Results for 'structural racism'

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  1.  26
    Structural Racism in the COVID-19 Pandemic: Moving Forward.Maya Sabatello, Mary Jackson Scroggins, Greta Goto, Alicia Santiago, Alma McCormick, Kimberly Jacoby Morris, Christina R. Daulton, Carla L. Easter & Gwen Darien - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (3):56-74.
    The COVID-19 pandemic has taken a substantial human, social and economic toll globally, but its impact on Black/African Americans, Latinx, and American Indian/Alaska Native communities in the U.S....
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  2.  9
    Addressing Structural Racism Through Constitutional Transformation and Decolonization: Insights for the New Zealand Health Sector.Heather Came, Maria Baker & Tim McCreanor - 2021 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 18 (1):59-70.
    In colonial states and settings, constitutional arrangements are often forged within contexts that serve to maintain structural racism against Indigenous people. In 2013 the New Zealand government initiated national conversations about the constitutional arrangements in Aotearoa. Māori leadership preceded this, initiating a comprehensive engagement process among Māori in 2010, which resulted in a report by Matike Mai Aotearoa which articulated a collective Māori vision of a written constitution congruent with te Tiriti o Waitangi by 2040.This conceptual article explores (...)
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  3.  14
    Structural Racism and Health Disparities: Reconfiguring the Social Determinants of Health Framework to Include the Root Cause.Ruqaiijah Yearby - 2020 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 48 (3):518-526.
    The government recognizes that social factors cause racial inequalities in access to resources and opportunities that result in racial health disparities. However, this recognition fails to acknowledge the root cause of these racial inequalities: structural racism. As a result, racial health disparities persist.
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  4.  16
    Structural Racism in Precision Medicine: Leaving No One Behind.Tenzin Wangmo, Bernice Simone Elger, David Shaw, Andrea Martani & Lester Darryl Geneviève - 2020 - BMC Medical Ethics 21 (1):1-13.
    Precision medicine is an emerging approach to individualized care. It aims to help physicians better comprehend and predict the needs of their patients while effectively adopting in a timely manner the most suitable treatment by promoting the sharing of health data and the implementation of learning healthcare systems. Alongside its promises, PM also entails the risk of exacerbating healthcare inequalities, in particular between ethnoracial groups. One often-neglected underlying reason why this might happen is the impact of structural racism (...)
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  5.  10
    Structural Racism and Maternal Health Among Black Women.Jamila K. Taylor - 2020 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 48 (3):506-517.
    Historical foundations rooted in reproductive oppression have implications for how racism has been integrated into the structures of society, including public policies, institutional practices, and cultural representations that reinforce racial inequality in maternal health. This article examines these connections and sheds light on how they perpetuate both racial disparities in maternal health and high rates of maternal mortality and morbidity among Black women.
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  6.  6
    Structural Racism in the COVID-19 Pandemic: Don’T Forget About the Children!Jonathan M. Marron - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (3):94-97.
    The COVID-19 pandemic has been unprecedented, in every sense of the word. At the time of writing, there have been nearly 80 million confirmed cases of coronavirus and nearly 2 million deaths worldw...
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  7. Structural Racism, Institutional Agency, and Disrespect.Andrew J. Pierce - 2014 - Journal of Philosophical Research 39:23-42.
    In recent work, Joshua Glasgow has offered a definition of racism that is supposed to put to rest the debates between cognitive, behavioral, attitudinal, and institutionalist definitions. The key to such a definition, he argues, is the idea of disrespect. He claims: “φ is racist if and only if φ is disrespectful toward members of racialized group R as Rs.” While this definition may capture an important commonality among cognitive, behavioral, and attitudinal accounts of racism, I argue that (...)
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  8.  17
    Structural Racism, Institutional Agency, and Disrespect.Andrew J. Pierce - 2014 - Journal of Philosophical Research 39:23-42.
    In recent work, Joshua Glasgow has offered a definition of racism that is supposed to put to rest the debates between cognitive, behavioral, attitudinal, and institutionalist definitions. The key to such a definition, he argues, is the idea of disrespect. He claims: “φ is racist if and only if φ is disrespectful toward members of racialized group R as Rs.” While this definition may capture an important commonality among cognitive, behavioral, and attitudinal accounts of racism, I argue that (...)
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  9.  2
    Latinos and Structural Racism.Laura E. Gómez - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (3):83-85.
