Results for 'stereotypes'

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  1. Stereotype Threat and Intellectual Virtue.Mark Alfano - 2014 - In Owen Flanagan & Abrol Fairweather (eds.), Naturalizing Virtue. Cambridge University Press. pp. 155-74.
    For decades, intelligence and achievement tests have registered significant differences between people of different races, ethnicities, classes, and genders. We argue that most of these differences are explained not as reflections of differences in the distribution of intellectual virtues but as evidence for the metacognitive mediation of the intellectual virtues. For example, in the United States, blacks typically score worse than whites on tests of mathematics. This might lead one to think that fewer blacks possess the relevant intellectual virtues, or (...)
     
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  2. Stereotype Threat, Epistemic Agency, and Self-Identity.Stacey Goguen - 2016 - Dissertation, Boston University
    Stereotype threat is a psychological phenomenon that occurs when individuals become aware that their behavior could potentially confirm a negative stereotype. Though stereotype threat is a widely studied phenomenon in social psychology, there has been relatively little scholarship on it in philosophy, despite its relevance to issues such as implicit cognition, epistemic injustice, and diversity in philosophy. However, most psychological research on stereotype threat discusses the phenomenon by using an overly narrow picture of it, which focuses on one of its (...)
     
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  3. Stereotype Threat, Epistemic Injustice, and Rationality.Stacey Goguen - 2016 - In Michael Brownstein & Jennifer Saul (eds.), Implicit Bias and Philosophy. Oxford University Press. pp. 216-237.
    Though stereotype threat is most well-known for its ability to hinder performance, it actually has a wide range of effects. For instance, it can also cause stress, anxiety, and doubt. These additional effects are as important and as central to the phenomenon as its effects on performance are. As a result, stereotype threat has more far-reaching implications than many philosophers have realized. In particular, the phenomenon has a number of unexplored “epistemic effects.” These are effects on our epistemic lives—i.e., the (...)
     
