Results for 'tautologies'

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  1. Are All Tautologies True?Philip Hugly & Charles Sayward - 1989 - Logique Et Analyse 125 (125-126):3-14.
    The paper asks: are all tautologies true in a language with truth-value gaps? It answers that they are not. No tautology is false, of course, but not all are true. It also contends that not all contradictions are false in a language with truth-value gaps, though none are true.
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  2.  4
    Tautologies Over Implication with Negative Literals.Hervé Fournier, Danièle Gardy, Antoine Genitrini & Marek Zaionc - 2010 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 56 (4):388-396.
    We consider logical expressions built on the single binary connector of implication and a finite number of literals . We prove that asymptotically, when the number of variables becomes large, all tautologies have the following simple structure: either a premise equal to the goal, or two premises which are opposite literals.
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  3.  33
    Tautologies From Pseudo-Random Generators.Jan Krajicek - 2001 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 7 (2):197-212.
    We consider tautologies formed form a pseudo-random number generator, defined in Krajicek [11] and in Alekhnovich et al. [2]. We explain a strategy of proving their hardness for Extended Frege systems via a conjecture about bounded arithmetic formulated in Krajicek [11]. Further we give a purely finitary statement, in the form of a hardness condition imposed on a function, equivalent to the conjecture. This is accompanied by a brief explanation, aimed at non-specialists, of the relation between prepositional proof complexity (...)
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  4.  22
    Speculations on the Emergence of Self-Awareness in Big-Brained Organisms: The Roles of Associative Memory and Learning, Existential and Religious Questions, and the Emergence of Tautologies.Emmanuel Tannenbaum - 2009 - Consciousness and Cognition 18 (2):414-427.
    This paper argues that self-awareness emerges in organisms whose brains have a sufficiently integrated, complex ability for associative learning and memory. Continual sensory input of information related to the organism leads to the formation of a set of associations that may be termed an organismal “self-image”. After providing the basic mechanistic basis for the emergence of an organismal self-image, this paper proceeds to go through a representative list of behaviors associated with self-awareness, and shows how associative memory and learning, combined (...)
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  5.  19
    Plausibly Hard Combinatorial Tautologies.Jeremy Avigad - manuscript
    We present a simple propositional proof system which consists of a single axiom schema and a single rule, and use this system to construct a sequence of combinatorial tautologies that, when added to any Frege system, p-simulates extended-Frege systems.
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  6.  4
    Complexity of T-Tautologies.Matthias Baaz, Petr Hájek, Franco Montagna & Helmut Veith - 2001 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 113 (1-3):3-11.
    A t-tautology is a propositional formula which is a tautology in all fuzzy logics defined by continuous triangular norms. In this paper we show that the problem of recognizing t-tautologies is coNP complete, and thus decidable.
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  7.  8
    Tautologies with a Unique Craig Interpolant, Uniform Vs. Nonuniform Complexity.Daniele Mundici - 1984 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 27 (3):265-273.
    If S ⊆{0,1}; * and S ′ = {0,1} * \sb S are both recognized within a certain nondeterministic time bound T then, in not much more time, one can write down tautologies A n → A′ n with unique interpolants I n that define S ∩{0,1} n ; hence, if one can rapidly find unique interpolants, then one can recognize S within deterministic time T p for some fixed p \s>0. In general, complexity measures for the problem of (...)
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  8.  7
    Complexity of the -Query Tautologies in the Presence of a Generic Oracle.Toshio Suzuki - 2000 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 41 (2):142-151.
    Extending techniques of Dowd and those of Poizat, we study computational complexity of in the case when is a generic oracle, where is a positive integer, and denotes the collection of all -query tautologies with respect to an oracle . We introduce the notion of ceiling-generic oracles, as a generalization of Dowd's notion of -generic oracles to arbitrary finitely testable arithmetical predicates. We study how existence of ceiling-generic oracles affects behavior of a generic oracle, by which we show that (...)
