Results for 'syllogistic'

602 found
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  1. Stoic Syllogistic.Susanne Bobzien - 1996 - Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 14:133-92.
    ABSTRACT: For the Stoics, a syllogism is a formally valid argument; the primary function of their syllogistic is to establish such formal validity. Stoic syllogistic is a system of formal logic that relies on two types of argumental rules: (i) 5 rules (the accounts of the indemonstrables) which determine whether any given argument is an indemonstrable argument, i.e. an elementary syllogism the validity of which is not in need of further demonstration; (ii) one unary and three binary argumental (...)
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  2.  27
    Syllogistic Inference.P. N. Johnson-Laird & Bruno G. Bara - 1984 - Cognition 16 (1):1-61.
    This paper reviews current psychological theories of syllogistic inference and establishes that despite their various merits they all contain deficiencies as theories of performance. It presents the results of two experiments, one using syllogisms and the other using three-term series problems, designed to elucidate how the arrangement of terms within the premises affects performance. These data are used in the construction of a theory based on the hypothesis that reasoners construct mental models of the premises, formulate informative conclusions about (...)
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  3.  16
    Syllogistic Logic with Cardinality Comparisons, on Infinite Sets.Lawrence S. Moss & Selçuk Topal - 2020 - Review of Symbolic Logic 13 (1):1-22.
    This article enlarges classical syllogistic logic with assertions having to do with comparisons between the sizes of sets. So it concerns a logical system whose sentences are of the following forms: All x are y and Some x are y, There are at least as many x as y, and There are more x than y. Here x and y range over subsets of a given infinite set. Moreover, x and y may appear complemented, with the natural meaning. We (...)
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  4.  13
    Syllogistic Reasoning as a Ground for the Content of Judgment: A Line of Thought From Kant Through Hegel to Peirce.Preston Stovall - forthcoming - European Journal of Philosophy.
    European Journal of Philosophy, EarlyView.
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  5.  44
    Hypothetical Syllogistic and Stoic Logic.Anthony Speca - 2001 - Brill.
    This book uncovers and examines the confusion in antiquity between Aristotle's hypothetical syllogistic and Stoic logic, and offers a fresh perspective on the ...
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  6.  59
    Where Syllogistic Reasoning Happens: An Argument for the Extended Mind Hypothesis.Georg Theiner - 2007 - In McNamara D. S. & Trafton J. G. (eds.), Proceedings of the 29th Annual Cognitive Science Society. Cognitive Science Society.
    Does cognition sometimes literally extend into the extra-organismic environment (Clark, 2003), or is it always “merely” environmentally embedded (Rupert, 2004)? Underlying this current border dispute is the question about how to individuate cognitive processes on principled grounds. Based on recent evidence about the active role of representation selection and construction in learning how to reason (Stenning, 2002), I raise the question: what makes two distinct, modality-specific pen-and-paper manipulations of external representations – diagrams versus sentences – cognitive processes of the same (...)
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  7.  19
    Syllogistic System for the Propagation of Parasites. The Case of Schistosomatidae.Andrew Schumann & Ludmila Akimova - 2015 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 40 (1):303-319.
    In the paper, a new syllogistic system is built up. This system simulates a massive-parallel behavior in the propagation of collectives of parasites. In particular, this system simulates the behavior of collectives of trematode larvae.
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  8. Aristotle's Syllogistic From the Standpoint of Modern Formal Logic.JAN LUKASIEWICZ - 1951 - Garland.
  9.  20
    Believability and Syllogistic Reasoning.Jane Oakhill, P. N. Johnson-Laird & Alan Garnham - 1989 - Cognition 31 (2):117-140.
    In this paper we investigate the locus of believability effects in syllogistic reasoning. We identify three points in the reasoning process at which such effects could occur: the initial interpretation of premises, the examination of alternative representations of them (in all of which any valid conclusion must be true), and the “filtering” of putative conclusions. The effect of beliefs at the first of these loci is well established. In this paper we report three experiments that examine whether beliefs have (...)
