Results for 'statistical independence'

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  1.  56
    Statistical Learning Is Related to Reading Ability in Children and Adults.Joanne Arciuli & Ian C. Simpson - 2012 - Cognitive Science 36 (2):286-304.
    There is little empirical evidence showing a direct link between a capacity for statistical learning (SL) and proficiency with natural language. Moreover, discussion of the role of SL in language acquisition has seldom focused on literacy development. Our study addressed these issues by investigating the relationship between SL and reading ability in typically developing children and healthy adults. We tested SL using visually presented stimuli within a triplet learning paradigm and examined reading ability by administering the Wide Range Achievement (...)
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  2.  55
    Statistical Decisions Under Ambiguity.Jörg Stoye - 2011 - Theory and Decision 70 (2):129-148.
    This article provides unified axiomatic foundations for the most common optimality criteria in statistical decision theory. It considers a decision maker who faces a number of possible models of the world (possibly corresponding to true parameter values). Every model generates objective probabilities, and von Neumann–Morgenstern expected utility applies where these obtain, but no probabilities of models are given. This is the classic problem captured by Wald’s (Statistical decision functions, 1950) device of risk functions. In an Anscombe–Aumann environment, I (...)
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  3.  96
    Logical Independence in Quantum Logic.Miklós Rédei - 1995 - Foundations of Physics 25 (3):411-422.
    The projection latticesP(ℳ1),P(ℳ2) of two von Neumann subalgebras ℳ1, ℳ2 of the von Neumann algebra ℳ are defined to be logically independent if A ∧ B≠0 for any 0≠AεP(ℳ1), 0≠BP(ℳ2). After motivating this notion in independence, it is shown thatP(ℳ1),P(ℳ2) are logically independent if ℳ1 is a subfactor in a finite factor ℳ andP(ℳ1),P(ℳ2 commute. Also, logical independence is related to the statistical independence conditions called C*-independence W*-independence, and strict locality. Logical independence ofP(ℳ1,P(ℳ2 (...)
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  4. Two Statistical Problems for Inference to Regulatory Structure From Associations of Gene Expression Measurements with Microarrays.Tianjaio Chu - unknown
    Of the many proposals for inferring genetic regulatory structure from microarray measurements of mRNA transcript hybridization, several aim to estimate regulatory structure from the associations of gene expression levels measured in repeated samples. The repeated samples may be from a single experimental condition, or from several distinct experimental conditions; they may be “equilibrium” measurements or time series; the associations may be estimated by correlation coefficients or by conditional frequencies (for discretized measurements) or by some other statistic. This paper describes two (...)
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  5.  9
    Independent Component Analysis for Reservoir Geomorphology and Unsupervised Seismic Facies Classification in the Taranaki Basin, New Zealand.David Lubo-Robles & Kurt J. Marfurt - 2019 - Interpretation 7 (3):SE19-SE42.
    During the past two decades, the number of volumetric seismic attributes has increased to the point at which interpreters are overwhelmed and cannot analyze all of the information that is available. Principal component analysis is one of the best-known multivariate analysis techniques that decompose the input data into second-order statistics by maximizing the variance, thus obtaining mathematically uncorrelated components. Unfortunately, projecting the information in the multiple input data volumes onto an orthogonal basis often mixes rather than separates geologic features of (...)
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  6.  74
    Statistical Explanation in Physics: The Copenhagen Interpretation.Richard Schlegel - 1970 - Synthese 21 (1):65 - 82.
    The statistical aspects of quantum explanation are intrinsic to quantum physics; individual quantum events are created in the interactions associated with observation and are not describable by predictive theory. The superposition principle shows the essential difference between quantum and non-quantum physics, and the principle is exemplified in the classic single-photon two-slit interference experiment. Recently Mandel and Pfleegor have done an experiment somewhat similar to the optical single-photon experiment but with two independently operated lasers; interference is obtained even with beam (...)
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  7.  45
    Epidemiology and the Bio-Statistical Theory of Disease: A Challenging Perspective.Élodie Giroux - 2015 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 36 (3):175-195.
    Christopher Boorse’s bio-statistical theory of health and disease argues that the central discipline on which theoretical medicine relies is physiology. His theory has been much discussed but little has been said about its focus on physiology or, conversely, about the role that other biomedical disciplines may play in establishing a theoretical concept of health. Since at least the 1950s, epidemiology has gained in strength and legitimacy as an independent medical science that contributes to our knowledge of health and disease. (...)
