Results for 'syntax vs. semantics'

998 found
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  1.  18
    Negation, Conjunction, and Quantifiers: Syntax Vs. Semantics.Barbara Hall Partee - 1970 - Foundations of Language 6 (2):153-165.
  2.  44
    Multiple Coordination: Meaning Composition Vs. The Syntax-Semantics Interface.Yoad Winter - manuscript
    This paper argues that multiple coordinations like tall, thin and happy are interpreted in a “flat” iterative process, but using “nested” recursive application of binary coordination operators in the compositional meaning derivation. Ample motivation for flat interpretation is shown by contrasting such coordinations with nested, syntactically ambiguous, coordinate structures like tall and thin and happy. However, new evidence coming from type shifting and predicate distribution with verb phrases show motivation for an independent hierarchical ingredient in the compositional semantics of (...)
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  3.  8
    The Descriptivist Vs. Anti-Descriptivist Semantics Debate Between Syntax and Semantics.Enrico Cipriani - 2015 - Philosophy Study 5 (8).
  4.  42
    On the Theory of Anaphora: Dynamic Predicate Logic Vs. Game-Theoretical Semantics[REVIEW]Gabriel Sandu - 1997 - Linguistics and Philosophy 20 (2):147-174.
  5. The Syntax and Semantics of Split Constructions: A Comparative Study.Alastair Butler - 2004 - Palgrave-Macmillan.
    Split constructions are widespread in natural languages. The separation of the semantic restriction of a quantifier from that quantifier is a typical example of such a construction. This study addresses the problem that such discontinuous strings exhibit--namely, a number of locality constraints, including intervention effects. These are shown to follow from the interaction of a minimalist syntax with a semantics that directly assigns a model-theoretic interpretation to syntactic logical forms. The approach is shown to have wide empirical coverage (...)
     
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  6.  40
    The Received Distinction Between Pragmatics, Syntax and Semantics.Charles Sayward - 1974 - Foundations of Language 11:97-104.
    The distinction between pragmatics, semantics, and syntax, at least as traditionally construed, is argued to be defective in various respects.
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  7.  7
    Two Subject Positions in Scottish Gaelic: The Syntax-Semantics Interface.Gillian Catriona Ramchand - 1996 - Natural Language Semantics 4 (2):165-191.
    This paper examines the stage-level/individual-level hypothesis (Kratzer 1989; Diesing 1988) from the point of view of modern Scottish Gaelic. This language exhibits two syntactically distinct predicational structures, and in particular, two distinct subject positions distinguishable on the basis of word order. While the distinction between the two positions can be shown to support the stage/individual-level hypothesis in one sense, the picture is muddied by the fact that many habitual or ‘characteristic’ sentences seem to be formed according to the stage-level subject (...)
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  8.  56
    The Semantics of Syntax: A Minimalist Approach to Grammar.Denis Bouchard - 1995 - University of Chicago Press.
    During the last thirty years, most linguists and philosophers have assumed that meaning can be represented symbolically and that the mental processing of language involves the manipulation of symbols. Scholars have assembled strong evidence that there must be linguistic representations at several abstract levels--phonological, syntactic, and semantic--and that those representations are related by a describable system of rules. Because meaning is so complex, linguists often posit an equally complex relationship between semantic and other levels of grammar. The Semantics of (...)
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  9.  87
    Syntax, Semantics, and Intentional Aspects.Hilla Jacobson-Horowitz - 2004 - Philosophical Papers 33 (1):67-95.
    Abstract It is widely assumed that the meaning of at least some types of expressions involves more than their reference to objects, and hence that there may be co-referential expressions which differ in meaning. It is also widely assumed that ?syntax does not suffice for semantics?, i.e. that we cannot account for the fact that expressions have semantic properties in purely syntactical or computational terms. The main goal of the paper is to argue against a third related assumption, (...)
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  10. The Language of Thought: No Syntax Without Semantics.Tim Crane - 1990 - Mind and Language 5 (3):187-213.