    Maya Sabatello and coauthors, in “Structural Racism in the COVID-19 Pandemic,” have called our attention to how preexisting systemic racism in the United States has produced exactly the racial disp...
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  10.  7
    What's True in Truth and Reconciliation? Why Epistemic Justice is of Paramount Importance in Addressing Structural Racism in Healthcare.Yoann Della Croce, Matteo Gianni & Valeria Marino - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (3):92-94.
    In their address of structural racism in healthcare, Sabatello and colleagues provide both a remarkable review of the empirical literature regarding the disproportionate impacts of the COVID...
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  11.  6
    Civic Learning, Science, and Structural Racism.Kiameesha R. Evans & Michael K. Gusmano - 2021 - Hastings Center Report 51 (S1):46-50.
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  12.  3
    An Open Dialogue on Health Disparities and Structural Racism: Response to Open Peer Commentaries.Maya Sabatello, Mary Jackson Scroggins, Greta Goto, Alicia Santiago, Alma McCormick, Kimberly Jacoby Morris, Christina R. Daulton, Carla L. Easter & Gwen Darien - forthcoming - American Journal of Bioethics:1-3.
    In our target article, we proposed the use of community engagement and the establishment of a Truth and Reconciliation Commission as pathways for promoting social just...
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  13. The Wrongs of Racist Beliefs.Rima Basu - 2019 - Philosophical Studies 176 (9):2497-2515.
    We care not only about how people treat us, but also what they believe of us. If I believe that you’re a bad tipper given your race, I’ve wronged you. But, what if you are a bad tipper? It is commonly argued that the way racist beliefs wrong is that the racist believer either misrepresents reality, organizes facts in a misleading way that distorts the truth, or engages in fallacious reasoning. In this paper, I present a case that challenges this (...)
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  14. Racism as Self-Love.Grant Joseph Silva - 2019 - Radical Philosophy Review 22 (1):85-112.
    In the United States today, much interpersonal racism is driven by corrupt forms of self-preservation. Drawing from Jean- Jacques Rousseau, I refer to this as self-love racism. The byproduct of socially-induced racial anxieties and perceived threats to one’s physical or social wellbeing, self-love racism is the protective attachment to the racialized dimensions of one’s social status, wealth, privilege, and/or identity. Examples include police officer related shootings of unarmed Black Americans, anti-immigrant sentiment, and the resurgence of unabashed white (...)
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  15.  38
    Structure and Agency in Scholarly Formulations of Racism.Kevin McKenzie - 2011 - Human Studies 34 (1):67-92.
    That the issue of racism is a pressing social concern which requires serious and detailed attention is, for ethnomethodology, not a first principle from which its own inquiry is launched but rather a matter to be considered in light of how mundane actors (both professional and lay) treat that very topic. This paper explores how the assumption of an ontological distinction between social structure and individual agency is integral to the intelligibility of racism as formulated in scholarly accounts. (...)
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  16.  2
    Structural Gendered Racism Revealed in Pandemic Times: Intersectional Approaches to Understanding Race and Gender Health Inequities in COVID-19.Tashelle Wright & Whitney N. Laster Pirtle - 2021 - Gender and Society 35 (2):168-179.
    The pandemic reveals; the novel coronavirus pandemic has brought the historically rooted inequities of our society to the forefront. We argue that an intersectional analysis is needed to further help peel back the veil that the pandemic has begun to reveal. We identify structural gendered racism—the totality of interconnectedness between structural racism and structural sexism in shaping race and gender inequities—as a root cause of health problems among Black women and other women of color, which (...)
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  17.  25
    Racism and Sexual Oppression in Anglo-America: A Genealogy.Ladelle McWhorter - 2009 - Indiana University Press.
    Does the black struggle for civil rights make common cause with the movement to foster queer community, protest anti-queer violence or discrimination, and demand respect for the rights and sensibilities of queer people? Confronting this emotionally charged question, Ladelle McWhorter reveals how a carefully structured campaign against abnormality in the late 19th and early 20th centuries encouraged white Americans to purge society of so-called biological contaminants, people who were poor, disabled, black, or queer. Building on a legacy of savage hate (...)
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  18.  20
    Contemporary "Structures" of Racism.Justin I. Fugo - 2019 - Sartre Studies International 25 (2):57-76.