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  10.  16
    Psychology and Syllogistic Reasoning.N. E. Wetherick - 1989 - Philosophical Psychology 2 (1):111 – 124.
    A theory of syllogistic reasoning is proposed, derived from the medieval doctrine of 'distribution of terms'. This doctrine may or may not furnish an adequate ground for the logic of the syllogism but does appear to illuminate the psychological processes involved. Syllogistic thinking is shown to have its origins in the approach and avoidance behaviour of pre-verbal organisms and, in verbal (human) organisms, to bridge the gap between the intuitive grasp shown by most of us of the validity (...)
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  11. Logics for the Relational Syllogistic.Ian Pratt-Hartmann & Lawrence S. Moss - 2009 - Review of Symbolic Logic 2 (4):647-683.
    The Aristotelian syllogistic cannot account for the validity of certain inferences involving relational facts. In this paper, we investigate the prospects for providing a relational syllogistic. We identify several fragments based on (a) whether negation is permitted on all nouns, including those in the subject of a sentence; and (b) whether the subject noun phrase may contain a relative clause. The logics we present are extensions of the classical syllogistic, and we pay special attention to the question (...)
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  12. Aristotle's Syllogistic and Core Logic.Neil Tennant - 2014 - History and Philosophy of Logic 35 (2):120-147.
    I use the Corcoran–Smiley interpretation of Aristotle's syllogistic as my starting point for an examination of the syllogistic from the vantage point of modern proof theory. I aim to show that fresh logical insights are afforded by a proof-theoretically more systematic account of all four figures. First I regiment the syllogisms in the Gentzen–Prawitz system of natural deduction, using the universal and existential quantifiers of standard first-order logic, and the usual formalizations of Aristotle's sentence-forms. I explain how the (...)
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  13.  49
    The Syllogistic with Unity.Ian Pratt-Hartmann - 2013 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 42 (2):391-407.
    We extend the language of the classical syllogisms with the sentence-forms “At most 1 p is a q” and “More than 1 p is a q”. We show that the resulting logic does not admit a finite set of syllogism-like rules whose associated derivation relation is sound and complete, even when reductio ad absurdum is allowed.
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  14.  37
    Syllogistic with Indefinite Terms.Enrique Alvarez & Manuel Correia - 2012 - History and Philosophy of Logic 33 (4):297-306.
    This paper presents a restructured set of axioms for categorical logic. In virtue of it, the syllogistic with indefinite terms is deduced and proved, within the categorical logic boundaries. As a result, the number of all the conclusive syllogisms is deduced through a simple and axiomatic methodology. Moreover, the distinction between immediate and mediate inferences disappears, which reinstitutes the unity of Aristotelian logic.
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  15.  44
    Proclus and the Neoplatonic Syllogistic.John N. Martin - 2001 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 30 (3):187-240.
    An investigation of Proclus' logic of the syllogistic and of negations in the Elements of Theology, On the Parmenides, and Platonic Theology. It is shown that Proclus employs interpretations over a linear semantic structure with operators for scalar negations (hypemegationlalpha-intensivum and privative negation). A natural deduction system for scalar negations and the classical syllogistic (as reconstructed by Corcoran and Smiley) is shown to be sound and complete for the non-Boolean linear structures. It is explained how Proclus' syllogistic (...)
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  16.  39
    Matching Bias in Syllogistic Reasoning: Evidence for a Dual-Process Account From Response Times and Confidence Ratings.Edward J. N. Stupple, Linden J. Ball & Daniel Ellis - 2013 - Thinking and Reasoning 19 (1):54 - 77.
    (2013). Matching bias in syllogistic reasoning: Evidence for a dual-process account from response times and confidence ratings. Thinking & Reasoning: Vol. 19, No. 1, pp. 54-77. doi: 10.1080/13546783.2012.735622.
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  17.  37
    The Syllogistic Theory of Boethius.Manuel Correia - 2009 - Ancient Philosophy 29 (2):391-405.