    Many philosophers think that being in an intentional state is a matter of being related to a sentence in a mental language-a 'Language of Thought' (see especially Fodor 1975, 1987 Appendix; Field 1978). According to this view-which I shall call 'the LT hypothesis'-when anyone has a belief or a desire or a hope with a certain content, they have a sentence of this language, with that content, 'written' in their heads. The claim is meant quite literally: the mental representations that (...)
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  11. Semantics and Syntax: Parallels and Connections.J. E. Miller - 1985 - Cambridge University Press.
    This book is concerned with the relationship between semantics and surface structure and in particular with the way in which each is mapped into the other. Jim Miller argues that semantic and syntactic structure require different representations and that semantic structure is far more complex than many analysts realise. He argues further that semantic structure should be based on notions of location and movement. The need for a semantic component of greater complexity is demonstrated by an examination of prepositions, (...)
     
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  12.  31
    Stephen Crain & Rosalind Thornton, Investigations in Universal Gram-Mar: A Guide to Experiments on the Acquisition of Syntax and Semantics[REVIEW]Bart Geurts - 2000 - Linguistics and Philosophy 23 (5):523-532.
  13.  13
    The Syntax and Semantics of Entailment in Duality Theory.B. A. Davey, M. Haviar & H. A. Priestley - 1995 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 60 (4):1087-1114.
    Both syntactic and semantic solutions are given for the entailment problem of duality theory. The test algebra theorem provides both a syntactic solution to the entailment problem in terms of primitive positive formulae and a new derivation of the corresponding result in clone theory, viz. the syntactic description of $\operatorname{Inv(Pol}(R))$ for a given set R of finitary relations on a finite set. The semantic solution to the entailment problem follows from the syntactic one, or can be given in the form (...)
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  14.  19
    Toward Logical Form: An Exploration of the Role of Syntax in Semantics.Lisa A. Reed - 1996 - Garland.
    Introduction 1.1 GOALS This book is devoted to an in-depth investigation of some of the properties of Logical Form (LF). In particular, the primary aim of ...
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  15.  15
    The Asymmetry of Optimality Theoretic Syntax and Semantics.H. Zeevat - 2000 - Journal of Semantics 17 (3):243-262.
    This paper argues for a combination of semantics and syntax in an optimality theoretic framework that avoids the rat/rad problem and provides simultaneously a certain amount of bidirectionality, in the spirit of Blutner, for an approach to ineffability. It can be succinctly described as taking the program of optimality theoretic syntax as basic, also as a theory of interpretation, and extending it with a bidirectional pragmatic component that is closely related to existing ideas about natural language interpretation. (...)
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  16. Syntax and Semantics of Questions.Lauri Karttunen - 1977 - Linguistics and Philosophy 1 (1):3--44.
    W. Labov's & T. Labov's findings concerning their child grammar acquisition ("Learning the Syntax of Questions" in Recent Advances in the Psychology of Language, Campbell, R. & Smith, P. Eds, New York: Plenum Press, 1978) are interpreted in terms of different semantics of why & other wh-questions. Z. Dubiel.
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  17.  31
    Syntax and Semantics of It-Clefts: A Tree Adjoining Grammar Analysis.C. -H. Han & N. Hedberg - 2008 - Journal of Semantics 25 (4):345-380.
    In this paper, we examine two main approaches to the syntax and semantics of it-clefts as in ‘It was Ohno who won’: an expletive approach where the cleft pronoun is an expletive and the cleft clause bears a direct syntactic or semantic relation to the clefted constituent, and a discontinuous constituent approach where the cleft pronoun has a semantic content and the cleft clause bears a direct syntactic or semantic relation to the cleft pronoun. We argue for an (...)
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  18.  1
    Syntax and Semantics of It-Clefts: A Tree Adjoining Grammar Analysis: Articles.Chung-hye Han & Nancy Hedberg - 2008 - Journal of Semantics 25 (4):345-380.
    In this paper, we examine two main approaches to the syntax and semantics of it -clefts as in ‘It was Ohno who won’: an expletive approach where the cleft pronoun is an expletive and the cleft clause bears a direct syntactic or semantic relation to the clefted constituent, and a discontinuous constituent approach where the cleft pronoun has a semantic content and the cleft clause bears a direct syntactic or semantic relation to the cleft pronoun. We argue for (...)