    This paper develops an account of racism as rooted in social structural processes. Using Sartre, I attempt to give a general analysis of what I refer to as the “structures” of our social world, namely the practico-inert, serial collectives, and social groups. I then apply this analysis to expose and elucidate “racist structures,” specifically those that are oftentimes assumed to be ‘race neutral’. By highlighting structures of racial oppression and domination, I aim to justify: 1) the imperative of (...)
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  19.  38
    Agency, Structure, and Power: An Inquiry Into Racism and Resistance for Education.Benjamin Baez - 2000 - Studies in Philosophy and Education 19 (4):329-348.
    This paper argues that the agency/structure dichotomy thatpredominates in racism discourse is problematic because itobscures how racism is produced and resisted at the local sitesof relations between individuals and between individualsand institutions. Racism permeates social relations,ensured by `knowledge' and guaranteed through self-regulation. Resistance to racism requires arecognition of racism's `local' character. As aresult, educators, particularly in classrooms,play important roles in resistance-practices.
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  20. Whiteness Visible: Enlightenment Racism and the Structure of Racialized Consciousness.Arnold Farr - 2004 - In George Yancy (ed.), What White Looks Like: African-American Philosophers on the Whiteness Question. Routledge.
     
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  21.  8
    Race, Racism, and Structural Injustice: Equitable Allocation and Distribution of Vaccines for the COVID-19.Helene D. Gayle & James F. Childress - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (3):4-7.
    Inequity has been a hallmark of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States, especially in the sharply disproportionate impacts among people of color. Recent studies have confirmed that t...
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  22.  27
    Anti-Racist Moral Education: A Review of Approaches, Impact and Theoretical Underpinnings From 2000 to 2015. [REVIEW]Ingrid Lynch, Sharlene Swartz & Dane Isaacs - 2017 - Journal of Moral Education 46 (2):129-144.
    Racism is a moral issue and of concern for moral educators, with recent social movements such as #BlackLivesMatter highlighting how far we are from obliterating racial oppression and the unearned privilege whiteness confers. To contribute to a more formalised approach to anti-racist moral education, this article systematically reviews 15 years of peer-reviewed scholarship concerned with anti-racist education, to establish the definitions and aims of anti-racist education drawn on, the theoretical frameworks underpinning these, the methods used in education efforts, and (...)
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  23.  46
    Racism As Personal Vice and Structural Problem.Matthew R. Silliman - 2003 - Social Philosophy Today 19:243-248.
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  24.  8
    Racism As Personal Vice and Structural Problem: A Comment on Lawrence Blum.Matthew R. Silliman - 2003 - Social Philosophy Today 19:243-248.
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  25.  9
    Rationing, Racism and Justice: Advancing the Debate Around ‘Colourblind’ COVID-19 Ventilator Allocation.Harald Schmidt, Dorothy E. Roberts & Nwamaka D. Eneanya - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics:medethics-2020-106856.
    Withholding or withdrawing life-saving ventilators can become necessary when resources are insufficient. In the USA, such rationing has unique social justice dimensions. Structural elements of dominant allocation frameworks simultaneously advantage white communities, and disadvantage Black communities—who already experience a disproportionate burden of COVID-19-related job losses, hospitalisations and mortality. Using the example of New Jersey’s Crisis Standard of Care policy, we describe how dominant rationing guidance compounds for many Black patients prior unfair structural disadvantage, chiefly due to the way (...)
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  26.  5
    The Costs of Institutional Racism and its Ethical Implications for Healthcare.Amanuel Elias & Yin Paradies - 2021 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 18 (1):45-58.
    This paper discusses the ethical implications of racism and some of the various costs associated with racism occurring at the institutional level. We argue that, in many ways, the laws, social structures, and institutions in Western society have operated to perpetuate the continuation of historical legacies of racial inequities with or without the intention of individuals and groups in society. By merely maintaining existing structures, laws, and social norms, society can impose social, economic, and health costs on racial (...)
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  27. Racism, Psychology, and Morality: Dialogue with Faucher and Machery.J. L. A. Garcia - 2011 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 41 (2):250-268.
    I here respond to several points in Faucher and Machery’s vigorous and informative critique of my volitional account of racism (VAR). First, although the authors deem it a form of "implicit racial bias," a mere tendency to associate black people with "negative" concepts falls short of racial "bias" or prejudice in the relevant sense. Second, such an associative disposition need not even be morally objectionable. Third, even for more substantial forms of implicit racial bias such as race-based fear or (...)