  18.  14
    Canonical Syllogistic Moods in Traditional Aristotelian Logic.Enrique Alvarez-Fontecilla - 2016 - Logica Universalis 10 (4):517-531.
    A novel theoretical formulation of Categorical Logic based on two properties of categorical propositions and three simple axioms has been introduced recently. This formulation allowed for the suppression of the distinction between immediate and mediate inferences, and also provided a theoretical framework to study opposition relations, thus restoring the theoretical unity of traditional Aristotelian logic. By using this approach, it has been reported that a total of 3072 conclusive syllogistic moods can be found when including indefinite terms in classical (...)
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  19.  29
    On Belief Bias in Syllogistic Reasoning.Karl Christoph Klauer, Jochen Musch & Birgit Naumer - 2000 - Psychological Review 107 (4):852-884.
  20. Is Aristotle's Syllogistic a Logic?Phil Corkum - forthcoming - History and Philosophy of Logic.
    Much of the last fifty years of scholarship on Aristotle’s syllogistic suggests a conceptual framework under which the syllogistic is a logic, a system of inferential reasoning, only if it is not a theory or formal ontology, a system concerned with general features of the world. In this paper, I will argue that this a misleading interpretative framework. The syllogistic is something sui generis: by our lights, it is neither clearly a logic, nor clearly a theory, but (...)
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  21. Aristotle’s Assertoric Syllogistic and Modern Relevance Logic.Philipp Julius6 Steinkrüger - 2015 - Synthese 192 (5):1413-1444.
    This paper sets out to evaluate the claim that Aristotle’s Assertoric Syllogistic is a relevance logic or shows significant similarities with it. I prepare the grounds for a meaningful comparison by extracting the notion of relevance employed in the most influential work on modern relevance logic, Anderson and Belnap’s Entailment. This notion is characterized by two conditions imposed on the concept of validity: first, that some meaning content is shared between the premises and the conclusion, and second, that the (...)
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  22.  29
    Aristotle's Syllogistic.Lynn E. Rose - 1968 - Springfield, Ill., Thomas.
  23.  11
    Dissociation of Mechanisms Underlying Syllogistic Reasoning.Vinod Goel, Christian Buchel, Chris Frith & Raymond J. Dolan - 2000 - NeuroImage 12 (5):504-514.
    A key question for cognitive theories of reasoning is whether logical reasoning is inherently a sentential linguistic process or a process requiring spatial manipulation and search. We addressed this question in an event-related fMRI study of syllogistic reasoning, using sentences with and without semantic content. Our findings indicate involvement of two dissociable networks in deductive reasoning. During content-based reasoning a left hemisphere temporal system was recruited. By contrast, a formally identical reasoning task, which lacked semantic content, activated a parietal (...)
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  24.  42
    How Diagrams Can Support Syllogistic Reasoning: An Experimental Study.Yuri Sato & Koji Mineshima - 2015 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 24 (4):409-455.
    This paper explores the question of what makes diagrammatic representations effective for human logical reasoning, focusing on how Euler diagrams support syllogistic reasoning. It is widely held that diagrammatic representations aid intuitive understanding of logical reasoning. In the psychological literature, however, it is still controversial whether and how Euler diagrams can aid untrained people to successfully conduct logical reasoning such as set-theoretic and syllogistic reasoning. To challenge the negative view, we build on the findings of modern diagrammatic logic (...)
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  25.  20
    The Hamiltonian Syllogistic.Ian Pratt-Hartmann - 2011 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 20 (4):445-474.
    This paper undertakes a re-examination of Sir William Hamilton’s doctrine of the quantification of the predicate . Hamilton’s doctrine comprises two theses. First, the predicates of traditional syllogistic sentence-forms contain implicit existential quantifiers, so that, for example, All p is q is to be understood as All p is some q . Second, these implicit quantifiers can be meaningfully dualized to yield novel sentence-forms, such as, for example, All p is all q . Hamilton attempted to provide a deductive (...)