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  19. Syntax, Semantics, Physics.John Haugeland - 2003 - In John M. Preston & Michael A. Bishop (eds.), Views Into the Chinese Room: New Essays on Searle and Artificial Intelligence. Oxford University Press.
  20.  16
    What Asymmetric Coordination in German Tells Us About the Syntax and Semantics of Conditionals.Ingo Reich - 2009 - Natural Language Semantics 17 (3):219-244.
    In this paper, I argue on empirical grounds that (VL-initial) Asymmetric Coordination in German cannot be reduced to a syntactic structure of the form [if S1, then S2], but rather needs to be analyzed as some kind of adjunction to the if-clause, i.e., along the lines of [[if S1] and S2]. This conclusion gives rise to an apparent mismatch between syntactic structure (narrow scope of if) and semantic interpretation (wide scope of if). To resolve this paradoxical situation, I propose a (...)
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  21. Syntax, Semantics, and Levels of Explanation.Jose Luis Bermudez - 1995 - Philosophical Quarterly 45 (180):361-367.
  22.  18
    Textual Economy Through Close Coupling of Syntax and Semantics.Matthew Stone Bonnie Webber - unknown
    We focus on the production of efficient descriptions of objects, actions and events. We define a type of efficiency, textual economy, that exploits the hearer’s recognition of inferential links to material elsewhere within a sentence. Textual economy leads to efficient descriptions because the material that supports such inferences has been included to satisfy independent communicative goals, and is therefore overloaded in the sense of Pollack [18]. We argue that achieving textual economy imposes strong requirements on the representation and reasoning used (...)
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  23.  69
    Does Syntax Reveal Semantics? A Case Study of Complex Demonstratives.Kent Johnson & Ernie Lepore - 2002 - Noûs 36 (s16):17 - 41.
    Following Aristotle (who himself was following Parmenides), philosophers have appealed to the distributional reflexes of expressions in determining their semantic status, and ultimately, the nature of the extra-linguistic world. This methodology has been practiced throughout the history of philosophy; it was clarified and made popular by the likes of Zeno Vendler and J.L. Austin, and is realized today in the toolbox of linguistically minded philosophers. Studying the syntax of natural language was fueled by the belief that there is a (...)
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  24. Logical Syntax and Semantics. Their Linguistic Relevance.Noam Chomsky - 1958 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 23 (1):72-72.
    The relation between linguistics and logic has been discussed in a, recent paper by Bar-Hillel} where it is argued that a disregard for workin logical syntax and semantics has caused linguists to limit themselves too narrowly in their inquiries, and to fall into several errors. In particular, Bar-Hillel asserts, they have attempted to derive relations of synonymy and so-called ‘rules of transfOI`1'Il8.tiOH,, such as the active—pussive relation, from distributional studies alone, and they have hesitated to rely on considerations (...)
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  25. Does Syntax Reveal Semantics?: A Case Study of Complex Demonstratives.Ernest Lepore - 2002 - Philosophical Perspectives 16:17--41.
    Following Aristotle (who himself was following Parmenides), philosophers have appealed to the distributional reflexes of expressions in determining their semantic status, and ultimately, the nature of the extra-linguistic world. This methodology has been practiced throughout the history of philosophy; it was clarified and made popular by the likes of Zeno Vendler and J.L. Austin, and is realized today in the toolbox of linguistically minded philosophers. Studying the syntax of natural language was fueled by the belief that there is a (...)
     
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  26.  47
    Logic as Calculus Versus Logic as Language, Language as Calculus Versus Language as Universal Medium, and Syntax Versus Semantics.Jan Woleński - 2012 - Logica Universalis 6 (3-4):587-596.
    This paper discusses the distinctions indicated in its title. It is argued that the distinction between syntax and semantics is much more important for the present situation in logic than other distinctions. In particular, doing formal syntax and formal semantics requires the use of an informal melanguage based on ordinary mathematics.