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  8.  25
    Independence Logic and Abstract Independence Relations.Gianluca Paolini - 2015 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 61 (3):202-216.
    We continue the work on the relations between independence logic and the model-theoretic analysis of independence, generalizing the results of [15] and [16] to the framework of abstract independence relations for an arbitrary AEC. We give a model-theoretic interpretation of the independence atom and characterize under which conditions we can prove a completeness result with respect to the deductive system that axiomatizes independence in team semantics and statistics.
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  9.  88
    Stochastic Independence and Causal Connection.Michael Strevens - 2015 - Erkenntnis 80 (S3):605-627.
    Assumptions of stochastic independence are crucial to statistical models in science. Under what circumstances is it reasonable to suppose that two events are independent? When they are not causally or logically connected, so the standard story goes. But scientific models frequently treat causally dependent events as stochastically independent, raising the question whether there are kinds of causal connection that do not undermine stochastic independence. This paper provides one piece of an answer to this question, treating the simple (...)
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  10.  3
    Combined Influence of Valence and Statistical Learning on the Control of Attention: Evidence for Independent Sources of Bias.Haena Kim & Brian A. Anderson - 2021 - Cognition 208:104554.
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  11.  15
    Two Statistical Problems for Inference to Regulatory Structure From Associations of Gene Expression Measurements with Microarrays.Clark Glymour - unknown
    Of the many proposals for inferring genetic regulatory structure from microarray measurements of mRNA transcript hybridization, several aim to estimate regulatory structure from the associations of gene expression levels measured in repeated samples. The repeated samples may be from a single experimental condition, or from several distinct experimental conditions; they may be “equilibrium” measurements or time series; the associations may be estimated by correlation coefficients or by conditional frequencies (for discretized measurements) or by some other statistic. This paper describes two (...)
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  12.  21
    Independent Component Spectral Analysis.Bruno César Zanardo Honório, Alexandre Cruz Sanchetta, Emilson Pereira Leite & Alexandre Campane Vidal - 2014 - Interpretation: SEG 2 (1):SA21-SA29.
    Spectral decomposition techniques can break down the broadband seismic records into a series of frequency components that are useful for seismic interpretation and reservoir characterization. However, it is laborious and time-consuming to analyze and to interpret each seismic frequency volume taking all the usable seismic bandwidth. In this context, we propose a multivariate technique based on independent component analysis with the goal of choosing the spectral components that best represent the whole seismic spectrum while keeping the main geological information. The (...)
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  13.  10
    Linguistic Constraints on Statistical Word Segmentation: The Role of Consonants in Arabic and English.Itamar Kastner & Frans Adriaans - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (S2):494-518.
    Statistical learning is often taken to lie at the heart of many cognitive tasks, including the acquisition of language. One particular task in which probabilistic models have achieved considerable success is the segmentation of speech into words. However, these models have mostly been tested against English data, and as a result little is known about how a statistical learning mechanism copes with input regularities that arise from the structural properties of different languages. This study focuses on statistical (...)
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  14. Statistical Mechanics and the Ontological Interpretation.D. Bohm & B. J. Hiley - 1996 - Foundations of Physics 26 (6):823-846.
    To complete our ontological interpretation of quantum theory we have to conclude a treatment of quantum statistical mechanics. The basic concepts in the ontological approach are the particle and the wave function. The density matrix cannot play a fundamental role here. Therefore quantum statistical mechanics will require a further statistical distribution over wave functions in addition to the distribution of particles that have a specified wave function. Ultimately the wave function of the universe will he required, but (...)
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  15.  15
    Against “Soft” Statistical Information.Daniel M. Kraemer - 2015 - Philosophical Psychology 28 (1):139-147.
    Unsatisfied with stringent statistical theories of information such as Dretske's unity theory, Millikan (2001, 2004, 2007) and Shea (2007) have independently introduced ?soft? statistical notions of information. I argue here that these soft statistical notions do not present viable alternative senses of information to that proposed by Dretske. Furthermore, what appears to be the primary motivation for ?soft? information can be undercut.
