Results for 'structure mapping'

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  1.  85
    Structure-Mapping: Directions From Simulation to Theory.Theodore Bach - 2011 - Philosophical Psychology 24 (1):23-51.
    The theory of mind debate has reached a “hybrid consensus” concerning the status of theory-theory and simulation-theory. Extant hybrid models either specify co-dependency and implementation relations, or distribute mentalizing tasks according to folk-psychological categories. By relying on a non-developmental framework these models fail to capture the central connection between simulation and theory. I propose a “dynamic” hybrid that is informed by recent work on the nature of similarity cognition. I claim that Gentner’s model of structure-mapping allows us to (...)
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  2.  9
    Structure Mapping and Vocabularies for Thinking.Loewenstein Jeffrey - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (3):842-858.
    While extremes tend to capture attention, the ordinary is often most of the story. So it may be with the structure-mapping process. The structure-mapping process can account for such pinnacles of thinking as analogy and metaphor, which can lead to overlooking the mundane, incremental use of structure mapping. Consequently, the current discussion shifts focus to the value of close comparisons between literally similar items for the development of knowledge. The intent is to foster greater (...)
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  3.  76
    Structure-Mapping in Metaphor Comprehension.Phillip Wolff & Dedre Gentner - 2011 - Cognitive Science 35 (8):1456-1488.
    Metaphor has a double life. It can be described as a directional process in which a stable, familiar base domain provides inferential structure to a less clearly specified target. But metaphor is also described as a process of finding commonalities, an inherently symmetric process. In this second view, both concepts may be altered by the metaphorical comparison. Whereas most theories of metaphor capture one of these aspects, we offer a model based on structure-mapping that captures both sides (...)
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  4.  54
    Structural Priming as Structure-Mapping: Children Use Analogies From Previous Utterances to Guide Sentence Production.Micah B. Goldwater, Marc T. Tomlinson, Catharine H. Echols & Bradley C. Love - 2011 - Cognitive Science 35 (1):156-170.
    What mechanisms underlie children’s language production? Structural priming—the repetition of sentence structure across utterances—is an important measure of the developing production system. We propose its mechanism in children is the same as may underlie analogical reasoning: structure-mapping. Under this view, structural priming is the result of making an analogy between utterances, such that children map semantic and syntactic structure from previous to future utterances. Because the ability to map relationally complex structures develops with age, younger children (...)
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  5.  28
    Mapping Relational Structure in Spatial Reasoning.Merideth Gattis - 2004 - Cognitive Science 28 (4):589-610.
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  6.  25
    StructureMapping: A Theoretical Framework for Analogy.Dedre Gentner - 1983 - Cognitive Science 7 (2):155-170.
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  7.  21
    Identifying Sources of Intractability in Cognitive Models: An Illustration Using Analogical Structure Mapping.Iris van Rooij, Patricia Evans, Moritz Müller, Jason Gedge & Todd Wareham - 2008 - In B. C. Love, K. McRae & V. M. Sloutsky (eds.), Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Cognitive Science Society.
  8.  12
    Incremental Structure-Mapping.Kenneth D. Forbus, Ronald W. Ferguson & Dedre Gentner - 1994 - In Ashwin Ram & Kurt Eiselt (eds.), Proceedings of the Sixteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Erlbaum. pp. 313--318.
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  9.  11
    Structure Mapping for Social Learning.Stella Christie - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (3):758-775.
    Analogical reasoning is a foundational tool for human learning, allowing learners to recognize relational structures in new events and domains. Here I sketch some grounds for understanding and applying analogical reasoning in social learning. The social world is fundamentally characterized by relations between people, with common relational structures—such as kinships and social hierarchies—forming social units that dictate social behaviors. Just as young learners use analogical reasoning for learning relational structures in other domains—spatial relations, verbs, relational categories—analogical reasoning ought to be (...)
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  10.  25
    Two Facets of Cognitive Control in Analogical Mapping: The Role of Semantic Interference Resolution Andgoal-Driven Structure Selection.Anna Chuderska & Adam Chuderski - 2014 - Thinking and Reasoning 20 (3):352-371.