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  27.  9
    Contributions to Functional Syntax, Semantics, and Language Comprehension.Petr Sgall (ed.) - 1984 - John Benjamins.
    On the Notion "Type of Language" Petr Sgall It is well known that the high frequency of terminological vagueness and confusion has been a serious obstacle ...
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  28.  37
    Embeddability, Syntax, and Semantics in Accounts of Scientific Theories.Peter Turney - 1990 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 19 (4):429 - 451.
    Recently several philosophers of science have proposed what has come to be known as the semantic account of scientific theories. It is presented as an improvement on the positivist account, which is now called the syntactic account of scientific theories. Bas van Fraassen claims that the syntactic account does not give a satisfactory definition of "empirical adequacy" and "empirical equivalence". He contends that his own semantic account does define these notations acceptably, through the concept of "embeddability", a concept which he (...)
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  29.  20
    On the Relationships Between Syntax and Semantics with Regard to the Turkish Language.Ömer Naci Soykan - 2012 - Cultura 9 (2):61-76.
    A belief commonly held in linguistics and philosophy is that semantics is defined by syntax. In this article, I will demonstrate that this does not hold true for Turkish. A fundamental syntactical rule builds around the successive order of words or speech units in a sentence. The order determines the meaning of the sentence, which in turn is rendered meaningless if the rule is not observed. In a given language, if a sentence retains meaning without this rule being (...)
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  30.  6
    Syntax and Semantics of the Logic.Carsten Butz - 1997 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 38 (3):374-384.
    In this paper we study the logic , which is first-order logic extended by quantification over functions (but not over relations). We give the syntax of the logic as well as the semantics in Heyting categories with exponentials. Embedding the generic model of a theory into a Grothendieck topos yields completeness of with respect to models in Grothendieck toposes, which can be sharpened to completeness with respect to Heyting-valued models. The logic is the strongest for which Heyting-valued completeness (...)
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  31.  2
    Syntax and Semantics of the Logic $\Mathcal{L}^\Lambda_{\Omega\Omega}$.Carsten Butz - 1997 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 38 (3):374-384.
    In this paper we study the logic $\mathcal{L}^\lambda_{\omega\omega}$, which is first-order logic extended by quantification over functions . We give the syntax of the logic as well as the semantics in Heyting categories with exponentials. Embedding the generic model of a theory into a Grothendieck topos yields completeness of $\mathcal{L}^\lambda_{\omega\omega}$ with respect to models in Grothendieck toposes, which can be sharpened to completeness with respect to Heyting-valued models. The logic $\mathcal{L}^\lambda_{\omega\omega}$ is the strongest for which Heyting-valued completeness is (...)
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  32. Tarski’s Convention T: Condition Beta.John Corcoran - forthcoming - SOUTH AMERICAN JOURNAL OF LOGIC 1 (1).
    Tarski’s Convention T—presenting his notion of adequate definition of truth (sic)—contains two conditions: alpha and beta. Alpha requires that all instances of a certain T Schema be provable. Beta requires in effect the provability of ‘every truth is a sentence’. Beta formally recognizes the fact, repeatedly emphasized by Tarski, that sentences (devoid of free variable occurrences)—as opposed to pre-sentences (having free occurrences of variables)—exhaust the range of significance of is true. In Tarski’s preferred usage, it is part of the meaning (...)
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  33. Consciousness and Understanding in the Chinese Room.Simone Gozzano - 1995 - Informatica 19:653-56.
    In this paper I submit that the “Chinese room” argument rests on the assumption that understanding a sentence necessarily implies being conscious of its content. However, this assumption can be challenged by showing that two notions of consciousness come into play, one to be found in AI, the other in Searle’s argument, and that the former is an essential condition for the notion used by Searle. If Searle discards the first, he not only has trouble explaining how we can learn (...)
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  34.  59
    Contentless Syntax, Ineffable Semantics and Transcendental Ontology. Reflections on Wittgenstein’s Tractatus.Arkadiusz Chrudzimski - 2003 - Kriterion - Journal of Philosophy 17 (1):1-6.
