for Bertrand Russell, both personally and academically. The intense scholarly activity of 1911 that resulted in an impressive set of diverse academic publications and manuscripts was accompanied by a number of personal entanglements that were equally intense for Russell. Two of these relationships would prove to be especially strained. Late Wednesday afternoon, 18 October 1911, Russell met Ludwig Wittgenstein for the first time. As we know from the numerous accounts available on their relationship, the (...)
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  40.  42
    Change, Cause, and Contradiction: A Defence of the Tenseless Theory of Time.Robin Le Poidevin - 1991 - St. Martin's Press.
  41.  7
    Aristotle, Nagarjuna and the Law of Non-Contradiction in Buddhist Philosophy.Peter G. Jones - manuscript
    There is a widespread view that Buddhist philosophy embodies logical contradictions such that there would be 'true' contradictions, This article explains that this is not the case and that Buddhist philosophy, more generally the Perennial philosophy, denies all contradictions for the sake of a doctrine of Unity.
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  42. Meaning, Metaphysics, and Contradiction.Francesco Berto - 2006 - American Philosophical Quarterly 43 (4):283-297.
  43. Aristotle on Non-Contradiction.Spyridon George Couvalis - 2011 - In Michael Tsianikas (ed.), Greek Research in Australia. Department of Modern Greek. pp. 36-43.
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  44. In Contradiction.Graham Priest - 2006 - Oxford University Press UK.
    In Contradiction advocates and defends the view that there are true contradictions, a view that flies in the face of orthodoxy in Western philosophy since Aristotle. The book has been at the centre of the controversies surrounding dialetheism ever since its first publication in 1987. This second edition of the book substantially expands upon the original in various ways, and also contains the author's reflections on developments over the last two decades. Further aspects of dialetheism are discussed in the (...)
     
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  45. Aristotle, Protagoras, and Contradiction: Metaphysics Γ 4-6.Evan Keeling - 2013 - Journal of Ancient Philosophy 7 (2):75-99.
    In both Metaphysics Γ 4 and 5 Aristotle argues that Protagoras is committed to the view that all contradictions are true. Yet Aristotle’s arguments are not transparent, and later, in Γ 6, he provides Protagoras with a way to escape contradictions. In this paper I try to understand Aristotle’s arguments. After examining a number of possible solutions, I conclude that the best way of explaining them is to (a) recognize that Aristotle is discussing a number of Protagorean opponents, and (b) (...)
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  46.  71
    Truth and Contradiction in Aristotle's De Interpretatione 6-9.Russell E. Jones - 2010 - Phronesis 55 (1):26-67.
    In De Interpretatione 6-9, Aristotle considers three logical principles: the principle of bivalence, the law of excluded middle, and the rule of contradictory pairs (according to which of any contradictory pair of statements, exactly one is true and the other false). Surprisingly, Aristotle accepts none of these without qualification. I offer a coherent interpretation of these chapters as a whole, while focusing special attention on two sorts of statements that are of particular interest to Aristotle: universal statements not made universally (...)
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  47.  18
    Static Versus Dynamic Topology of Complex Communications Network During Organizational Crisis.Shahadat Uddin, Liaquat Hossain, Shahriar Tanvir Murshed & John W. Crawford - 2011 - Complexity 16 (5):27-36.
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  48. Conjunction and Contradiction.Achille C. Varzi - 2004 - In Graham Priest, J. C. Beall & Bradley Armour-Garb (eds.), The Law of Non-Contradiction: New Philosophical Essays. Clarendon Press. pp. 93–110.
    There are two ways of understanding the notion of a contradiction: as a conjunction of a statement and its negation, or as a pair of statements one of which is the negation of the other. Correspondingly, there are two ways of understanding the Law of Non-Contradiction (LNC), i.e., the law that says that no contradictions can be true. In this paper I offer some arguments to the effect that on the first (collective) reading LNC is non-negotiable, but on (...)
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  49.  39
    Hidden Information Acquisition and Static Choice.Timothy Van Zandt - 1996 - Theory and Decision 40 (3):235-247.
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    Change and Contradiction in Henry of Ghent.Simo Knuuttila - 2017 - Vivarium 55 (1-3):22-35.
    _ Source: _Volume 55, Issue 1-3, pp 22 - 35 Hugh of Novocastro, Landolfo Caracciolo, John Baconthorpe, and some other medieval authors argued that there are real contradictions in nature. The background of this early fourteenth-century theory was the Aristotelian question of how to determine the instant of change between p and ~p. The argument was that these are simultaneously true at the temporal instant of change if it is an instant of changing. The author’s aim is to discuss the (...)
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