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  4.  78
    Stereotyping and Generics.Anne Bosse - forthcoming - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy:1-17.
    We use generic sentences like ‘Blondes are stupid’ to express stereotypes. But why is this? Does the fact that we use generic sentences to express stereotypes mean that stereotypes are themselves, in some sense, generic? I argue that they are. However, stereotypes are mental and generics linguistic, so how can stereotypes be generic? My answer is that stereotypes are generic in virtue of the beliefs they contain. Stereotypes about blondes being stupid contain a (...)
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  5. Positive Stereotypes: Unexpected Allies or Devil's Bargain?Stacey Goguen - 2019 - In Benjamin Sherman & Stacey Goguen (eds.), Overcoming Epistemic Injustice: Social and Psychological Perspectives. pp. 33-47.
    If asked whether stereotypes about people have the potential to help overcome injustice, I suspect that many think there is a clear-cut answer to this question, and that answer is “no.” Many stereotypes do have harmful effects, from the blatantly dehumanizing to the more subtly disruptive. Reasonably then, a common attitude toward stereotypes is that they are at best shallow, superficial assumptions, and at worst degrading and hurtful vehicles of oppression. I argue that on a broad account (...)
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  6.  18
    Stereotypes and Emblems in the Construction of Social Imagination.Michel Rautenberg - 2010 - Outlines. Critical Practice Studies 12 (2):126-137.
    This article develops two figures of the social imagination: the stereotype and the emblem. To start with we explore the notion of social imagination, principally from Emile Durkheim, Gaston Bachelard and Maurine Godelier. Secondly, the article deepens the two notions of stereotypes and emblems supported by the works of the historian Bronislaw Baczko and the anthropologist Michael Herzfeld’s. Throughout the paper, the theoretical aims are illustrated with reference to coal-mining memory and heritage in the north of France.  .
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  7.  13
    Gender Stereotypes and Figurative Language Comprehension.Roberta Cocco & Francesca Ervas - 2012 - Humana Mente 5 (22).
    The paper aims to show how and to what extent social and cultural cues influence figurative language understanding. In the first part of the paper, we argue that social-contextual knowledge is organized in “schemas” or stereotypes, which act as strong bias in speaker’s meaning comprehension. Research in Experimental Pragmatics has shown that age, gender, race and occupation stereotypes are important contextual sources of information to interpret others’ speech and provide an explanation of their behavior. In the second part (...)
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  8.  42
    Countering Stereotypes of Disability: Disabled Children and Resistance.John Davis & Nick Watson - 2002 - In Mairian Corker Tom Shakespeare (ed.), Disability/Postmodernity: Embodying Disability Theory. pp. 159--174.
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  9. Stereotypical Inferences: Philosophical Relevance and Psycholinguistic Toolkit.Eugen Fischer & Paul E. Engelhardt - 2017 - Ratio 30 (4):411-442.
    Stereotypes shape inferences in philosophical thought, political discourse, and everyday life. These inferences are routinely made when thinkers engage in language comprehension or production: We make them whenever we hear, read, or formulate stories, reports, philosophical case-descriptions, or premises of arguments – on virtually any topic. These inferences are largely automatic: largely unconscious, non-intentional, and effortless. Accordingly, they shape our thought in ways we can properly understand only by complementing traditional forms of philosophical analysis with experimental methods from psycholinguistics. (...)
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  10.  15
    A Stereotype: The Lack of the Social Utility of Philosophy.Sandu Frunza - 2009 - Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 8 (24):311-328.
    The way in which the relations among philosophy, religion and politics have been built and evolved in post-1989-Romania brought about the development of several stereotypes connected to the social inutility of philosophy, to the graduates’ difficulty in adapting to the requirements of the labor market, to the lack of importance of philosophy and of philosophical education. The present text signals the crisis of philosophy due to a series of factors such as: the difficulties that the philosophical discourse has in (...)
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  11.  12
    Stereotype: End of (a) Story.Gordana Djeric - 2005 - Filozofija I Društvo 2005 (28):71-93.
    The paper is an analytic retrospective of the author?s work during the preceding research period, involving the study of role, meaning and place of stereotypes in identity discourses. In order to explain the reasons for and ways of dealing with stereotypes, she reviews the evolution of her own research approach and the alternative approaches to the topic from the perspective of various scholarly disciplines. Seeking to avoid the trap of?interpreting stereotypes stereotypically?, the author chooses not to follow (...)
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  12.  30
    From Stereotype to Context: The Study of Japanese Women's Speech.Hideko Nornes Abe - 1995 - Feminist Studies 21 (3):647.
  13.  60
    Stereotyping: The Multifactorial View.Katherine Puddifoot - 2017 - Philosophical Topics 45 (1):137-156.
    This paper proposes and defends the multifactorial view of stereotyping. According to this view, multiple factors determine whether or not any act of stereotyping increases the chance of an accurate judgment being made about an individual to whom the stereotype is applied. To support this conclusion, various features of acts of stereotyping that can determine the accuracy of stereotyping judgments are identified. The argument challenges two existing views that suggest that it is relatively easy for an act of stereotyping to (...)
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  14. Stereotypes And Stereotyping: A Moral Analysis.Lawrence Blum - 2004 - Philosophical Papers 33 (3):251-289.
    Stereotypes are false or misleading generalizations about groups, generally widely shared in a society, and held in a manner resistant, but not totally, to counterevidence. Stereotypes shape the stereotyper’s perception of stereotyped groups, seeing the stereotypic characteristics when they are not present, and generally homogenizing the group. The association between the group and the given characteristic involved in a stereotype often involves a cognitive investment weaker than that of belief. The cognitive distortions involved in stereotyping lead to various (...)
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  15. Stereotypes, Theory of Mind, and the Action–Prediction Hierarchy.Evan Westra - 2019 - Synthese 196 (7):2821-2846.
    Both mindreading and stereotyping are forms of social cognition that play a pervasive role in our everyday lives, yet too little attention has been paid to the question of how these two processes are related. This paper offers a theory of the influence of stereotyping on mental-state attribution that draws on hierarchical predictive coding accounts of action prediction. It is argued that the key to understanding the relation between stereotyping and mindreading lies in the fact that stereotypes centrally involve (...)
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  16. Lingering Stereotypes: Salience Bias in Philosophical Argument.Eugen Fischer & Paul E. Engelhardt - 2020 - Mind and Language 35 (4):415-439.
    Many philosophical thought experiments and arguments involve unusual cases. We present empirical reasons to doubt the reliability of intuitive judgments and conclusions about such cases. Inferences and intuitions prompted by verbal case descriptions are influenced by routine comprehension processes which invoke stereotypes. We build on psycholinguistic findings to determine conditions under which the stereotype associated with the most salient sense of a word predictably supports inappropriate inferences from descriptions of unusual (stereotype-divergent) cases. We conduct an experiment that combines plausibility (...)
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  17.  37
    Inappropriate Stereotypical Inferences? An Adversarial Collaboration in Experimental Ordinary Language Philosophy.Eugen Fischer, Paul E. Engelhardt & Justin Sytsma - 2020 - Synthese 198 (11):10127-10168.
    This paper trials new experimental methods for the analysis of natural language reasoning and the development of critical ordinary language philosophy in the wake of J.L. Austin. Philosophical arguments and thought experiments are strongly shaped by default pragmatic inferences, including stereotypical inferences. Austin suggested that contextually inappropriate stereotypical inferences are at the root of some philosophical paradoxes and problems, and that these can be resolved by exposing those verbal fallacies. This paper builds on recent efforts to empirically document inappropriate stereotypical (...)
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  18.  22
    Stereotype Threat Effects on Learning From a Cognitively Demanding Mathematics Lesson.Emily McLaughlin Lyons, Nina Simms, Kreshnik N. Begolli & Lindsey E. Richland - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (2):678-690.
    Stereotype threat—a situational context in which individuals are concerned about confirming a negative stereotype—is often shown to impact test performance, with one hypothesized mechanism being that cognitive resources are temporarily co-opted by intrusive thoughts and worries, leading individuals to underperform despite high content knowledge and ability. We test here whether stereotype threat may also impact initial student learning and knowledge formation when experienced prior to instruction. Predominantly African American fifth-grade students provided either their race or the date before a videotaped, (...)
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  19. Stereotype Threat and Attributional Ambiguity for Trans Women.Rachel McKinnon - 2014 - Hypatia 29 (1):857-872.
    In this paper I discuss the interrelated topics of stereotype threat and attributional ambiguity as they relate to gender and gender identity. The former has become an emerging topic in feminist philosophy and has spawned a tremendous amount of research in social psychology and elsewhere. But the discussion, at least in how it connects to gender, is incomplete: the focus is only on cisgender women and their experiences. By considering trans women's experiences of stereotype threat and attributional ambiguity, we gain (...)
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  20. Stereotypes of Autism.Douwe Draaisma - 2010 - In Francesca Happé & Uta Frith (eds.), Autism and Talent. Oup/the Royal Society.
     
