Results for 'suffering'

988 found
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  1.  7
    Ourt patients suffer?Coustney S. Suffer - 1997 - In Ronald A. Carson & C. R. Burns (eds.), Philosophy of Medicine and Bioethics: A Twenty-Year Retrospective and Critical Appraisal. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 50--247.
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  2. Anorexia and Refusal of Life-Saving Treatment: The Moral Place of Competence, Suffering, and the Family.Simona Giordano - 2010 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 17 (2):143-154.
    A large part of the debate around the right to refuse life-prolonging treatment of anorexia nervosa sufferers centers on the issue of competence. Whether or not the anorexic should be allowed to refuse life-saving treatment does not depend solely or primarily on competence. It also depends on whether the anorexic’s suffering is bearable or tractable, and on the degree of involvement of the family in the therapeutic process. Anorexics could be competent to refuse lifesaving treatment (Giordano 2008). However, the (...)
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  3.  17
    Dying individuals and suffering populations: applying a population-level bioethics lens to palliative care in humanitarian contexts: before, during and after the COVID-19 pandemic.Keona Jeane Wynne, Mila Petrova & Rachel Coghlan - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (8):514-525.
    BackgroundHumanitarian crises and emergencies, events often marked by high mortality, have until recently excluded palliative care—a specialty focusing on supporting people with serious or terminal illness or those nearing death. In the COVID-19 pandemic, palliative care has received unprecedented levels of societal attention. Unfortunately, this has not been enough to prevent patients dying alone, relatives not being able to say goodbye and palliative care being used instead of intensive care due to resource limitations. Yet global guidance was available. In 2018, (...)
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  4.  14
    What we talk about when we talk about pediatric suffering.Tyler Tate - 2020 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 41 (4):143-163.
    In this paper I aim to show why pediatric suffering must be understood as a judgment or evaluation, rather than a mental state. To accomplish this task, first I analyze the various ways that the label of suffering is used in pediatric practice. Out of this analysis emerge what I call the twin poles of pediatric suffering. At one pole sits the belief that infants and children with severe cognitive impairment cannot suffer because they are nonverbal or (...)
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  5.  22
    Death without distress? The taboo of suffering in palliative care.Nina Streeck - 2020 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 23 (3):343-351.
    Palliative care names as one of its central aims to prevent and relieve suffering. Following the concept of “total pain”, which was first introduced by Cicely Saunders, PC not only focuses on the physical dimension of pain but also addresses the patient’s psychological, social, and spiritual suffering. However, the goal to relieve suffering can paradoxically lead to a taboo of suffering and imply adverse consequences. Two scenarios are presented: First, PC providers sometimes might fail their own (...)
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  6.  38
    Schopenhauer on Christ, Suffering and the Negation of the Will.Jonathan Head & Dennis Vanden Auweele - 2020 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 28 (2):188-204.
    This paper seeks to illuminate Schopenhauer’s notion of the negation or denial of the will by investigating the figure of the saint within his philosophy. We argue that various discussions in Schop...
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  7.  23
    Sacrifice: an ethical dimension of caring that makes suffering meaningful.Kaija Helin & Unni Å Lindström - 2003 - Nursing Ethics 10 (4):414-427.
    This article is intended to raise the question of whether sacrifice can be regarded as constituting a deep ethical structure in the relationship between patient and carer. The significance of sacrifice in a patient-carer relationship cannot, however, be fully understood from the standpoint of the consistently utilitarian ethic that characterizes today’s ethical discourse. Deontological ethics, with its universal principles, also does not provide a suitable point of departure. Ethical recommendations and codices are important and can serve as general sources of (...)
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  8.  22
    The Epilogue of Suffering: Heroism, Empathy, Ethics.Patrick Colm Hogan - 2001 - Substance 30 (1/2):119.
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  9. Knowledge and Suffering in Early Modern Philosophy: G.W. Leibniz and Anne Conway.Christia Mercer - 2012 - In Sabrina Ebbersmeyer (ed.), Emotional Minds: The Passions and the Limits of Pure Inquiry in Early Modern Philosophy. Boston: De Gruyter. pp. 179.
  10.  69
    The duty to relieve suffering.Susan James - 1982 - Ethics 93 (1):4-21.