    (2013). Two facets of cognitive control in analogical mapping: The role of semantic interference resolution andgoal-driven structure selection. Thinking & Reasoning. ???aop.label???
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  11.  12
    Mapping the Structure of the Intellectual Field Using Citation and Co-Citation Analysis of Correspondences.Yves Gingras - 2010 - History of European Ideas 36 (3):330-339.
    This article uses the methods of citation and network analysis to map the global structure of the intellectual field and its development over time. Through the case study of Mersenne's, Oldenburg's and Darwin's correspondences, we show how looking at letters as a corpus of data can provide a global representation of the evolving conversation going on in the Republic of Letters and in intellectual and scientific fields. Aggregating general correspondences in electronic format offers a global portrait of the evolving (...)
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  12.  25
    Most Cited Business Ethics Publications: Mapping the Intellectual Structure of Business Ethics Studies in 2001–2008.Zhenzhong Ma, Dapeng Liang, Kuo-Hsun Yu & Yender Lee - 2012 - Business Ethics 21 (3):286-297.
    This study explores the research paradigms of contemporary business ethics research in 2001–2008. With citation data from the top two business ethics journals included in the Social Sciences Citation Index, this study conducts citation and co-citation analysis to identify the most important publications, scholars, and research themes in the business ethics area and then maps the intellectual structure of business ethics studies between 2001 and 2008. The results show that current business ethics studies cluster around four major research themes, (...)
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  13.  5
    Distributed Representations of Structure: A Theory of Analogical Access and Mapping.John E. Hummel & Keith J. Holyoak - 1997 - Psychological Review 104 (3):427-466.
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  14.  32
    Mapping the Structure of Semantic Memory.Ana Sofia Morais, Henrik Olsson & Lael J. Schooler - 2013 - Cognitive Science 37 (1):125-145.
    Aggregating snippets from the semantic memories of many individuals may not yield a good map of an individual’s semantic memory. The authors analyze the structure of semantic networks that they sampled from individuals through a new snowball sampling paradigm during approximately 6 weeks of 1-hr daily sessions. The semantic networks of individuals have a small-world structure with short distances between words and high clustering. The distribution of links follows a power law truncated by an exponential cutoff, meaning that (...)
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  15.  4
    Mapping the Intellectual Structure of Social Entrepreneurship Research: A Citation/Co-Citation Analysis.Pradeep Kumar Hota, Balaji Subramanian & Gopalakrishnan Narayanamurthy - forthcoming - Journal of Business Ethics:1-26.
    In this paper, we employ bibliometric analysis to empirically analyse the research on social entrepreneurship published between 1996 and 2017. By employing methods of citation analysis, document co-citation analysis, and social network analysis, we analyse 1296 papers containing 74,237 cited references and uncover the structure, or intellectual base, of research on social entrepreneurship. We identify nine distinct clusters of social entrepreneurship research that depict the intellectual structure of the field. The results provide an overall perspective of the social (...)
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  16.  69
    Mapping the Structure of Debate.Jeffrey Yoshimi - 2004 - Informal Logic 24 (1):1-22.
    Although debate is a richly structured and prevalent form of discourse, it has received little scholarly attention. Logicians have focused on the structure of individual arguments—how they divide into premises and conclusions, which in turn divide into various constituents. In contrast, I focus on the structure of sets of arguments, showing how arguments are themselves constituents in high-level dialectical structures. I represent debates and positions by graphs whose vertices correspond to arguments and whose edges correspond to two inter-argument (...)
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  17. Mapping the Structure of Debate.Jeff Yoshimi - 2003 - Informal Logic 23 (1).
    Although debate is a richly structured and prevalent form of discourse, it has received little scholarly attention. Logicians have focused on the structure of individual arguments-how they divide into premises and conclusions, which in turn divide into various constituents. In contrast, I focus on the structure of sets of arguments, showing how arguments are themselves constituents in high-level dialectical structures. I represent debates and positions by graphs whose vertices correspond to arguments and whose edges correspond to two inter-argument (...)