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  16.  43
    The Statistical Nature of Laws of Social Development.I. A. Matsiavichius - 1983 - Russian Studies in Philosophy 22 (3):82-85.
    The laws of social development are objective in content and, in contrast to the laws of nature, are manifested and function only through the activity of human beings. The development of all spheres of human activity, in turn, cannot be conceived of as independent of the will, consciousness, moods and beliefs, propensities and preferences of human beings, nor as independent of the effectiveness of forms of social organization, etc. The social specificity of laws of social development in turn defines another (...)
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  17.  17
    Overcoming Statism From Within: The International Criminal Court and the Westphalian System.Kevin W. Gray & Kafumu Kalyalya - 2016 - Critical Horizons 17 (1):53-65.
    This paper argues that cosmopolitan law has been more successfully achieved not by appeal to a supra-state authority or community, but by the development of features of existing treaty law. Specifically, it shows how the International Criminal Court's jurisdiction over serious human rights violations has been extended to the citizens and territories of non-member states – and even to otherwise immune state officials – not by challenging the sovereignty of non-member states directly, but on the basis of member states’ own (...)
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  18. When Can Statistical Theories Be Causally Closed?Balazs Gyenis & Miklos Redei - 2002 - Foundations of Physics 34 (9):1285-1303.
    The notion of common cause closedness of a classical, Kolmogorovian probability space with respect to a causal independence relation between the random events is defined, and propositions are presented that characterize common cause closedness for specific probability spaces. It is proved in particular that no probability space with a finite number of random events can contain common causes of all the correlations it predicts; however, it is demonstrated that probability spaces even with a finite number of random events can (...)
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  19. ‘‘Describing Our Whole Experience’’: The Statistical Philosophies of W. F. R. Weldon and Karl Pearson.Charles H. Pence - 2011 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 42 (4):475-485.
    There are two motivations commonly ascribed to historical actors for taking up statistics: to reduce complicated data to a mean value (e.g., Quetelet), and to take account of diversity (e.g., Galton). Different motivations will, it is assumed, lead to different methodological decisions in the practice of the statistical sciences. Karl Pearson and W. F. R. Weldon are generally seen as following directly in Galton’s footsteps. I argue for two related theses in light of this standard interpretation, based on a (...)
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  20.  6
    An Intricate Quantum Statistical Effect and the Foundation of Quantum Mechanics.Fritz W. Bopp - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 51 (1):1-21.
    An intricate quantum statistical effect guides us to a deterministic, non-causal quantum universe with a given fixed initial and final state density matrix. A concept is developed on how and where something like macroscopic physics can emerge. However, the concept does not allow philosophically crucial free will decisions. The quantum world and its conjugate evolve independently, and one can replace fixed final states on each side just with a common matching one. This change allows for external manipulations done in (...)
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  21. What is 'Normal'? An Evolution-Theoretic Foundation for Normic Laws and Their Relation to Statistical Normality.Gerhard Schurz - 2001 - Philosophy of Science 68 (4):476-497.
    Normic laws have the form "if A, then normally B." They are omnipresent in everyday life and non-physical 'life' sciences such as biology, psychology, social sciences, and humanities. They differ significantly from ceteris-paribus laws in physics. While several authors have doubted that normic laws are genuine laws at all, others have argued that normic laws express a certain kind of prototypical normality which is independent of statistical majority. This paper presents a foundation for normic laws which is based on (...)
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  22.  87
    Causality and Unification: How Causality Unifies Statistical Regularities.Gerhard Schurz - 2015 - Theoria: Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia 30 (1):73-95.
    Two key ideas of scientific explanation−explanation as causal information and explanation as unification-have frequently been set into mutual opposition. This paper proposes a “dialectical solution” to this conflict, by arguing that causal explanations are preferable to non-causal ones, because they lead to a higherdegree of unification at the level of explaining statistical regularities. The core axioms of the theory of causal nets are justified because they offer the best if not the only unifying explanation of two statistical phenomena: (...)
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  23.  48
    Models of Dependence and Independence: A Two-Dimensional Architecture of Dual Processing.Shira Elqayam - 2009 - Thinking and Reasoning 15 (4):377-387.