  11. Nietzsche contra Stoicism: Naturalism and Value, Suffering and Amor Fati.James A. Mollison - 2019 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 62 (1):93-115.
    Nietzsche criticizes Stoicism for overstating the significance of its ethical ideal of rational self-sufficiency and for undervaluing pain and passion when pursuing an unconditional acceptance of fate. Apparent affinities between Stoicism and Nietzsche’s philosophy, especially his celebration of self-mastery and his pursuit of amor fati, lead some scholars to conclude that Nietzsche cannot advance these criticisms without contradicting himself. In this article, I narrow the target and scope of Nietzsche’s complaints against Stoicism before showing how they follow from his other (...)
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  12.  46
    Experimental investigation of animal suffering.B. O. Hughes & J. C. Petherick - 1990 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (1):23-24.
  13.  27
    Empathetic Practice: The Struggle and Virtue of Empathizing with a Patient's Suffering.Georgina Campelia & Tyler Tate - 2019 - Hastings Center Report 49 (2):17-25.
    Empathy is sometimes so hard to achieve that one may wonder if it is a virtue for caregivers at all. Perhaps a caregiver cannot always know how a patient feels, and perhaps that knowledge is sometimes too painful to possess. A nuanced understanding of what empathy entails and of the conditions for attaining it can help ground its possibility.
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  14. The politics of suffering and recognition : Foucault contra Honneth.Lois McNay - 2012 - In Miriam Bankovsky & Alice Le Goff (eds.), Recognition theory and contemporary French moral and political philosophy: reopening the dialogue. New York: distributed exclusively in the USA by Palgrave Macmillan.
     
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  15.  26
    The `Little Extra' That Alleviates Suffering.Maria Arman & Arne Rehnsfeldt - 2007 - Nursing Ethics 14 (3):372-386.
    Nursing, or caring science, is mainly concerned with developing knowledge of what constitutes ideal, good health care for patients as whole persons, and how to achieve this. The aim of this study was to find clinical empirical indications of good ethical care and to investigate the substance of ideal nursing care in praxis. A hermeneutic method was employed in this clinical study, assuming the theoretical perspective of caritative caring and ethics of the understanding of life. The data consisted of two (...)
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  16.  33
    Prevention of disability on grounds of suffering.S. D. Edwards - 2001 - Journal of Medical Ethics 27 (6):380-382.
    This paper examines one particular justification for the screening and termination of embryos/fetuses which possess genetic features known to cause disability. The particular case is that put forward in several places by John Harris. He argues that the obligation to prevent needless suffering justifies the prevention of the births of disabled neonates. The paper begins by rehearsing Harris's case. Then, drawing upon claims advanced in a recent paper in the Journal of Medical Ethics, it is subjected to critical scrutiny, (...)
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  17. Schopenhauer and Gotama on Life's Suffering.Christopher John David Ryan - 2017 - In Sandra Shapshay (ed.), Palgrave Schopenhauer Handbook. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 373-394.
    This chapter defends the view that Arthur Schopenhauer and Siddhattha Gotama were unquestionably pessimistic philosophers, insofar as they converged in locating the source of life’s suffering within the person rather than the external world. However, in the process of outlining the significant continuities between their respective phenomenological analyses of life’s suffering, this chapter detects an important divergence between them. This stems from their contrasting metaphysical positions and ultimately impacts upon their respective interpretations of the significance of life’s (...), as well as their proposed solutions to it. (shrink)
     
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  18.  16
    (Re)constructing God to find meaning in suffering: Men serving long-term sentences in Zonderwater.Christina Landman & Tanya Pieterse - 2019 - HTS Theological Studies 75 (4):1-10.
    Offender populations experience their incarceration through different lenses and often as a spiritual journey of suffering. During 2017 and 2018 a study was conducted by the authors with 30 men serving long-term sentences in Correctional Centre A, Zonderwater Management Area in the Gauteng province of South Africa. Following interviews and focus group sessions, the authors report on participants’ representations on how their constructed views of God assist them to find meaning in suffering while incarcerated. Narrative inquiry as a (...)
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  19.  38
    The Rise of Sympathy and the Question of Divine Suffering.Jennifer A. Herdt - 2001 - Journal of Religious Ethics 29 (3):367 - 399.