     
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  18.  11
    Most Cited Business Ethics Publications: Mapping the Intellectual Structure of Business Ethics Studies in 2001-2008.Zhenzhong Ma, Dapeng Liang, Kuo-Hsun Yu & Yender Lee - 2012 - Business Ethics: A European Review 21 (3):286-297.
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  19.  20
    Integrating Structure and Meaning: A Distributed Model of Analogical Mapping.Chris Eliasmith & Paul Thagard - 2001 - Cognitive Science 25 (2):245-286.
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  20.  5
    Lesion Mapping the Four-Factor Structure of Emotional Intelligence.Joachim T. Operskalski, Erick J. Paul, Roberto Colom, Aron K. Barbey & Jordan Grafman - 2015 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9.
  21.  17
    Mapping Cognitive Structure Onto the Landscape of Philosophical Debate: An Empirical Framework with Relevance to Problems of Consciousness, Free Will and Ethics.Jared P. Friedman & Anthony I. Jack - 2018 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 9 (1):73-113.
    There has been considerable debate in the literature as to whether work in experimental philosophy actually makes any significant contribution to philosophy. One stated view is that many X-Phi projects, notwithstanding their focus on topics relevant to philosophy, contribute little to philosophical thought. Instead, it has been claimed the contribution they make appears to be to cognitive science. In contrast to this view, here we argue that at least one approach to X-Phi makes a contribution which parallels, and also extends, (...)
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  22.  9
    The Mapping of Visual Space is a Function of the Structure of the Visual Field.J. Blouin, N. Teasdale, C. Bard & M. Fleury - 1992 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15 (2):326-327.
  23.  13
    The Mapping From Acoustic Structure to the Phonetic Categories of Speech: The Invariance Problem.Sheila E. Blumstein - 1998 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (2):260-260.
    This commentary focuses on the nature of combinatorial properties for speech and the locus equation. The presence of some overlap in locus equation space suggests that this higher order property may not be strictly invariant and may require other cues or properties for the perception of place of articulation. Moreover, combinatorial analysis in two-dimensional space and the resultant linearity appear to have a “special” status in the development of this theoretical framework. However, place of articulation is only one of many (...)
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  24.  6
    Conceptual Mapping Through Keyword Coupled Clustering.Zvika Marx & Ido Dagan - 2001 - Mind and Society 2 (2):59-85.
    This paper introduces coupled clustering—a novel computational framework for detecting corresponding themes in unstructured data. Gaining its inspiration from the structure mapping theory, our framework utilizes unsupervised statistical learning tools for automatic construction of aligned representations reflecting the context of the particular mapping being made. The coupled clustering algorithm is demonstrated and evaluated through detecting conceptual correspondences in textual corpora. In its current phase, the method is primarily oriented towards context-dependent feature-based similarity. However, it is preliminary demonstrated (...)
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  25.  4
    Exploring the Rhetorical Semiotic Brand Image Structure of Ad Films with Multivariate Mapping Techniques.George Rossolatos - 2014 - Semiotica 2014 (200):335-358.
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  26. Mapping Structure and Connectivity.Barry G. Condron & John Chen - 2004 - Complexity 9 (4):15-16.
  27. Effect of Environmental Structure on Evolutionary Adaptation.Jeffrey A. Fletcher, Mark A. Bedau & Martin Zwick - 1998 - In R. Belew C. Adami (ed.), Artificial Life VI: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Artificial Life. Cambridge: MIT Press. pp. 189-198.
    This paper investigates how environmental structure, given the innate properties of a population, affects the degree to which this population can adapt to the environment. The model we explore involves simple agents in a 2-d world which can sense a local food distribution and, as specified by their genomes, move to a new location and ingest the food there. Adaptation in this model consists of improving the genomic sensorimotor mapping so as to maximally exploit the environmental resources. We (...)
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  28.  58
    What Difference Reveals About Similarity.Eyal Sagi, Dedre Gentner & Andrew Lovett - 2012 - Cognitive Science 36 (6):1019-1050.