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  26.  8
    On ‘Syllogistic Inference’.George Boolos - 1984 - Cognition 17 (2):181-182.
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  27.  69
    An Atmosphere Effect in Formal Syllogistic Reasoning.R. S. Woodworth & S. B. Sells - 1935 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 18 (4):451.
  28.  31
    The Place of Syllogistic in Logical Theory.Michael Clark - 1980 - Nottingham University Press.
    Chapter 1 presents BS, a basic syllogistic system based on Aristotle's logic, in natural deduction form. Chapters 2 and 3 treat the metatheory of BS: consitency, soundness, independence, and completeness. Chapter 4 and 5 deal with syllogistic and, in turn, propositional and predicate logic, chapter 6 is on existential import, chapter 7 on subject and predicate and chapter 8 on classes. Chapter 9 adds negative variables to BS, and proves its soundness and completeness.
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  29.  58
    Syllogistic Without Existence.John Bacon - 1967 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 8 (3):195-219.
  30.  12
    Aristotle's Syllogistic From the Standpoint of Modern Formal Logic.Joseph T. Clark & Jan Lukasiewicz - 1952 - Philosophical Review 61 (4):575.
  31. Pre-Stoic Hypothetical Syllogistic in Galen.Susanne Bobzien - 2002 - The Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies:57-72.
    ABSTRACT: This paper traces the evidence in Galen's Introduction to Logic (Institutio Logica) for a hypothetical syllogistic which predates Stoic propositional logic. It emerges that Galen is one of our main witnesses for such a theory, whose authors are most likely Theophrastus and Eudemus. A reconstruction of this theory is offered which - among other things - allows to solve some apparent textual difficulties in the Institutio Logica.
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  32.  25
    Strategies in Syllogistic Reasoning.Monica Bucciarelli & P. N. Johnson-Laird - 1999 - Cognitive Science 23 (3):247-303.
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  33.  5
    Individual Differences in Syllogistic Reasoning: Deduction Rules or Mental Models?Kathleen M. Galotti, Jonathan Baron & John P. Sabini - 1986 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 115 (1):16-25.
  34.  46
    A Generalized Syllogistic Inference System Based on Inclusion and Exclusion Relations.Koji Mineshima, Mitsuhiro Okada & Ryo Takemura - 2012 - Studia Logica 100 (4):753-785.
    We introduce a simple inference system based on two primitive relations between terms, namely, inclusion and exclusion relations. We present a normalization theorem, and then provide a characterization of the structure of normal proofs. Based on this, inferences in a syllogistic fragment of natural language are reconstructed within our system. We also show that our system can be embedded into a fragment of propositional minimal logic.
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  35. Completeness of an Ecthetic Syllogistic.Robin Smith - 1983 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 24 (2):224-232.
  36.  20
    Arithmetizations of Syllogistic À la Leibniz.Vladimir Sotirov - 1999 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 9 (2-3):387-405.
    ABSTRACT Two models of the Aristotelian syllogistic in arithmetic of natural numbers are built as realizations of an old Leibniz idea. In the interpretation, called Scholastic, terms are replaced by integers greater than 1, and s.Ap is translated as “s is a divisor of p”, sIp as “g.c.d. > 1”. In the interpretation, called Leibnizian, terms are replaced by proper divisors of a special “Universe number” u < 1, and sAp is translated as “s is divisible by p”, sIp (...)
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  37.  5
    Syllogistic in the Anon Heiberg.Jonathan Barnes - 2002 - In Katerina Ierodiakonou (ed.), Byzantine Philosophy and its Ancient Sources. Clarendon Press.
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  38.  38
    Formalised Syllogistic.A. N. Prior - 1959 - Synthese 11 (3):265 - 273.
  39. Stoic Vs. Aristotelian Syllogistic.Michael Frede - 1974 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 56 (1):1-32.
  40. A Mathematical Model of Aristotle’s Syllogistic.John Corcoran - 1973 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 55 (2):191-219.