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  9.  8
    Does Truth-Table of Linear Norm Reduce the One-Query Tautologies to a Random Oracle?Masahiro Kumabe, Toshio Suzuki & Takeshi Yamazaki - 2008 - Archive for Mathematical Logic 47 (2):159-180.
    In our former works, for a given concept of reduction, we study the following hypothesis: “For a random oracle A, with probability one, the degree of the one-query tautologies with respect to A is strictly higher than the degree of A.” In our former works (Suzuki in Kobe J. Math. 15, 91–102, 1998; in Inf. Comput. 176, 66–87, 2002; in Arch. Math. Logic 44, 751–762), the following three results are shown: The hypothesis for p-T (polynomial-time Turing) reduction is equivalent (...)
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  10.  5
    Deep Tautologies.Johannes Bulhof & Steven Gimbel - 2001 - Pragmatics and Cognition 9 (2):279-292.
    The standard understanding of tautologies is that they are semantically vacuous. Yet tautological utterances occur frequently in conversational discourse. One approach contends that apparent tautological statements are either genuinely tautologous and thereby semantically vacuous or are what we term ¿pseudo-tautologies¿, i.e., sentences that only bear a formal syntactic resemblance to tautologies but are not in fact tautologous. Another approach follows Grice and asserts that the meaning of a tautological utterance derives from an inference made by the listener (...)
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  11.  4
    Bounded Truth Table Does Not Reduce the One-Query Tautologies to a Random Oracle.Toshio Suzuki - 2005 - Archive for Mathematical Logic 44 (6):751-762.
    The relativized propositional calculus is a system of Boolean formulas with query symbols. A formula in this system is called a one-query formula if the number of occurrences of query symbols is just one. If a one-query formula is a tautology with respect to a given oracle A then it is called a one-query tautology with respect to A. By extending works of Ambos-Spies (1986) and us (2002), we investigate the measure of the class of all oracles A such that (...)
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  12. Deep Tautologies.J. Bulhof & S. Gimbel - 2001 - Pragmatics and Cognition 9 (2):279-291.
    The standard understanding of tautologies is that they are semantically vacuous. Yet tautological utterances occur frequently in conversational discourse. One approach contends that apparent tautological statements are either genuinely tautologous and thereby semantically vacuous or are what we term “pseudo-tautologies“, i.e., sentences that only bear a formal syntactic resemblance to tautologies but are not in fact tautologous. Another approach follows Grice and asserts that the meaning of a tautological utterance derives from an inference made by the listener (...)
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  13. Warring Tautologies: Moral Dissent from a Cognitivist Perspective.Matthias Kiesselbach - 2009 - Ethic@ 8 (1):125-145.
    It is commonly thought that the prevalence of moral dissent poses a problem for the moral cognitivist, forcing her to diagnose either a lot of misunderstanding, or a lot of unexplained observational error. Since mere misunderstanding can be ruled out in most cases of moral dissent, and since the diagnosis of widespread unexplained error is interpretively unstable, prevalent dissent has pushed many philosophers towards non-cognitivism. In this essay, I argue that once a diachronic, pragmatist theory of language along the lines (...)
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  14.  4
    Language and the Ability to Evaluate Contradictions and Tautologies.Daniel N. Osherson & Ellen Markman - 1974 - Cognition 3 (3):213-226.
  15.  17
    A Note on the Existence of Tautologies in Certain Propositional Calculi Without Propositional Variables.Alan Rose - 1976 - Zeitschrift fur mathematische Logik und Grundlagen der Mathematik 22 (1):117-118.
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  16.  35
    In the Full Propositional Logic, 5/8 of Classical Tautologies Are Intuitionistically Valid.Antoine Genitrini & Jakub Kozik - 2012 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 163 (7):875-887.
  17.  63
    Tautologies and the Paradigm-Case Argument.R. Harré - 1957 - Analysis 18 (4):94 - 96.
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  18.  9
    Can a Restrictive Definition Lead to Biases and Tautologies?Luc-Alain Giraldeau, Louis Lefebvre & Julie Morand-Ferron - 2007 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (4):411-412.