    This theoretical note proposes a two-dimensional cognitive architecture for dual-process theories of reasoning and decision making. Evans (2007b, 2008a, 2009) distinguishes between two types of dual-processing models: parallel-competitive , in which both types of processes operate in parallel, and default-interventionist , in which heuristic processes precede the analytic processes. I suggest that this temporal dimension should be enhanced with a functional distinction between interactionist architecture, in which either type of process influences the content and valence of the other, and independent (...)
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  24.  24
    Causality and Unification: How Causality Unifies Statistical Regularities.Gerhard Schurz - 2015 - Theoria: Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia 30 (1):73.
    Two key ideas of scientific explanation - explanations as causal information and explanation as unification - have frequently been set into mutual opposition. This paper proposes a "dialectical solution" to this conflict, by arguing that causal explanations are preferable to non-causal explanations because they lead to a higher degree of unification at the level of the explanation of statistical regularities. The core axioms of the theory of causal nets are justified because they give the best if not the only (...)
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  25.  27
    Naïve and Robust: Class‐Conditional Independence in Human Classification Learning.Jana B. Jarecki, Björn Meder & Jonathan D. Nelson - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (1):4-42.
    Humans excel in categorization. Yet from a computational standpoint, learning a novel probabilistic classification task involves severe computational challenges. The present paper investigates one way to address these challenges: assuming class-conditional independence of features. This feature independence assumption simplifies the inference problem, allows for informed inferences about novel feature combinations, and performs robustly across different statistical environments. We designed a new Bayesian classification learning model that incorporates varying degrees of prior belief in class-conditional independence, learns whether (...)
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  26.  1
    Toddlers’ Ability to Leverage Statistical Information to Support Word Learning.Erica M. Ellis, Arielle Borovsky, Jeffrey L. Elman & Julia L. Evans - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    PurposeThis study investigated whether the ability to utilize statistical regularities from fluent speech and map potential words to meaning at 18-months predicts vocabulary at 18- and again at 24-months.MethodEighteen-month-olds were exposed to an artificial language with statistical regularities within the speech stream, then participated in an object-label learning task. Learning was measured using a modified looking-while-listening eye-tracking design. Parents completed vocabulary questionnaires when their child was 18-and 24-months old.ResultsAbility to learn the object-label pairing for words after exposure to (...)
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  27. Reality in a Few Thermodynamic Reference Frames: Statistical Thermodynamics From Boltzmann Via Gibbs to Einstein.Vasil Penchev - 2020 - Philosophy of Science eJournal (Elsevier: SSRN) 13 (33):1-14.
    The success of a few theories in statistical thermodynamics can be correlated with their selectivity to reality. These are the theories of Boltzmann, Gibbs, and Einstein. The starting point is Carnot’s theory, which defines implicitly the general selection of reality relevant to thermodynamics. The three other theories share this selection, but specify it further in detail. Each of them separates a few main aspects within the scope of the implicit thermodynamic reality. Their success grounds on that selection. Those aspects (...)
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  28.  7
    On the Intersection Property of Conditional Independence and its Application to Causal Discovery.Jonas Peters - 2015 - Journal of Causal Inference 3 (1).
    This work investigates the intersection property of conditional independence. It states that for random variables A,B,C and X we have that X⊥⊥A|B,C and X⊥⊥B|A,C implies X⊥⊥(A,B)|C. Here, “⊥⊥” stands for statistical independence. Under the assumption that the joint distribution has a density that is continuous in A,B and C, we provide necessary and sufficient conditions under which the intersection property holds. The result has direct applications to causal inference: it leads to strictly weaker conditions under which the (...)
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  29.  35
    Stochastic Electrodynamics. III. Statistics of the Perturbed Harmonic Oscillator-Zero-Point Field System.G. H. Goedecke - 1983 - Foundations of Physics 13 (12):1195-1220.
    In this third paper in a series on stochastic electrodynamics (SED), the nonrelativistic dipole approximation harmonic oscillator-zero-point field system is subjected to an arbitrary classical electromagnetic radiation field. The ensemble-averaged phase-space distribution and the two independent ensemble-averaged Liouville or Fokker-Planck equations that it satisfies are derived in closed form without furtner approximation. One of these Liouville equations is shown to be exactly equivalent to the usual Schrödinger equation supplemented by small radiative corrections and an explicit radiation reaction (RR) vector potential (...)
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  30.  38
    On the Geometry of the Berry-Robbins Approach to Spin-Statistics.Nikolaos Papadopoulos & Andrés F. Reyes-Lega - 2010 - Foundations of Physics 40 (7):829-851.