    Wittgenstein’s Tractatus contains some very striking theses. We read, e.g., that „in a sense” we could not be wrong in logic, and that the whole subject matter of the theory of modalities could be reconstructed on the ground of the insights in the mechanism of the linguistic reference. Yet in the light of the last sentences of Tractatus the whole semantics turns out to be principaly ineffable. In our paper we will try to clarify these matters. We show how (...)
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  35. What Syntax Doesn't Feed Semantics: Fake Indexicals as Indexicals.Emar Maier - 2008 - In Maribel Romero (ed.), Proceedings of the Esslli 2008 Workshop `What Syntax Feeds Semantics?'.
    Argues that the first person pronoun is always directly referential, against more recent findings of Heim (1991,2008), Kratzer (1998,2008) and others. Shows how purported evidence of syntactically bound or `fake' indexical I, involving sloppy ellipsis and only, and de se attitude reporting can be reconciled with a strict Kaplanian semantics. Proposes alternative treatments of these phenomena that bypass the syntactic LF level, going straight from surface to semantics/pragmatics.
     
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  36. The Lambda Calculus: Its Syntax and Semantics.H. P. Barendregt - 1984 - Elsevier.
    The revised edition contains a new chapter which provides an elegant description of the semantics. The various classes of lambda calculus models are described in a uniform manner. Some didactical improvements have been made to this edition. An example of a simple model is given and then the general theory (of categorical models) is developed. Indications are given of those parts of the book which can be used to form a coherent course.
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  37. Adjectives and Adverbs: Syntax, Semantics, and Discourse.Louise McNally & Christopher Kennedy (eds.) - 2007 - Oxford University Press UK.
    In this volume leading researchers present new work on the semantics and pragmatics of adjectives and adverbs, and their interfaces with syntax. Its concerns include the semantics of gradability; the relationship between adjectival scales and verbal aspect; the relationship between meaning and the positions of adjectives and adverbs in nominal and verbal projections; and the fine-grained semantics of different subclasses of adverbs and adverbs. Its goals are to provide a comprehensive vision of the linguistically significant structural (...)
     
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  38. Lambda Grammars and the Syntax-Semantics Interface.Reinhard Muskens - 2001 - In Robert Van Rooij & Martin Stokhof (eds.), Proceedings of the Thirteenth Amsterdam Colloquium. Amsterdam: ILLC. pp. 150-155.
    In this paper we discuss a new perspective on the syntax-semantics interface. Semantics, in this new set-up, is not ‘read off’ from Logical Forms as in mainstream approaches to generative grammar. Nor is it assigned to syntactic proofs using a Curry-Howard correspondence as in versions of the Lambek Calculus, or read off from f-structures using Linear Logic as in Lexical-Functional Grammar (LFG, Kaplan & Bresnan [9]). All such approaches are based on the idea that syntactic objects (trees, (...)
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  39.  4
    Integrative Reduction, Confirmation, and the Syntax-Semantics Map.Kristina Liefke & Stephan Hartmann - unknown
    Different pairs of scientific theories stand in different relations. The present paper identifies a new type of intertheoretic relation, Integrative Reduction, that is instantiated in the relation between linguistic syntax and semantics. We show its commonalities with Nagelian reduction and establish their salient differences. To assess the epistemic value of Integrative Reduction, we analyze it in the framework of Bayesian confirmation theory. More specifically, we show that the prior and posterior probabilities and the degree of confirmation of the (...)
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  40.  20
    Contributions to Syntax, Semantics, and the Philosophy of Science.Rolf Schock - 1964 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 5 (4):241--289.
    In the recent literature of the philosophy of science, much space has been given to the problem of analyzing theories of the deductive and natural sciences in a way which makes explicit some of the syntactic and semantic features which seem to be implicitly present in their structures. This pa- per is concerned with the same problem; however, some other problems of syntax and semantics are touched upon along the way. After some prelim- inaries, a very general method (...)
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  41. Syntax and Semantics: An Overview.Arnim von Stechow - 2012 - In Klaus von Heusinger, Claudia Maienborn & Paul Portner (eds.), Semantics: An International Handbook of Natural Language Meaning. De Gruyter Mouton.