    Detecting that two images are different is faster for highly dissimilar images than for highly similar images. Paradoxically, we showed that the reverse occurs when people are asked to describe how two images differ—that is, to state a difference between two images. Following structure-mapping theory, we propose that this disassociation arises from the multistage nature of the comparison process. Detecting that two images are different can be done in the initial (local-matching) stage, but only for pairs with low (...)
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  29.  6
    Analogy Lays the Foundation for Two Crucial Aspects of Symbolic Development: Intention and Correspondence.Lei Yuan & David H. Uttal - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (3):738-757.
    We argue that analogical reasoning, particularly Gentner's structure-mapping theory, provides an integrative theoretical framework through which we can better understand the development of symbol use. Analogical reasoning can contribute both to the understanding of others’ intentions and the establishment of correspondences between symbols and their referents, two crucial components of symbolic understanding. We review relevant research on the development of symbolic representations, intentionality, comparison, and similarity, and demonstrate how structure-mapping theory can shed light on several ostensibly (...)
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  30.  47
    Using Computer-Assisted Argument Mapping to Teach Reasoning to Students.Martin Davies, Ashley Barnett & Tim van Gelder - 2019 - In J. Anthony Blair (ed.), Studies in Critical Thinking. Windsor, ON, Canada: Windsor Studies in Argumentation. pp. 131-176.
    Argument mapping is a way of diagramming the logical structure of an argument to explicitly and concisely represent reasoning. The use of argument mapping in critical thinking instruction has increased dramatically in recent decades. This paper overviews the innovation and provides a procedural approach for new teaches wanting to use argument mapping in the classroom. A brief history of argument mapping is provided at the end of this paper.
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  31. A Unified Account of General Learning Mechanisms and Theory‐of‐Mind Development.Theodore Bach - 2014 - Mind and Language 29 (3):351-381.
    Modularity theorists have challenged that there are, or could be, general learning mechanisms that explain theory-of-mind development. In response, supporters of the ‘scientific theory-theory’ account of theory-of-mind development have appealed to children's use of auxiliary hypotheses and probabilistic causal modeling. This article argues that these general learning mechanisms are not sufficient to meet the modularist's challenge. The article then explores an alternative domain-general learning mechanism by proposing that children grasp the concept belief through the progressive alignment of relational structure (...)
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  32.  15
    The Effectiveness of a Single Intervention of Computer-Aided Argument Mapping in a Marketing and a Financial Accounting Subject.Martin Davies - 2011 - Higher Education Research and Development 30 (3):387-403.
    An argument map visually represents the structure of an argument, outlining its informal logical connections and informing judgments as to its worthiness. Argument mapping can be augmented with dedicated software that aids the mapping process. Empirical evidence suggests that semester‐length subjects using argument mapping along with dedicated software can produce remarkable increases in students’ critical thinking abilities. Introducing such specialised subjects, however, is often practically and politically difficult. This study ascertains student perceptions of the use of (...)
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  33. Structure and Coherence of Two-Model-Descriptions of Technical Artefacts.Ulrich Krohs - 2009 - Techne 13 (2):150-161.
    A technical artefact is often described in two ways: by means of a physicalistic model of its structure and dynamics, and by a functional account of the contributions of the components of the artefact to its capacities. These models do not compete, as different models of the same phenomenon in physics usually do; they supplement each other and cohere. Coherence is shown to be the result of a mapping of role-contributions on physicalistic relations that is brought about by (...)
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  34.  3
    Rethinking Agreement: Cognition-to-Form Mapping.Andrej A. Kibrik - 2019 - Cognitive Linguistics 30 (1):37-83.
    The prevailing assumption is that an Research underlying this study was conducted with support of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research grant #17-06-00460.agreement feature originates in one linguistic element, that is a controller, and is copied onto another one, a target. This form-to-form approach encounters massive difficulties when confronted with data, such as missing controllers or feature mismatches. A cognition-to-form mapping approach is proposed instead, suggesting that agreement features, such as person, number, and gender, are associated with referents in (...)
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  35.  30
    Mapping the Cognitive Environment of Fifth Graders: An Empirical Analysis for Use in Environmental Planning. [REVIEW]Hurng-Jyuhn Wang, Chin-Shien Wu, Yun-Yu Huang & John R. Parkins - 2014 - AI and Society 29 (3):355-362.