    Seventeenth-century Cambridge Platonist Ralph Cudworth, writing just at the time when the concept of sympathy was moving from the realm of magic to that of ethics, argued that God must be understood as having a vital sympathy with suffering human beings. Yet while Cudworth invoked sympathy in an attempt to capture God's intimate relation with creation, in fact, it served as a principle of mediation that tended either to collapse God into the world or to distance God from the (...)
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  20.  18
    Mediating Effect of Personal Meaning in the Prediction of Life Satisfaction and Mental Health Problems Based on Coronavirus Suffering.Gökmen Arslan, Murat Yıldırım & Mega M. Leung - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    Research Problem: The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic has triggered a multi-faceted crisis worldwide. Researchers and health authorities in various parts of the world echoed the dire condition of the public's mental health. This study sought to examine the mediating effect of personal meaning on the association between coronavirus -related suffering, mental health problems, and life satisfaction. Participants included 231 adults and completed measures of suffering related to COVID-19, meaning, life satisfaction, and mental health problems online.Results: Findings from (...)
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  21.  15
    Compassion As an Intervention to Attune to Universal Suffering of Self and Others in Conflicts: A Translational Framework.S. Shaun Ho, Yoshio Nakamura & James E. Swain - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    As interpersonal, racial, social, and international conflicts intensify in the world, it is important to safeguard the mental health of individuals affected by them. According to a Buddhist notion “if you want others to be happy, practice compassion; if you want to be happy, practice compassion,” compassion practice is an intervention to cultivate conflict-proof well-being. Here, compassion practice refers to a form of concentrated meditation wherein a practitioner attunes to friend, enemy, and someone in between, thinking, “I’m going to help (...)
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  22.  40
    When Teachers Must Let Education Hurt: Rousseau and Nietzsche on Compassion and the Educational Value of Suffering.Mark E. Jonas - 2010 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 44 (1):45-60.
    Avi Mintz (2008) has recently argued that Anglo-American educators have a tendency to alleviate student suffering in the classroom. According to Mintz, this tendency can be detrimental because certain kinds of suffering actually enhance student learning. While Mintz compellingly describes the effects of educator’s desires to alleviate suffering in students, he does not examine one of the roots of the desire: the feeling of compassion or pity (used as synonyms here). Compassion leads many teachers to unreflectively alleviate (...)
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  23.  72
    When Teachers Must Let Education Hurt: Rousseau and Nietzsche on Compassion and the Educational Value of Suffering.Mark E. Jonas - 2010 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 44 (1):45-60.
    Avi Mintz (2008) has recently argued that Anglo-American educators have a tendency to alleviate student suffering in the classroom. According to Mintz, this tendency can be detrimental because certain kinds of suffering actually enhance student learning. While Mintz compellingly describes the effects of educator’s desires to alleviate suffering in students, he does not examine one of the roots of the desire: the feeling of compassion or pity (used as synonyms here). Compassion leads many teachers to unreflectively alleviate (...)
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  24.  2
    Colossians 1:24 and the Suffering Church.Steven W. Spivey - 2011 - Journal of Spiritual Formation and Soul Care 4 (1):43-62.
    The essay begins with an analysis of the major interpretations of Paul's claim to “complete what is lacking in Christ's afflictions.” The author argues that, in the context of Colossians, these afflictions are related to sufferings endured in the course of completing the apostolic mission. These sufferings, as well as the mission, are corporate in nature, applying to the church at large. Given tendencies within American churches to confuse culture with the counter-cultural nature of the reign of God, as well (...)
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  25. Leibniz and the Problem of Evil: Suffering, Voluntarism, and Activism.Mark L. Thomas - 2001 - Dissertation, Rice University
    This work elucidates elements of Leibniz's theodicy which are non-teleological. Rather than ignoring the personal dimensions of suffering, as some have charged, Leibniz actually recognizes the threat that the problem of innocent suffering presents for a perfectly good God. His theodicy goes beyond the global greater-good defense of the best possible world argument in several ways. He appeals to personal greater-goods to justify some instances of suffering, but he also invokes deontological principles in his retributive justice arguments, (...)
     
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  26.  31
    Suicidality, Refractory Suffering, and the Right to Choose Death.Ben A. Rich - 2013 - American Journal of Bioethics 13 (3):18 - 20.