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  28.  23
    Racism and the Logic of Capital: A Fanonian Reconsideration.Peter Hudis - 2018 - Historical Materialism 26 (2):199-220.
    The last several decades have produced a slew of important studies by Marxists of the logic of capital, as well as numerous explorations by postcolonial theorists of the narratives that structure racial and ethnic discrimination. Far too often, however, these two currents have assumed different or even opposed trajectories, making it all the harder to transcend one-sided class-reductionist analyses and equally one-sided affirmations of identity that bypass or ignore class. In light of the new reality produced by the deepening crisis (...)
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  29.  2
    Lead Essay—Institutional Racism, Whiteness, and the Role of Critical Bioethics.Christopher Mayes, Yin Paradies & Amanuel Elias - 2021 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 18 (1):9-12.
    This paper discusses the ethical implications of racism and some of the various costs associated with racism occurring at the institutional level. We argue that, in many ways, the laws, social structures, and institutions in Western society have operated to perpetuate the continuation of historical legacies of racial inequities with or without the intention of individuals and groups in society. By merely maintaining existing structures, laws, and social norms, society can impose social, economic, and health costs on racial (...)
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  30.  7
    Scapegoat Racism and the Sacrificial Politics of "Security".Margaret Denike - 2015 - Journal of International Political Theory 11 (1):111-127.
    This article draws on Girard’s general account of sacrificial violence to elucidate the race-thinking that structures contemporary discourses on security in Western security states, particularly in Canada and the United States. With attention to the relation between collective group formation and to the structures and processes of inclusion/exclusion that define them, my discussion unfolds Girard’s figure and analysis of “the scapegoat” within and against contemporary theories of racial violence and group-based persecution. It profiles the specter of race in the assemblages (...)
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  31.  50
    Racism in Mind: Philosophical Explanations of Racism and Its Implications.Michael Levine & Tamas Pataki (eds.) - 2004 - Cornell UP.
    Michael P. Levine, Tamas Pataki. the case of racism. If one understands racism to be rooted in some underlying psychological structure, then while what is ordinarily called racist behavior may well be indicative of such an underlying structure, ...
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  32.  8
    Social Theory, Psychoanalysis and Racism.Simon Clarke - 2003 - Palgrave-Macmillan.
    Sociological explanations of racism tend to concentrate on the structures and dynamics of modern life that facilitate discrimination and hierarchies of inequality. In doing so, they often fail to address why racial hatred arises (as opposed to how it arises) as well as to explain why it can be so visceral and explosive in character. Bringing together sociological perspectives with psychoanalytic concepts and tools, this text offers a clear, accessible and thought-provoking synthesis of varieties of theory, with the aim (...)
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  33.  46
    Will the Real Tolerant Racist Please Stand Up?Magali Bessone - 2013 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 30 (3):209-223.
    One of the most perplexing paradoxes of toleration concerns the ‘tolerant racist’. According to most current definitions of toleration, a person is considered tolerant if, and only if, 1) he refrains from interfering with something 2) he deeply disapproves of, 3) in spite of having the power to interfere. Hence, a racist who refrains from discriminating against members of races he considers inferior despite having the power to do so, should be considered a tolerant person. Moreover, a person can apparently (...)
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  34. Attitude, Inference, Association: On the Propositional Structure of Implicit Bias.Eric Mandelbaum - 2016 - Noûs 50 (3):629-658.
    The overwhelming majority of those who theorize about implicit biases posit that these biases are caused by some sort of association. However, what exactly this claim amounts to is rarely specified. In this paper, I distinguish between different understandings of association, and I argue that the crucial senses of association for elucidating implicit bias are the cognitive structure and mental process senses. A hypothesis is subsequently derived: if associations really underpin implicit biases, then implicit biases should be modulated by counterconditioning (...)
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  35.  50
    Environmental Racism: A Causal and Historical Account.Ariela Tubert - forthcoming - Journal of Social Philosophy.
    This paper develops a philosophical account of environmental racism and explains why having such an account is worthwhile. After reviewing some data points and common uses of the term linking environmental racism to the distribution of environmental burdens by race, I argue that environmental racism should be understood as referring to an unequal distribution caused by a history of racism. Environmental racism is thus analyzed in terms of two conditions: first, that environmental burdens and benefits (...)
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  36.  11
    Something More Than Words: A Review of (Re-)Defining Racism: A Philosophical Analysis, Alberto G. Urquidez. [REVIEW]George N. Fourlas - forthcoming - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-5.