    This study employs an experiment investigating cognitive mapping of fifth-grade children living in a remote village environment, wherein characteristics of the landscape included paths, landmarks, nodes, edges, and districts. Two aspects of analysis were salient in this study. First, important landscape characteristics and their frequency of appearance in the cognitive maps were tabulated and illustrated as a layout map. Second, inaccurate cognitive maps were structurally analyzed to account for any incompleteness, distortions, and augmentation of actual environments found in some (...)
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  36.  39
    Bootstrapping the Mind: Analogical Processes and Symbol Systems.Dedre Gentner - 2010 - Cognitive Science 34 (5):752-775.
    Human cognition is striking in its brilliance and its adaptability. How do we get that way? How do we move from the nearly helpless state of infants to the cognitive proficiency that characterizes adults? In this paper I argue, first, that analogical ability is the key factor in our prodigious capacity, and, second, that possession of a symbol system is crucial to the full expression of analogical ability.
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  37.  22
    Relations, Objects, and the Composition of Analogies.Dedre Gentner & Kenneth J. Kurtz - 2006 - Cognitive Science 30 (4):609-642.
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  38.  8
    On the Spontaneous Discovery of a Mathematical Relation During Problem Solving.James A. Dixon & Ashley S. Bangert - 2004 - Cognitive Science 28 (3):433-449.
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  39. The Logical Structure of Just War Theory.Christopher Toner - 2010 - Journal of Ethics 14 (2):81-102.
    A survey of just war theory literature reveals the existence of quite different lists of principles. This apparent arbitrariness raises a number of questions: What is the relation between ad bellum and in bello principles? Why are there so many of the former and so few of the latter? What order is there among the various principles? To answer these questions, I first draw on some recent work by Jeff McMahan to show that ad bellum and in bello principles are (...)
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  40.  62
    Structural Constraints and Object Similarity in Analogical Mapping and Inference.Daniel C. Krawczyk, Keith J. Holyoak & John E. Hummel - 2004 - Thinking and Reasoning 10 (1):85 – 104.
    Theories of analogical reasoning have viewed relational structure as the dominant determinant of analogical mapping and inference, while assigning lesser importance to similarity between individual objects. An experiment is reported in which these two sources of constraints on analogy are placed in competition under conditions of high relational complexity. Results demonstrate equal importance for relational structure and object similarity, both in analogical mapping and in inference generation. The human data were successfully simulated using a computational analogy (...)
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  41.  38
    Modeling Corroborative Evidence: Inference to the Best Explanation as Counter–Rebuttal.David Godden - 2014 - Argumentation 28 (2):187-220.
    Corroborative evidence has a dual function in argument. Primarily, it functions to provide direct evidence supporting the main conclusion. But it also has a secondary, bolstering function which increases the probative value of some other piece of evidence in the argument. This paper argues that the bolstering effect of corroborative evidence is legitimate, and can be explained as counter–rebuttal achieved through inference to the best explanation. A model (argument diagram) of corroborative evidence, representing its structure and operation as a (...)
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  42.  22
    Routes for Roots: A Mapping Shorthand Symbolism with Reference to Nelson Goodman’s Hidden Ars Combinatoria.Gerald Moshammer - 2017 - History and Philosophy of Logic 38 (3):263-281.
    A shorthand symbolism for the relational mapping of categories is introduced and developed on the basis of Nelson Goodman's structural methodology. Through a reconstruction of extensional isomorphism that Goodman introduces as a criterion for definitional accuracy, and a brief reminder of the argument structure behind his ‘new riddle of induction’, Goodman's radical ontological relativism is turned into a protological principle of what I call ‘domain constituting philosophy’. MSS is demonstrated with reference to Goodman's symbol theory, particularly his notion (...)
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  43.  5
    Mapping Dante: A Digital Platform for the Study of Places in the Commedia.Andrea Gazzoni - 2017 - Humanist Studies and the Digital Age 5 (1):82-95.