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  21. Stereotypes of Women and Men Across Gender Subgroups.Hege H. Bye, Vera V. Solianik, Martine Five & Mehri S. Agai - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13.
    In this paper, we argue for the value of studying gender stereotypes at the subgroup level, combining insights from the stereotype content model, social role theory, and intersectional perspectives. Empirically, we investigate the stereotype content of gender subgroups in Norway, a cultural context for which a systematic description of stereotypes of gender subgroups is lacking. In a pilot study, we established salient subgroups within the Norwegian context. Employing the stereotype content model, these groups were rated on warmth and (...)
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  22. Medieval Stereotypes and Modern Antisemitism. By Robert Chazan.J. Riley-Smith - 1998 - The European Legacy 3:151-151.
  23. Stereotypes and Attitudes: Implicit and Explicit Processes.Drew Nesdale & Kevin Durkin - 1998 - In K. Kirsner & G. Speelman (eds.), Implicit and Explicit Mental Processes. Lawrence Erlbaum. pp. 219--232.
  24. Egg and Sperm: A Scientific Fairy Tale.Stereotypical Male—Female Roles & Emily Martin - 1996 - In Evelyn Fox Keller & Helen E. Longino (eds.), Feminism and Science. Oxford University Press.
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  25. The Stereotype of the Athenian Woman in Aristophanes'lysistrata'.S. Byl - 1991 - Revue Belge de Philologie Et D’Histoire 69 (1):33-43.
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  26.  7
    Locality Stereotype, CEO Trustworthiness and Stock Price Crash Risk: Evidence from China.Leilei Gu, Jinyu Liu & Yuchao Peng - 2022 - Journal of Business Ethics 175 (4):773-797.
    Exploring the locality stereotype with respect to CEO’s trustworthiness, we find that firms whose CEOs are from more reputable hometowns have a higher likelihood of stock price crashes, indicating the presence of a CEO “Trust Exploitation” effect, i.e. a high-trust identity does not guarantee managerial ethics; to the contrary, it could tempt CEOs to abuse outsiders’ trust, camouflage their misconducts and conceal adverse information more severely. The effect of CEO’s perceived trustworthiness on tail risk of stock price remains robust when (...)
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  27. Gender Stereotypes in the Multiverse.Anna Gotlib - 2011 - In The Multimedia Encyclopedia of Women in Today's World. Sage Press.
  28. Beyond Stereotypes.Colin R. Boylan, Douglas M. Hill, Andrew R. Wallace & Alan E. Wheeler - 1992 - Science Education 76 (5):465-476.
     