    Within a geometric and algebraic framework, the structures which are related to the spin-statistics connection are discussed. A comparison with the Berry-Robbins approach is made. The underlying geometric structure constitutes an additional support for this approach. In our work, a geometric approach to quantum indistinguishability is introduced which allows the treatment of singlevaluedness of wave functions in a global, model independent way.
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  31.  25
    Notes on Statistical Tests.Daniel Osherson - manuscript
    Let an unbiased coin be used to form an ω-sequence S of independent tosses. Let N be the positive integers. The finite initial segment of length n ∈ N is denoted by Sn (thus, S1 holds exactly the first toss). For n ∈ N , let Hn be the proportion of heads that show up in Sn.
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  32. Pair Distributions and Conditional Independence: Some Hints About the Structure of Strange Quantum Correlations.N. D. Mermin - 1983 - Philosophy of Science 50 (3):359-373.
    Some statistical questions that arise in studies of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlations are given precise and complete answers for a very simple but artificial set of pair distributions. Some recent results and conjectures about hidden variable representations of the more complex distributions that describe the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen experiment are examined in the light of the behavior of the simple model.
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  33.  21
    The Ethical Standards of Judgment Questionnaire: Development and Validation of Independent Measures of Formalism and Consequentialism.Ed Love, Tara Ceranic Salinas & Jeff D. Rotman - 2020 - Journal of Business Ethics 161 (1):115-132.
    The ethical frameworks of consequentialism and formalism predict moral awareness and behavior in individuals, but current measures either do not treat these frameworks as independent or lack sufficient theoretical underpinnings and statistical dependability. This paper presents the development and validation of a new scale to measure consequentialism and formalism that is well grounded in prior research. The Ethical Standards of Judgement Questionnaire is validated via six studies. Measurement items are developed in the first three studies, which also confirm the (...)
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  34.  14
    Natural Selection, Mechanism, and the Statistical Interpretation.Fermín C. Fulda - 2017 - Philosophy of Science 84 (5):1080-1092.
    What is natural selection? I address this question by exploring the relation between two debates: Is natural selection a mechanism? Is natural selection a causal or a statistical theory? I argue that the first can be assessed only relative to a model and that, following the second, there are two fundamentally different and independent kinds of models, Modern-Synthesis and Darwinian models. MS-models, I argue, are not mechanistic even if they are causal. D-models, in contrast, are mechanistic. A causal-mechanistic interpretation (...)
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  35.  41
    Revisiting the Omitted Variables Argument: Substantive Vs. Statistical Adequacy.Aris Spanos - 2006 - Journal of Economic Methodology 13 (2):179-218.
    The problem of omitted variables is commonly viewed as a statistical misspecification issue which renders the inference concerning the influence of X t on yt unreliable, due to the exclusion of certain relevant factors W t . That is, omitting certain potentially important factors W t may confound the influence of X t on yt . The textbook omitted variables argument attempts to assess the seriousness of this unreliability using the sensitivity of the estimator to the inclusion/exclusion of W (...)
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  36.  24
    Austere Realism and the Worldly Assumptions of Inferential Statistics.J. D. Trout - 1994 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1994:190 - 199.
    Inferential statistical tests-such as analysis of variance, t-tests, chi-square and Wilcoxin signed ranks-now constitute a principal class of methods for the testing of scientific hypotheses. In this paper I will consider the role of one statistical concept (statistical power) and two statistical principles or assumptions (homogeneity of variance and the independence of random error), in the reliable application of selected statistical methods. I defend a tacit but widely-deployed naturalistic principle of explanation (E): Philosophers should (...)
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  37.  2
    The Ethical Standards of Judgment Questionnaire: Development and Validation of Independent Measures of Formalism and Consequentialism.Ed Love, Tara Ceranic Salinas & Jeff D. Rotman - 2020 - Journal of Business Ethics 161 (1):115-132.
    The ethical frameworks of consequentialism and formalism predict moral awareness and behavior in individuals, but current measures either do not treat these frameworks as independent or lack sufficient theoretical underpinnings and statistical dependability. This paper presents the development and validation of a new scale to measure consequentialism and formalism that is well grounded in prior research. The Ethical Standards of Judgement Questionnaire is validated via six studies. Measurement items are developed in the first three studies, which also confirm the (...)