  42.  7
    Propositional Mixed Logic: Its Syntax and Semantics.Karim Nour & Abir Nour - 2003 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 13 (3-4):377-390.
    In this paper, we present a propositional logic (called mixed logic) containing disjoint copies of minimal, intuitionistic and classical logics. We prove a completeness theorem for this logic with respect to a Kripke semantics. We establish some relations between mixed logic and minimal, intuitionistic and classical logics. We present at the end a sequent calculus version for this logic.
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  43.  36
    Remarks on the Syntax and Semantics of Day Designators.Jeffrey C. King - 2001 - Noûs 35 (s15):291 - 333.
    Though these expressions are often called “names of months”, there is good reason to hold that they are not names at all. Syntactically, these words behave as count nouns. They combine with determiners such as ‘every’, ‘many’, ‘exactly three’ etc. to form restricted quantifiers:3 (1) Every January I go skiing. (2) I spent many Januarys at Squaw Valley. (3) I wasted exactly three Januarys in Bakersfield. Like other count nouns, they can take relative clauses in constructions such as (1)-(3): (1a) (...)
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  44. A Framework for Syntax and Semantics.Emmon Bach - 1983 - In Alex Orenstein & Rafael Stern (eds.), Developments in Semantics. Haven. pp. 2--166.
     
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  45. Modal Logic: An Introduction to its Syntax and Semantics.Nino B. Cocchiarella & Max A. Freund - 2008 - Oxford University Press USA.
    In this text, a variety of modal logics at the sentential, first-order, and second-order levels are developed with clarity, precision and philosophical insight. All of the S1-S5 modal logics of Lewis and Langford, among others, are constructed. A matrix, or many-valued semantics, for sentential modal logic is formalized, and an important result that no finite matrix can characterize any of the standard modal logics is proven. Exercises, some of which show independence results, help to develop logical skills. A separate (...)
     
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  46. The Asymmetry of Optimality Theoretic Syntax and Semantics.Zeevat Henk - 2000 - Journal of Semantics 17 (3).
     
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  47. Now You Have the Key Idea of How Syntax and Semantics Interact in the Transmission of Information to Resolve the Refer-Ence of Pronouns.Alex Orenstein - 1983 - In Alex Orenstein & Rafael Stern (eds.), Developments in Semantics. Haven. pp. 2--88.
     
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  48.  21
    Making Logical Form Type-Logical: Glue Semantics for Minimalist Syntax.Matthew Gotham - 2018 - Linguistics and Philosophy 41 (5):511-556.
    Glue semantics is a theory of the syntaxsemantics interface according to which the syntactic structure of a sentence produces premises in a fragment of linear logic, and the semantic interpretation of the sentence correspond to the proof derivable from those premises. This paper describes how Glue can be connected to a Minimalist syntactic theory and compares the result with the more mainstream approach to the syntaxsemantics interface in Minimalism, according to which the input to semantic (...)
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  49.  6
    Intertheoretic Reduction, Confirmation, and Montague’s Syntax-Semantics Relation.Kristina Liefke & Stephan Hartmann - 2018 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 27 (4):313-341.
    Intertheoretic relations are an important topic in the philosophy of science. However, since their classical discussion by Ernest Nagel, such relations have mostly been restricted to relations between pairs of theories in the natural sciences. This paper presents a case study of a new type of intertheoretic relation that is inspired by Montague’s analysis of the linguistic syntax-semantics relation. The paper develops a simple model of this relation. To motivate the adoption of our new model, we show that (...)
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  50.  37
    Do Sensorimotor Processes Have Reflexes in Sentence Syntax as Well as Sentence Semantics?Alistair Knott - 2003 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (3):294-295.
    Predicate logic has proved a very useful tool for the expression of theories of natural language semantics. Hurford's suggestion that predicate–argument structures mirror certain properties of the human sensorimotor architecture can be seen as an explanation of why this is so. Although I support this view, I think that the correspondences that Hurford draws between linguistic and sensorimotor structures not only involve natural language semantics, but include some elements of natural language syntax as well.
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