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  27. Blaming God for our pain: Human suffering and the divine mind.M. Wegner Daniel & Gray Kurt - unknown
    Believing in God requires not only a leap of faith but also an extension of people’s normal capacity to perceive the minds of others. Usually, people perceive minds of all kinds by trying to understand their conscious experience (what it is like to be them) and their agency (what they can do). Although humans are perceived to have both agency and experience, humans appear to see God as possessing agency, but not experience. God’s unique mind is due, the authors suggest, (...)
     
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  28.  28
    Abortion: Three Rival Versions of Suffering.John Portmann - 1999 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 8 (4):489-497.
    Kant postulates in TheMetaphysicsofMorals that we share a moral duty to sympathize actively in the suffering of another and to cultivate the virtue of compassion. More recently, Howard Brody has claimed that a good physician must maintain in her imagination What does it mean to take suffering seriously in the context of abortion? It means that a physician must listen to three rival versions of suffering: that of a woman who has inquired about an abortion, that of (...)
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  29.  39
    Lessons from a postcolonial-feminist perspective: Suffering and a path to healing.Joan M. Anderson - 2004 - Nursing Inquiry 11 (4):238-246.
    Recent events around the globe reflect the tensions and ethical dilemmas of the postmodern, postcolonial and neocolonial world that have far reaching implications for health, well-being, and human suffering. As we consider what is at stake, and what this means for local lives and human relationships, we need to examine whether the theories we draw on are adequate to further our understanding of health, and the social and material conditions of human suffering. In this paper I begin to (...)
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  30.  17
    Kingdom and Cross: Christian Moral Community and the Problem of Suffering.Lisa Sowie Cahill - 1996 - Interpretation: A Journal of Bible and Theology 50 (2):156-168.
    The Bible guides Christian ethics by showing how Jesus and early Christianity transformed the moral conventions of first-century Greco-Roman society by making them more inclusive and compassionate. This is the one side of the coin. The other side, however, is that the Bible also attests to the problem of the existence of evil and suffering in human life. In Paul's theology of cross and resurrection, Christian ethicists confront the ineradicable nature of this problem and the need to identify with (...)
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  31.  33
    Consumer Food Ethics: Considerations of Vulnerability, Suffering, and Harm.Yana Manyukhina - 2017 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 30 (4):595-614.
    Over the past years, various accounts of ethical consumption have been produced which identify certain concepts as central to mediating the ethical relationship between the consumer and the consumed. Scholars across disciplinary fields have explored how individuals construe their ethical consumption responsibilities and commitments through the notions of identity, taking care and doing good, proximity and distance, suggesting the centrality of these themes to consumer engagement in ethical practices. This paper contributes to the body of research concerned with unravelling consumers’ (...)
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  32.  15
    A painful message: Testing the effects of suffering and understanding on punishment judgments.Eyal Aharoni, David Simpson, Eddy Nahmias & Mario Gollwitzer - 2022 - Zeitschrift Für Psychologie 230 (2):138-151.
    This preregistered experiment examined two proximate drivers of retributive punishment attitudes: the motivation to make the perpetrator suffer, and understand the wrongfulness of his offense. In a sample of 514 US adults, we presented criminal case summaries that varied the level of suffering (absent vs. present) and understanding (absent vs. present) experienced by the perpetrator and measured punishment judgments and attitudes. Our results demonstrate, as predicted, that participants were more satisfied by the sentence and less punitive when they believed (...)
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  33.  8
    Kierkegaard’s Gospel of Suffering.John J. Ansbro - 1967 - Philosophical Studies (Dublin) 16:182-192.
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  34.  11
    Commentary: Whose suffering?Martin Buijsen - 2020 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 29 (3):346-353.
    Marije Brouwer et al. contend that collecting treatment experiences of newborns with life-threatening conditions can support both caregivers and parents in making difficult end-of-life decisions. They illustrate the importance of that understanding by narrating the heartbreaking story of the sisters Roos and Noor, two newborns in the last stage of their lives.1.
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  35.  15
    Wonder and the Elemental: Suffering Beyond Ethics.Jason Kemp Winfree - 2013 - Comparative and Continental Philosophy 5 (1):9-18.