    We argue that the operational definition proposed by Ramsey et al. does not represent a significant improvement for students of innovation, because it is so restrictive that it might actually prevent the testing of hypotheses on the relationships between innovation, ecology, evolution, culture, and intelligence. To avoid tautological thinking, we need to use an operational definition that is taxonomically unbiased and neutral with respect to the hypotheses to be tested.
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  19.  15
    An Algorithm for Deriving Tautologies of Logic of Classes and Relations From Those of Sentential Calculus.Michele Malatesta - 2000 - Metalogicon 13 (2):89-123.
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  20.  14
    Are Natural Laws Simplifed Empirically Useful Tautologies?C. W. Berenda - 1973 - Southwestern Journal of Philosophy 4 (2):93-100.
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  21.  4
    Tautologies and Positive Solvability of Linear Homogeneous Systems.Gennady Davydov & Inna Davydova - 1992 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 57 (1):27-43.
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  22.  24
    Some (Non)Tautologies of Łukasiewicz and Product Logic.Petr Hájek - 2010 - Review of Symbolic Logic 3 (2):273-278.
    The paper presents a particular example of a formula which is a standard tautology of Łukasiewicz but not its general tautology; an example of a model in which the formula is not true is explicitly constructed. Analogous example of a formula and its model is given for product logic.
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  23.  5
    A Test for the Existence of Tautologies According to Many-Valued Truth-Tables.Jan Kalicki - 1950 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 15 (3):182-184.
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  24.  17
    Tautologies and the Matrix Method.Morris Lazerowitz - 1937 - Mind 46 (182):191-205.
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  25.  10
    A Uniform Proof Procedure for SCI Tautologies.Aileen Michaels - 1974 - Studia Logica 33 (3):299 - 310.
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  26.  3
    The Epistemology of Intelligence: Contextual Variables, Tautologies, and External Referents.Craig T. Nagoshi - 1987 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 10 (4):675.
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  27.  13
    Methodological Problems in Evolutionary Biology I. Testability and Tautologies.Wim J. Steen - 1983 - Acta Biotheoretica 32 (3).
    The impact of philosophy of science on biology is slight. Evolutionary biology, however, is nowadays an exception. The status of the neo-Darwinian (synthetic) theory of evolution is seriously challenged from a methodological perspective. However, the methodology used in the relevant discussions is plainly defective. A correct application of methodology to evolutionary theory leads to the following conclusions. (a) The theory of natural selection (the core of neo-Darwinism) is unfalsifiable in a strict sense of the term. This, however, does not militate (...)
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  28.  1
    From the Research on Logics Without Tautologies.L. Jaworski - 2013 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 21 (2):216-233.
  29.  1
    From the Research on Logics Without Tautologies.L. Jaworski - 2013 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 21 (2):234-251.
  30.  1
    From the Research on Logics Without Tautologies.L. Jaworski - 2013 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 21 (2):252-262.
  31. Review: Morris Lazerowitz, Tautologies and the Matrix Method. [REVIEW]Paul Henle - 1937 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 2 (3):141-142.
  32.  3
    Testing Singly Quantified Tautologies.Gerald Standley - 1966 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 31 (3):478-480.
  33.  6
    Logic Without Tautologies.Leo Simons - 1974 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 15 (3):411-431.
  34.  2
    Review: Jan Kalicki, A Test for the Existence of Tautologies According to Many-Valued Truth-Tables. [REVIEW]J. C. C. McKinsey - 1951 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 16 (1):65-65.
  35.  1
    Aspects rhétoriques des tautologies binaires dans La vie de Saint Eustace.Helge Nordahl - 1976 - Revue Belge de Philologie Et D’Histoire 54 (3):773-779.
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  36.  1
    A Note on the Existence of Tautologies Without Constants.Alan Rose - 1975 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 21 (1):141-144.