    Drawing on the later work of Ludwig Wittgenstein, Alberto G. Urquidez works to free the fly from the metaphorical bottle by shifting the terms of the debate away from attempts at describing a thing that is not real and toward a normative or prescriptive approach to racism, rather than race, that emphasizes how the concept ought to be defined, as well as deployed, for anti-racist ends. Urquidez refers to this normative pragmatic approach as ‘conventionalism’ and the overarching structure of (...)
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  37. Explaining Injustice: Structural Analysis, Bias, and Individuals.Saray Ayala López & Erin Beeghly - 2020 - In Erin Beeghly & Alex Madva (eds.), An Introduction to Implicit Bias: Knowledge, Justice, and the Social Mind. New York, NY, USA: Routledge. pp. 211-232.
    Why does social injustice exist? What role, if any, do implicit biases play in the perpetuation of social inequalities? Individualistic approaches to these questions explain social injustice as the result of individuals’ preferences, beliefs, and choices. For example, they explain racial injustice as the result of individuals acting on racial stereotypes and prejudices. In contrast, structural approaches explain social injustice in terms of beyond-the-individual features, including laws, institutions, city layouts, and social norms. Often these two approaches are seen as (...)
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  38.  60
    Is the Mirror Racist?: Interrogating the Space of Whiteness.Shannon Winnubst - 2004 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 30 (1):25-50.
    This essay draws on a wide range of feminist, psychoanalytic and other anti-racist theorists to work out the specific mode of space as ‘contained’ and the ways it grounds dominant contemporary forms of racism i.e. the space of phallicized whiteness. Offering a close reading of Lacan’s primary models for ego-formation, the mirror stage and the inverted bouquet, I argue that psychoanalysis can help us to map contemporary power relations of racism because it enacts some of those very dynamics. (...)
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  39.  20
    Racist Subjectivation, Capitalism, and Colonialism.Fabio Bruschi - 2019 - Symposium 23 (1):138-157.
    This article highlights the impasses of anti-racist struggles that understand racism as an opinion or a prejudice and use education as their only means for addressing it. Racism should rather be understood as a socio-historical subjective structure rooted in the process of constitution of the division of labour on a global scale through colonialism, a process that was crucial to the institution of capitalism. This is why we will put forth the importance of rejecting the narrations that camouflage (...)
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  40.  24
    Anti-Racist Health Care Practice. [REVIEW]Kathryn L. Mackay - 2011 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 4 (2):164-168.
    Elizabeth A. McGibbon and Josephine B. Etowa’s co-authored book Anti-racist Health Care Practice exposes and addresses systemic racism in the Canadian health-care system. McGibbon and Etowa directly confront racism in health provision and Canadian society, and provide a discussion of racism and related issues (gender, class) that does not hold back criticisms. The system of racial oppression and its sustenance by white privilege is presented to the reader in a clear and straightforward way, making it impossible for (...)
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  41.  2
    The Racism Scene and the Multicultural Project: Quebec as an Example.Philippe Bataille - 1998 - Social Science Information 37 (2):381-399.
    In crisis-ridden social and cultural contexts, racism tends to be translated into action. This article, based on a study of Quebec in particular, looks at the political option of multiculturalism as a possible institutional and political response to racism. When the different levels of political organization of a society - in the present case, the Federal Government of Canada and the Provincial State of Quebec - are divided ideologically, a policy such as multiculturalism, conceived as a political means (...)
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  42.  10
    Racism, Vulnerability, and the Youth Struggle in Africa.Paul K. Michael - 2021 - Dialogue and Universalism 31 (1):105-118.
    Because youths are particularly vulnerable to social problems, philosophers since Plato to date have continued to show interest in developing, empowering, and protecting the youths. African youths are particularly far more than ordinarily vulnerable to various social problems including racism especially from outside the continent, mainly because of the shortfall in youth development and empowerment strategies in most African countries. Consequently, young people are pulled to countries with resources and infrastructures that provide them with opportunities to enlarge their capabilities (...)
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  43.  6
    The Racism of Philosophy’s Fear of Cultural Relativism.Shuchen Xiang - 2020 - Journal of World Philosophies 5 (1):99-120.