    This paper approaches the experience of wonder phenomenologically. The account is descriptive. I suggest that in addition to the familiar treatments of wonder as constituted through a break with everyday involvement, on the one hand, and an awareness of the sheer fact of existence, on the other, the experience of wonder involves an intensification of the primary contact by which the world is given. That contact is prior to and presupposed by both our involvement with objects as implements of mediation (...)
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  36.  3
    Blasphemy! Levinas and the Unjustification of Suffering.Eric R. Severson - 2024 - Journal for Continental Philosophy of Religion:1-21.
    In this article, Severson explores the insights of Emmanuel Levinas regarding theodicy and the problem of evil. Levinas considers philosophical and practical justifications of suffering to be blasphemous, violating the sanctity of the suffering of the other person, even when well-meant. Severson introduces distinctions between “pain” and “suffering” to extrapolate and explain Levinas’s striking rejection of theodicy.
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  37.  89
    Judaism, darwinism, and the typology of suffering.Shai Cherry - 2011 - Zygon 46 (2):317-329.
    Abstract. Darwinism has attracted proportionately less attention from Jewish thinkers than from Christian thinkers. One significant reason for the disparity is that the theodicies created by Jews to contend with the catastrophes which punctuated Jewish history are equally suited to address the massive extinctions which characterize natural history. Theologies of divine hiddenness, restraint, and radical immanence, coming together in the sixteenth-century mystical cosmogony of Isaac Luria, have been rehabilitated and reworked by modern Jewish thinkers in the post-Darwin era.
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  38.  32
    The violence of the ethical encounter: listening to the suffering subject as a speaking body.Dorothée Legrand - 2017 - Continental Philosophy Review 51 (1):43-64.
    How does the clinical encounter work? To tackle this question, the present study centers on the paradigmatic clinical encounter, namely, psychoanalysis, paradigmatic in that it is structured by the encounter itself. Our question thus becomes: how does the clinical encounter work, when its only modality is speech? By reading Jacques Lacan and Emmanuel Levinas together, we better identify how speech sets up as subjects those who address one another and how this subjectivation touches the suffering body specifically. In this (...)
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  39.  5
    Stories of despair: a Kierkegaardian read of suffering and selfhood in survivorship.Jeanette Bresson Ladegaard Knox - 2020 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 23 (1):61-72.
    A life-threatening illness such as cancer can bring about much existential suffering and a disconnect to self in spite of surviving cancer. In my recent research project, I interviewed 14 long-term cancer survivors on being post cancer. Contrary to common assumptions about long-term survivorship, my interviewees reported grave existential difficulties in finding a firm footing in their sense of self, fostering a variety of stories of despair. This article examines long-term cancer survivors’ suffering from the vantage point of (...)
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  40.  11
    Protective and Risk Factors for Medical and Nursing Staff Suffering From Psychological Symptoms During COVID-19.Hailong Luo, Huiqi Yao, Yuandi Xi, Zhun Zhang, Jia Li, Jie Li, Xuewen Wang, Zhixiong Zhong & Yan Lv - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    Background: With the outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 epidemic in China, the general public but also medical staff were confronted with psychological challenges, suffering from the highly infectious and unknown characteristics of COVID-19. In this study, we surveyed psychological symptoms including anxiety, depression, and sleep disorders in medical staff.Method: A questionnaire star/WeChat link-based survey assessing the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale, Patient Health Questionnaire-9 depression, the Insomnia Severity Index, Social Support scales in addition to lifestyle, and income level (...)
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  41.  69
    ‘To Lend a Voice to Suffering is a Condition for All Truth’: Adorno and International Political Thought.Kate Schick - 2009 - Journal of International Political Theory 5 (2):138-160.
    This paper explores the ways in which a fuller attention to suffering in the tradition of the early Frankfurt School might valuably inform international political thought. Recent poststructural writing argues that trauma is silenced to prevent it disrupting narratives of order and progress and instead advocates a continual ‘encircling’ of trauma that refuses incorporation into a broader historical narrative. This paper welcomes this challenge to mainstream international ethics: attention to particular suffering provides an important challenge to the abstraction, (...)
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  42.  25
    Contexts of Suffering: A Heideggerian Approach to Psychopathology.Kevin Aho - 2019 - Rowman & Littlefield International.