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  29.  45
    More Stereotypes, Please! The Limits of ‘Theory of Mind’ and the Need for Further Studies on the Complexity of Real World Social Interactions.Kristin Andrews - 2017 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 40.
  30.  67
    Avoiding the Stereotyping of the Philosophy of Conspiracy Theories: A Reply to Hill.M. R. X. Dentith - 2022 - Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective 11 (8):41-49.
    I’m to push back on Hill’s (2022) criticism in four ways. First: we need some context for the debate that occurred in the pages of the Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective that so concerns Hill. Second: getting precise with our terminology (and not working with stereotypes) is the only theoretically fruitful way to approach the problem of conspiracy theories. Third: I address Hill’s claim there is no evidence George W. Bush or Tony Blair accused their critics, during the (...)
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  31.  15
    Stereotyping: Why Cohen is Right, Why Cohen is Wrong.M. Schwartz - 2007 - Australian Journal of Professional and Applied Ethics 9 (2):28-35.
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  32. Some Stereotypes in the Periodization of Chinese History.Benjamin Schwartz - 1968 - Philosophical Forum 1 (2):219.
     
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  33.  17
    Stereotype Discourse in Israel.Chairperson Karl Cordell & Henriette Dahan Kalev - 1996 - The European Legacy 1 (2):680-688.
    (1996). Stereotype discourse in Israel. The European Legacy: Vol. 1, Fourth International Conference of the International Society for the study of European Ideas, pp. 680-688.
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  34. Stereotypes, Prejudice, and the Taxonomy of the Implicit Social Mind.Alex Madva & Michael Brownstein - 2018 - Noûs 52 (3):611-644.
    How do cognition and affect interact to produce action? Research in intergroup psychology illuminates this question by investigating the relationship between stereotypes and prejudices about social groups. Yet it is now clear that many social attitudes are implicit. This raises the question: how does the distinction between cognition and affect apply to implicit mental states? An influential view—roughly analogous to a Humean theory of action—is that “implicit stereotypes” and “implicit prejudices” constitute two separate constructs, reflecting different mental processes (...)
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  35.  6
    Stereotyping the Role of Oldness Limits the Growth Potential.Lillian Dangott & Margaret Nallia - forthcoming - Humanitas.
  36. National Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Aesthetic Judgments in the Historiography of Art.Thomas DaCosta Kaufmann - 2002 - In Michael Ann Holly & Keith P. F. Moxey (eds.), Art History, Aesthetics, Visual Studies. Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute.
     
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  37.  23
    Implicit Stereotypes and Memory: The Bounded Rationality of Social Beliefs.Mahzarin R. Banaji & R. Bhaskar - 2000 - In Daniel L. Schacter & Elaine Scarry (eds.), Memory, Brain, and Belief. Harvard Univ Pr. pp. 139--175.
  38.  1
    How Stereotypes Deceive Us.Katherine Puddifoot - 2021 - Oxford University Press.
    Stereotypes sometimes lead us to make poor judgements of other people, but they also have the potential to facilitate quick, efficient, and accurate judgements. How can we discern whether any individual act of stereotyping will have the positive or negative effect? How Stereotypes Deceive Us addresses this question. It identifies various factors that determine whether or not the application of a stereotype to an individual in a specific context will facilitate or impede correct judgements and perceptions of the (...)
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  39. Stereotyping as Discrimination: Why Thoughts Can Be Discriminatory.Erin Beeghly - 2021 - Social Epistemology 35 (6):547-563.
  40. Stereotyping Religion: Critiquing Clichés.Brad Stoddard & Craig Martin - unknown
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  41.  7
    Stereotypes, Ingroup Emotions and the Inner Predictive Machinery of Testimony.José M. Araya & Simón Palacios - forthcoming - Topoi:1-12.
    The reductionist/anti-reductionist debate about testimonial justification can be taken to collapse into a controversy about two kinds of underlying monitoring mechanism. The nature and structure of this mechanism remains an enigma in the debate. We suggest that the underlying monitoring mechanism amounts to emotion-based stereotyping. Our main argument in favor of the stereotype hypothesis about testimonial monitoring is that the underlying psychological mechanism responsible for testimonial monitoring has several conditions to satisfy. Each of these conditions is satisfied by our “hot” (...)
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  42.  96
    Stereotypes, Conceptual Centrality and Gender Bias: An Empirical Investigation.Guillermo Del Pinal, Alex Madva & Kevin Reuter - 2017 - Ratio 30 (4):384-410.
    Discussions in social psychology overlook an important way in which biases can be encoded in conceptual representations. Most accounts of implicit bias focus on ‘mere associations’ between features and representations of social groups. While some have argued that some implicit biases must have a richer conceptual structure, they have said little about what this richer structure might be. To address this lacuna, we build on research in philosophy and cognitive science demonstrating that concepts represent dependency relations between features. These relations, (...)
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  43. Selected Stereotypes in Polish Jokes About Jaś and Blondes.Anna Rajchel - 2022 - In Małgorzata Haładewicz-Grzelak & Marta Boguslawska-Tafelska (eds.), Intersubjective Plateaus in Language and Communication. Peter Lang.
     