    This essay presents Mapping Dante, a project for the study of the geography of the Divine Comedy through a digital map visualizing all the place-names mentioned in the text. First, the project background is sketched out by a concise overview of the history of the reception and visualization of Dante’s geography, of the constellation of digital Dante projects, and of GIS literary mapping. Second, specific stages and issues of Mapping Dante are discussed: the making of the dataset (...)
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  44.  11
    Beyond Proportional Analogy: A Structural Model of Analogical Mapping.Eric Steinhart - 1994 - Pragmatics and Cognitionpragmatics and Cognition 2 (1):95-129.
    A model of analogical mapping is proposed that uses five principles to generate consistent and conflicting hypotheses regarding assignments of elements of a source domain to analogous elements of a target domain. The principles follow the fine conceptual structure of the domains. The principles are: (1) the principle of proportional analogy; (2) the principle of mereological analogy, (3) the principle of chain reinforcement; (4) the principle of transitive reinforcement; and (5) the principle of mutual inconsistency. A constraint-satisfaction network (...)
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  45.  16
    Reviving Inert Knowledge: Analogical Abstraction Supports Relational Retrieval of Past Events.Dedre Gentner, Jeffrey Loewenstein, Leigh Thompson & Kenneth D. Forbus - 2009 - Cognitive Science 33 (8):1343-1382.
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  46.  40
    Faces and Ascriptions: Mapping Measures of the Self.Dan Zahavi & Andreas Roepstorff - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (1):141-148.
    The ‘self’ is increasingly used as a variable in cognitive experiments and correlated with activity in particular areas in the brain. At first glance, this seems to transform the self from an ephemeral theoretical entity to something concrete and measurable. However, the transformation is by no means unproblematic. We trace the development of two important experimental paradigms in the study of the self, self-face recognition and the adjective self ascription task. We show how the experimental instrumentalization has gone hand in (...)
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  47.  20
    Understanding Ill-Structured Engineering Ethics Problems Through a Collaborative Learning and Argument Visualization Approach.Michael Hoffmann & Jason Borenstein - 2014 - Science and Engineering Ethics 20 (1):261-276.
    As a committee of the National Academy of Engineering recognized, ethics education should foster the ability of students to analyze complex decision situations and ill-structured problems. Building on the NAE’s insights, we report about an innovative teaching approach that has two main features: first, it places the emphasis on deliberation and on self-directed, problem-based learning in small groups of students; and second, it focuses on understanding ill-structured problems. The first innovation is motivated by an abundance of scholarly research that supports (...)
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  48. Adjoints and Emergence: Applications of a New Theory of Adjoint Functors. [REVIEW]David Ellerman - 2007 - Axiomathes 17 (1):19-39.
    Since its formal definition over sixty years ago, category theory has been increasingly recognized as having a foundational role in mathematics. It provides the conceptual lens to isolate and characterize the structures with importance and universality in mathematics. The notion of an adjunction (a pair of adjoint functors) has moved to center-stage as the principal lens. The central feature of an adjunction is what might be called “determination through universals” based on universal mapping properties. A recently developed “heteromorphic” theory (...)
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  49.  24
    Stimulating Reflection and Self-Correcting Reasoning Through Argument Mapping: Three Approaches.Michael Hoffmann - 2018 - Topoi 37 (1):185-199.
    A large body of research in cognitive science differentiates human reasoning into two types: fast, intuitive, and emotional “System 1” thinking, and slower, more reflective “System 2” reasoning. According to this research, human reasoning is by default fast and intuitive, but that means that it is prone to error and biases that cloud our judgments and decision making. To improve the quality of reasoning, critical thinking education should develop strategies to slow it down and to become more reflective. The goal (...)
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  50.  60
    Partial Model Theory as Model Theory.Sebastian Lutz - 2015 - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy 2.
    I show that the partial truth of a sentence in a partial structure is equivalent to the truth of that sentence in an expansion of a structure that corresponds naturally to the partial structure. Further, a mapping is a partial homomorphism/partial isomorphism between two partial structures if and only if it is a homomorphism/isomorphism between their corresponding structures. It is a corollary that the partial truth of a sentence in a partial structure is equivalent to (...)
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