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  38.  1
    Gibbs, Einstein and the Foundations of Statistical Mechanics.Luis Navarro - 1998 - Archive for History of Exact Sciences 53 (2):147-180.
    It is generally accepted that, around the turn of the century, GIBBS and EINSTEIN independently developed two equivalent formulations of statistical mechanics. GIBBS version is taken as genuine and rigorous, while EINSTEINs, despite some features which are characteristic of him, is usually considered a not totally satisfactory attempt.It will be shown in the present work that such a picture is oversimplified and requires further nuancing. In fact, there are significant differences, with important implications which have not been sufficiently examined, (...)
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  39.  12
    Phase Transition Thresholds for Some Friedman-Style Independence Results.Andreas Weiermann - 2007 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 53 (1):4-18.
    We classify the phase transition thresholds from provability to unprovability for certain Friedman-style miniaturizations of Kruskal's Theorem and Higman's Lemma. In addition we prove a new and unexpected phase transition result for ε0. Motivated by renormalization and universality issues from statistical physics we finally state a universality hypothesis.
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  40.  53
    Falsification of Propensity Models by Statistical Tests and the Goodness-of-Fit Paradox.Christian Hennig - 2007 - Philosophia Mathematica 15 (2):166-192.
    Gillies introduced a propensity interpretation of probability which is linked to experience by a falsifying rule for probability statements. The present paper argues that general statistical tests should qualify as falsification rules. The ‘goodness-of-fit paradox’ is introduced: the confirmation of a probability model by a test refutes the model's validity. An example is given in which an independence test introduces dependence. Several possibilities to interpret the paradox and to deal with it are discussed. It is concluded that the (...)
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  41.  14
    The Mismatch of Intrinsic Fluctuations and the Static Assumptions of Linear Statistics.Mary Jean Amon & John G. Holden - 2021 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 12 (1):149-173.
    The social and cognitive science replication crisis is partly due to the limitations of commonly used statistical tools. Inferential statistics require that unsystematic measurement variation is independent of system history, and weak relative to systematic or causal sources of variation. However, contemporary systems research underscores the dynamic, adaptive nature of social, cognitive, and behavioral systems. Variation in human activity includes the influences of intrinsic dynamics intertwined with changing contextual circumstances. Conventional inferential techniques presume milder forms of variability, such as (...)
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  42. The D-CTC Condition is Generically Fulfilled in Classical (Non-quantum) Statistical Systems.Jürgen Tolksdorf & Rainer Verch - 2021 - Foundations of Physics 51 (5):1-23.
    The D-CTC condition, introduced by David Deutsch as a condition to be fulfilled by analogues for processes of quantum systems in the presence of closed timelike curves, is investigated for classical statistical bi-partite systems. It is shown that the D-CTC condition can generically be fulfilled in classical statistical systems, under very general, model-independent conditions. The central property used is the convexity and completeness of the state space that allows it to generalize Deutsch’s original proof for q-bit systems to (...)
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  43.  3
    Testing Simulation Models Using Frequentist Statistics.Andrew P. Robinson - 2019 - In Claus Beisbart & Nicole J. Saam (eds.), Computer Simulation Validation - Fundamental Concepts, Methodological Frameworks, and Philosophical Perspectives. Springer. pp. 465-496.
    One approach to validating simulation models is to formally compare model outputs with independent data. We consider such model validation from the point of view of Frequentist statistics. A range of estimates and tests of goodness of fit have been advanced. We review these approaches, and demonstrate that some of the tests suffer from difficulties in interpretation because they rely on the null hypothesisHypothesis that the model is similar to the observationsObservations. This reliance creates two unpleasant possibilities, namely, a model (...)
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  44.  19
    Die Falsifikation Statistischer HypothesenThe Falsification of Statistical Hypotheses.Max Albert - 1992 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 23 (1):1-32.
    It is widely held that falsification of statistical hypotheses is impossible. This view is supported by an analysis of the most important theories of statistical testing: these theories are not compatible with falsificationism. On the other hand, falsificationism yields a basically viable solution to the problems of explanation, prediction and theory testing in a deterministic context. The present paper shows how to introduce the falsificationist solution into the realm of statistics. This is done mainly by applying the concept (...)