    This book explores new phenomenological research on the structural disruptions of spatiality, temporality, and understanding in the context of anxiety and depressive disorders. It offers critiques of mainstream psychopathology, taking a transdisciplinary approach to the relationship between mental illness and self-constitution.
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  43.  23
    Ethics Committees and Their Framework: Commentary on “Suffering as a Consideration in Ethical Decision Making”.Friedrich Heubel - 1992 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 1 (2):143.
    I find myself in a strange position writing a commentary to an article on ethics committees because in Germany, ethics committees in the American sense do not exist. What we call Ethikkommission are present in every German faculty of medicine and would be called institutional review boards in the United States; committees that review research projects of faculty members with respect to ethical standards. So i most consult my imagination rather than my experience about what really happens in Americal ethics (...)
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  44. The problems of evil and suffering [Book Review].Lincoln Rice - 2013 - The Australasian Catholic Record 90 (2):251.
    Rice, Lincoln Review of: The problems of evil and suffering, by John Cowburn , pp. 264.
     
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  45.  24
    C. A. Campbell and the problem of suffering: John Collins.John Collins - 1980 - Religious Studies 16 (3):307-316.
    Although C. A. Campbell's account of the problem of suffering is articulated in the context of making out a case for rational Theism, it does not stand or fall with the case for rational Theism. It has independent merit as a sustained effort of reason to grapple with the problem of whether the goodness and omnipotence of God are consistent with the prima facie badness of so much of the suffering that exists in God's world. Campbell's views on (...)
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  46. Psychologicals characteristics of childrens and adolecents suffering from pigmentary retinosis.Irene Sofía Quiñones Varela, Belkys Sifontes Valdés, Belkis Maura Amil Álvarez & Arelys Nápoles Téllez - 2007 - Humanidades Médicas 7 (3).
    Se efectuó un estudio en dos fases: una observacional descriptiva y otra correlacional, para caracterizar psicológicamente al niño y adolescente con Retinosis Pigmentaria y su familia, en el Centro Provincial que atiende a este paciente en la ciudad de Camagüey. El estudio se hizo aplicando una encuesta elaborada a los efectos del trabajo y una batería de pruebas psicológicas para niños y otra para adolescentes. Se realizó un muestreo intencional puro, no probabilístico de 41 pacientes. Las Pruebas Psicológicas aplicadas fueron: (...)
     
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  47.  9
    Becoming in Resistance: The (Un)Creative Relation Between Non-heterosexual Identity and Psychological Suffering.Sebastián Collado & Carolina Besoain - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    This article aims at theorizing a creative and processual theory of non-heterosexual identity. It will be argued that, so far, scholars have tended to theorize non-heterosexual identity from a monologic perspective, which establishes one-sidedly a casual and/or unproblematic relation between the emergence of forms of psychological suffering and the development of a non-heterosexual identity. Although it must be recognized that such a claim is important at a political level, at a subjective level, it leaves non-heterosexual people destined to be (...)
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  48.  17
    Man and the problem of evil and suffering in a changing world.Aloysius Igboajuchi Akpaeze Nkpokuekegbu Nwabekee - 1993 - [S.l.: [S.N.].
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  49.  79
    In defence of Kant's moral prohibition on suicide solely to avoid suffering.G. Vong - 2008 - Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (9):655-657.
    In Ian Brassington’s article in a previous issue of this journal, he argues that suicide for the purpose of avoiding suffering is not, as Kant has contended, contrary to the moral law. Brassington’s objections are not cogent because they rely upon the exegetically incorrect premise that according to Kant the priceless value of personhood is in the noumenal world that we have no perception of. On the basis of Kant’s normative, metaphysical and epistemological theory, I argue, contrary to Brassington, (...)
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  50.  28
    Reason and the Problem of Suffering.C. A. Campbell - 1935 - Philosophy 10 (38):154 - 167.
    The problem of suffering is essentially a problem in philosophical theology. For many philosophical systems the phenomena of suffering set no special problem at all. The most influential philosophies of the present age, for example, have almost nothing to say on the subject—and there is no reason why, on their metaphysical; principles, they should say anything. The problem is a relevant one only for those philosophies which claim to be in at least general accord with the “religious interpretation (...)
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