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  44.  65
    The Stereotype Threat Hypothesis: An Assessment From the Philosopher's Armchair, for the Philosopher's Classroom.Gina Schouten - 2015 - Hypatia 30 (2):450-466.
    According to Stereotype Threat Hypothesis, fear of confirming gendered stereotypes causes women to experience anxiety in circumstances wherein their performance might potentially confirm those stereotypes, such as high-stakes testing scenarios in science, technology, engineering, and math courses. This anxiety causes women to underperform, which in turn causes them to withdraw from math-intensive disciplines. STH is thought by many to account for the underrepresentation of women in STEM fields, and a growing body of evidence substantiates this hypothesis. In considering (...)
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  45.  2
    Ambivalent Stereotypes and Persuasion: Attitudinal Effects of Warmth Vs. Competence Ascribed to Message Sources.Roman Linne, Melanie Schäfer & Gerd Bohner - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    The stereotype content model defines warmth and competence as basic dimensions of social judgment, with warmth often dominating perceptions; it also states that many group-related stereotypes are ambivalent, featuring high levels on one dimension and low levels on the other. Persuasion theories feature both direct and indirect source effects. Combining both the approaches, we studied the persuasiveness of ambivalently stereotyped sources. Participants read persuasive arguments attributed to groups stereotyped as either low in competence but high in warmth or vice (...)
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  46.  11
    Counter-Stereotypical Pictures as a Strategy for Overcoming Spontaneous Gender Stereotypes.Eimear Finnegan, Jane Oakhill & Alan Garnham - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
    The present research investigated the use of counter-stereotypical pictures as a strategy for overcoming spontaneous gender stereotypes when certain social role nouns and professional terms are read. Across two experiments, participants completed a judgment task in which they were presented with word pairs comprised of a role noun with a stereotypical gender bias (e.g., beautician) and a kinship term with definitional gender (e.g., brother). Their task was to quickly decide whether or not both terms could refer to one person. (...)
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  47.  9
    Cultural Stereotyping of the Lady in 4Q184 and 4Q185.Ananda Geyser-Fouché - 2016 - HTS Theological Studies 72 (4):1-6.
    Wisdom and wickedness as a 'Woman' have always attracted much discussion, especially in the ways images of the female are employed in wisdom literature. This article focuses on two Qumran texts that fall into the category of wisdom literature, namely 4Q184 and 4Q185, and the metaphorical appropriation of the woman as a figure of wisdom or a figure of wickedness. By combining a number of traditions in certain forms, sages tried to establish an education for their learners on how to (...)
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  48.  1
    A Stereotype Of The West In Postpartition Poland.Jerzy Jedlicki - 1992 - Social Research: An International Quarterly 59:345-364.
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  49.  55
    Slurs, Stereotypes and Insults.Eleonora Orlando & Andrés Saab - 2020 - Acta Analytica 35 (4):599-621.
    This paper is about paradigmatic slurs, i.e. expressions that are prima facie associated with the expression of a contemptuous attitude concerning a group of people identified in terms of its origin or descent, race, sexual orientation, ethnia or religion, gender, etc. Our purpose is twofold: explaining their expressive meaning dimension in terms of a version of stereotype semantics and analysing their original and most typical uses as insults, which will be called with a neologism ‘insultive’, in terms of a speech (...)
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  50.  8
    Les stéréotypes culturels et Les images dans le cinéma.Serhat Ulagli - 2006 - In Maxence Caron & Jocelyn Benoist (eds.), Heidegger. Cerf. pp. 797--483.
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