    In the present article we attempt to show that Aristotle's syllogistic is an underlying logiC which includes a natural deductive system and that it isn't an axiomatic theory as had previously been thought. We construct a mathematical model which reflects certain structural aspects of Aristotle's logic. We examine the relation of the model to the system of logic envisaged in scattered parts of Prior and Posterior Analytics. Our interpretation restores Aristotle's reputation as a logician of consummate imagination and skill. (...)
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  41.  10
    Statistical Syllogistic, Part 1.Lawrence H. Powers - unknown
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  42.  30
    Syllogistic Reasoning with Generic Premises: The Generic Overgeneralization Effect.Sangeet Khemlani, Sarah-Jane Leslie & Sam Glucksberg - 2008 - In B. C. Love, K. McRae & V. M. Sloutsky (eds.), Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Cognitive Science Society.
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  43.  5
    Syllogistic and its Extensions.William E. Gould - 1964 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 34 (2):309-309.
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  44.  37
    Complexly Fractionated Syllogistic Quantifiers.Philip L. Peterson - 1991 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 20 (3):287 - 313.
    Consider syllogisms in which fraction (percentage) quantifiers are permitted in addition to universal and particular quantificrs, and then include further quantifiers which are modifications of such fractions (such as "almost ½ the S are P" and "Much more than ½ the S are P"). Could a syllogistic system containing such additional categorical forms be coherent? Thompson's attempt (1986) to give rules for determining validity of such syllogisms has failed; cf. Carnes & Peterson (forthcoming) for proofs of the unsoundness and (...)
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  45.  37
    Syllogistic Logic with Comparative Adjectives.Lawrence S. Moss - 2011 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 20 (3):397-417.
    This paper adds comparative adjectives to two systems of syllogistic logic. The comparatives are interpreted by transitive and irreflexive relations on the underlying domain. The main point is to obtain sound and complete axiomatizations of the valid formulas in the logics.
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  46.  16
    Psychology and Syllogistic Reasoning: Further Considerations.Norman E. Wetherick - 1993 - Philosophical Psychology 6 (4):423 – 440.
    Following an earlier paper (Wetherick, 1989), the analysis of syllogistic reasoning via the medieval doctrine of “distribution of terms” is pursued and completed. The doctrine was not originally presented as an explanation of syllogistic reasoning but turns out to furnish one. It is shown that: It is impossible to assert two propositions having a distributed middle term in common without, at the same time, tacitly asserting the valid conclusion, if any. When the middle term is distributed but no (...)
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  47.  46
    Nonclassical Syllogistic Inference and the Method of Resolution.Aris Noah - 1993 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 34 (2):209-222.
  48.  67
    But If the Syllogistic is the Most Brilliant Part of Aristotle's.Robin Smith - 1995 - In Jonathan Barnes (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Aristotle. Cambridge University Press. pp. 27.
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  49.  36
    A System of Relational Syllogistic Incorporating Full Boolean Reasoning.Nikolay Ivanov & Dimiter Vakarelov - 2012 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 21 (4):433-459.
    We present a system of relational syllogistic, based on classical propositional logic, having primitives of the following form: $$\begin{array}{ll}\mathbf{Some}\, a \,{\rm are} \,R-{\rm related}\, {\rm to}\, \mathbf{some} \,b;\\ \mathbf{Some}\, a \,{\rm are}\,R-{\rm related}\, {\rm to}\, \mathbf{all}\, b;\\ \mathbf{All}\, a\, {\rm are}\,R-{\rm related}\, {\rm to}\, \mathbf{some}\, b;\\ \mathbf{All}\, a\, {\rm are}\,R-{\rm related}\, {\rm to}\, \mathbf{all} \,b.\end{array}$$ Such primitives formalize sentences from natural language like ‘ All students read some textbooks’. Here a, b denote arbitrary sets (of objects), and R denotes (...)
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  50.  25
    Syllogistic and its Extensions.Otto A. Bird - 1964 - Prentice-Hall.
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