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  37.  1
    A Note on the Existence of Tautologies in Certain Propositional Calculi Without Propositional Variables.Alan Rose - 1976 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 22 (1):117-118.
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  38.  3
    Structured Pigeonhole Principle, Search Problems and Hard Tautologies.Jan Krajíček - 2005 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 70 (2):619 - 630.
    We consider exponentially large finite relational structures (with the universe {0.1}ⁿ) whose basic relations are computed by polynomial size (nO(1)) circuits. We study behaviour of such structures when pulled back by P/poly maps to a bigger or to a smaller universe. In particular, we prove that: 1. If there exists a P/poly map g: {0.1} → {0.1}m, n < m, iterable for a proof system then a tautology (independent of g) expressing that a particular size n set is dominating in (...)
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  39.  2
    More Logics Without Tautologies.Leo Simons - 1978 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 19 (4):543-557.
  40. Baaz, M., HaHjek, P., Montagna, F. And Veith, H., Complexity of T-Tautologies (1} 3) 3} 11 Beauquier, D. And Slissenko, A., A" Rst Order Logic for Speci" Cation of Timed Algorithms: Basic Properties and a Decidable Class (1} 3) 13} 52. [REVIEW]L. Boasson, P. Cegielski, I. Guessarian, Y. Matiyasevich, E. Dantsin, M. Gavrilovich, E. A. Hirsch & B. Konev - 2002 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 113 (399):400.
     
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  41. Deep Tautologies.Johannes Bulhof & Steven Gimbel - 2001 - Pragmatics and Cognitionpragmatics and Cognition 9 (2):279-291.
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  42. Moral Rules and Tautologies.Justus Hartnack - 1963 - In Gunnar Aspelin (ed.), Philosophical Essays. Lund, Cwk Gleerup. pp. 28.
     
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  43. Tautologies and the Paradigm-Case Argument.R. Harré - 1957 - Erkenntnis 18:94.
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  44. Lazerowitz Morris. Tautologies and the Matrix Method. Mind, N.S. Vol. 46 , Pp. 191–205.Paul Henle - 1937 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 2 (3):141-142.
  45. Describing Proofs by Short Tautologies.Stefan Hetzl - 2009 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 159 (1):129-145.
    Herbrand’s theorem is one of the most fundamental results about first-order logic. In the context of proof analysis, Herbrand-disjunctions are used for describing the constructive content of cut-free proofs. However, given a proof with cuts, the computation of a Herbrand-disjunction is of significant computational complexity, as the cuts in the proof have to be eliminated first.In this paper we prove a generalization of Herbrand’s theorem: From a proof with cuts, one can read off a small tautology composed of instances of (...)
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  46. Are all Tautologies True?Philip Hugly - 1989 - Logique Et Analyse 32 (25):3.
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  47. Editor's Page: The Discreet Charm of Tautologies.Dale Jacquette - 2004 - American Philosophical Quarterly 41 (2):85-86.
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  48. Tautologies and the Matrix Method.Lazerowitz Morris - 1937 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 2 (3):141-142.
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  49. Methodological Problems in Evolutionary Biology I. Testability and Tautologies.Wim Van Der Steen - 1983 - Acta Biotheoretica 32 (3):207-215.
    The impact of philosophy of science on biology is slight. Evolutionary biology, however, is nowadays an exception. The status of the neo-Darwinian theory of evolution is seriously challenged from a methodological perspective. However, the methodology used in the relevant discussions is plainly defective. A correct application of methodology to evolutionary theory leads to the following conclusions. The theory of natural selection is unfalsifiable in a strict sense of the term. This, however, does not militate against the theory, because no scientific (...)
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  50.  7
    The Classical Constraint on Relevance.Arnon Avron - 2014 - Logica Universalis 8 (1):1-15.
    We show that as long as the propositional constants t and f are not included in the language, any language-preserving extension of any important fragment of the relevance logics R and RMI can have only classical tautologies as theorems . This property is not preserved, though, if either t or f is added to the language, or if the contraction axiom is deleted.
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