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  45.  4
    Estimating the Effect of Central Bank Independence on Inflation Using Longitudinal Targeted Maximum Likelihood Estimation.Enzo Rossi, Michael Schomaker & Philipp F. M. Baumann - 2021 - Journal of Causal Inference 9 (1):109-146.
    The notion that an independent central bank reduces a country’s inflation is a controversial hypothesis. To date, it has not been possible to satisfactorily answer this question because the complex macroeconomic structure that gives rise to the data has not been adequately incorporated into statistical analyses. We develop a causal model that summarizes the economic process of inflation. Based on this causal model and recent data, we discuss and identify the assumptions under which the effect of central bank (...) on inflation can be identified and estimated. Given these and alternative assumptions, we estimate this effect using modern doubly robust effect estimators, i.e., longitudinal targeted maximum likelihood estimators. The estimation procedure incorporates machine learning algorithms and is tailored to address the challenges associated with complex longitudinal macroeconomic data. We do not find strong support for the hypothesis that having an independent central bank for a long period of time necessarily lowers inflation. Simulation studies evaluate the sensitivity of the proposed methods in complex settings when certain assumptions are violated and highlight the importance of working with appropriate learning algorithms for estimation. (shrink)
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  46. A Rigorous Analysis of the Clauser–Horne–Shimony–Holt Inequality Experiment When Trials Need Not Be Independent.Peter Bierhorst - 2014 - Foundations of Physics 44 (7):736-761.
    The Clauser–Horne–Shimony–Holt (CHSH) inequality is a constraint that local hidden variable theories must obey. Quantum Mechanics predicts a violation of this inequality in certain experimental settings. Treatments of this subject frequently make simplifying assumptions about the probability spaces available to a local hidden variable theory, such as assuming the state of the system is a discrete or absolutely continuous random variable, or assuming that repeated experimental trials are independent and identically distributed. In this paper, we do two things: first, show (...)
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  47.  32
    Measuring Mental Entrenchment of Phrases with Perceptual Identification, Familiarity Ratings, and Corpus Frequency Statistics.Catherine Caldwell-Harris & Shimon Edelman - unknown
    Word recognition is the Petri dish of the cognitive sciences. The processes hypothesized to govern naming, identifying and evaluating words have shaped this field since its origin in the 1970s. Techniques to measure lexical processing are not just the back-bone of the typical experimental psychology laboratory, but are now routinely used by cognitive neuroscientists to study brain processing and increasingly by social and clinical psychologists (Eder, Hommel, and De Houwer 2007). Models developed to explain lexical processing have also aspired to (...)
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  48.  7
    COVID-19 and the Selection Problem in National Cause-of-Death Statistics.B. I. B. Lindahl - 2021 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 43 (2):1-5.
    The World Health Organization has issued international instructions for certification and classification (coding) of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) as cause of death. Central to these instructions is the selection of the underlying cause of death for a public health preventive purpose. This article focuses on two rules for this selection: (1) that a death due to COVID-19 should be counted independently of pre-existing conditions that are suspected of triggering a severe course of COVID-19 and (2) that COVID-19 should not be (...)
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  49. Constructing Legitimation in Scottish Newspapers: The Case of the Independence Referendum.María Luisa Carrió-Pastor & Francisco Alonso-Almeida - 2019 - Discourse Studies 21 (6):621-635.
    This study is concerned with the use of epistemic legitimising strategies in online newspaper articles dealing with the Scottish referendum. In this sense, we seek to explore cases of epistemic stance that indicate epistemological positioning and persuade readers of the veracity of propositions. Our study covers Scottish journal articles published online within 5 days prior to results day. In this article, we are interested in the way the Scottish newspapers deal with the topic of the independence referendum and the (...)
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  50. Women and the Spanish-American Wars of Independence: An Overview.Claire Brewster - 2005 - Feminist Review 79 (1):20-35.
    This article looks at the ways in which Spanish American women exploited the political and social turmoil of the late 18th and early 19th centuries to move beyond their traditional sphere of influence in the home. Women directly participated in the Túpac Amaru Rebellion and in the Wars of Independence providing funding, food supplies, infrastructure and reinforcements for the troops, and nursing the wounded. Others contributed by taking part in the physical fighting and a few led troops into battle. (...)
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