    By looking at a canonical article representing academic philosophy’s orthodox view against cultural relativism, James Rachels’ “The Challenge of Cultural Relativism,” this paper argues that current mainstream western academic philosophy’s fear of cultural relativism is premised on a fear of the racial Other. The examples that Rachels marshals against cultural relativism default to the persistent, ubiquitous, and age-old stereotypes about the savage/barbarian Other that have dominated the history of western engagement with the non-western world. What academic philosophy fears about cultural (...)
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  44.  6
    Racist Encounters: A Pragmatist Semiotic Analysis of Interaction.Stefan Timmermans & Iddo Tavory - 2020 - Sociological Theory 38 (4):295-317.
    Complementing discourse-analytic approaches, we develop C. S. Peirce’s semiotic theory to analyze how racism is enacted and countered in everyday interactions. We examine how the semiotic structure of racist encounters depends on acts of signification that can be deflected and that take shape in the ways actors negotiate interactions in situ. After outlining the semiotic apparatus Peirce pioneered, we trace the dynamic processes of generalization and specification in recorded racist encounters as specific forms of semiotic upshifting and downshifting. We (...)
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  45.  3
    “Now Why Do You Want to Know About That?”: Heteronormativity, Sexism, and Racism in the Sexual (Mis)Education of Latina Youth.Lorena García - 2009 - Gender and Society 23 (4):520-541.
    Research has revealed that sex education policies are informed by national and local struggles over the meanings and consequences of gender, race, sexuality, and class categories. However, few studies have considered how policies are enacted in the classroom production of sex education to support or challenge gender, racial, sexual, and class hierarchies. This article draws on data obtained through semistructured in-depth interviews with 40 Latina youth to explore how heteronormativity, sexism, and racism operate together to structure the content and (...)
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  46.  30
    Materializing Systemic Racism, Materializing Health Disparities.Vanessa Carbonell & Shen-yi Liao - forthcoming - American Journal of Bioethics.
    The purpose of cultural competence education for medical professionals is to ensure respectful care and reduce health disparities. Yet as Berger and Miller show, the cultural competence framework is dated, confused, and self-defeating. They argue that the framework ignores the primary driver of health disparities—systemic racism—and is apt to exacerbate rather than mitigate bias and ethnocentrism. They propose replacing cultural competence with a framework that attends to two social aspects of structural inequality: health and social policy, and institutional-system (...)
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  47. Subverting the Racist Lens: Frederick Douglass, Humanity and the Power of the Photographic Image.Bill Lawson & Maria Brincker - 2017 - In Bill Lawson & Celeste-Marie Bernier (eds.), Pictures and Power: Imaging and Imagining Frederick Douglass 1818-2018. by Liverpool University Press.
    Frederick Douglass, the abolitionist, the civil rights advocate and the great rhetorician, has been the focus of much academic research. Only more recently is Douglass work on aesthetics beginning to receive its due, and even then its philosophical scope is rarely appreciated. Douglass’ aesthetic interest was notably not so much in art itself, but in understanding aesthetic presentation as an epistemological and psychological aspect of the human condition and thereby as a social and political tool. He was fascinated by the (...)
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  48. Racial States, Anti-Racist Responses: Picking Holes in ‘Culture’ and ‘Human Rights’.Alana Lentin - 2004 - European Journal of Social Theory 7 (4):427-443.
    This article seeks to re-examine two major assumptions in mainstream anti-racist thought of the post-war era. These are culturalism, on the one hand, and human rights on the other, both of which have been offered as potential solutions to the ongoing problem of racism. I argue that both fail to cope with racism as it has been institutionalized in the political and social structures of European societies because they inaccurately theorize ‘race’. Racism is treated as an individual (...)
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  49.  76
    Theorising and Exposing Institutional Racism in Britain: The Contribution of Ann and Michael Dummett to Critical Philosophy of Race.Robert Bernasconi - 2017 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 34 (4):593-606.
    By helping to introduce the relatively new concept of institutional racism into Britain, Sir Michael and Ann Dummett expanded the concept of racism beyond the limited sense it had been given in the 1940s and 1950s when racism tended to be associated with the scientific concept of race and when the focus tended to fall on the intent to harm or speak harm of a group that was identified as a race by science. They recognised that ‘race’ (...)
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  50.  6
    Health Disparities, Systemic Racism, and Failures of Cultural Competence.Jeffrey T. Berger & Dana Ribeiro Miller - forthcoming - American Journal of Bioethics:1-7.
    Health disparities are primarily driven by structural inequality including systemic racism. Medical educators, led by the AAMC, have tended to minimize these core drivers of health disparities. Ins...
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