Results for 'term logic'

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  1.  17
    1.1. The Logistic Method. Church's Writings on Philosophical Matters Ex-Hibit an Unwavering Commitment to What He Called the “Logistic Method”. 3 The Term Did Not Catch on and Now One Would Just Speak of “Formalization”. The Use of These Ideas is Now so Common and Familiar Among Logicians. [REVIEW]Intensional Logic - 1998 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 4 (2).
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  2.  49
    Advances in Contemporary Logic and Computer Science Proceedings of the Eleventh Brazilian Conference on Mathematical Logic, May 6-10, 1996, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. [REVIEW]Walter A. Carnielli, Itala M. L. D'ottaviano & Brazilian Conference on Mathematical Logic - 1999
    This volume presents the proceedings from the Eleventh Brazilian Logic Conference on Mathematical Logic held by the Brazilian Logic Society (co-sponsored by the Centre for Logic, Epistemology and the History of Science, State University of Campinas, Sao Paulo) in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The conference and the volume are dedicated to the memory of professor Mario Tourasse Teixeira, an educator and researcher who contributed to the formation of several generations of Brazilian logicians. Contributions were made from leading (...)
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  3.  27
    Numerical Term Logic.Wallace A. Murphree - 1998 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 39 (3):346-362.
    This paper is an attempt to show that my work to establish numerically flexible quantifiers for the syllogism can be aptly combined with the term logic advanced by Sommers, Englebretsen, and others.
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  4.  2
    Term Logic with Choice Operator.Hans Hermes - 1971 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 36 (4):679-680.
  5.  6
    Hermes Hans. Term Logic with Choice Operator. A Revised and Enlarged Translation of XXXV 440. Lecture Notes in Mathematics No. 6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, and New York, 1970, Iv + 55 Pp. [REVIEW]Perry Smith - 1971 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 36 (4):679-680.
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  6.  7
    Review: Hans Hermes, Term Logic with Choice Operator. [REVIEW]Perry Smith - 1971 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 36 (4):679-680.
  7.  6
    Algebraic Analysis of The Term Logic with Choice Operator.Dietrich Schwartz - 1981 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 27 (22):345-352.
  8.  23
    Algebraic Analysis of The Term Logic with Choice Operator.Dietrich Schwartz - 1981 - Zeitschrift fur mathematische Logik und Grundlagen der Mathematik 27 (22):345-352.
  9.  7
    A Term-Graph Clausal Logic: Completeness and Incompleteness Results★.Ricardo Caferra, Rachid Echahed & Nicolas Peltier - 2008 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 18 (4):373-411.
    A clausal logic allowing to handle term-graphs is defined. Term-graphs are a generalization of terms possibly containing shared subterms and cycles. The satisfiability problem for this logic is shown to be undecidable, but some fragments are identified for which it is semi-decidable. A complete calculus for these fragments is proposed. Some simple examples give a taste of this calculus at work.
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  10.  27
    Term Kinds and the Formality of Aristotelian Modal Logic.Joshua Mendelsohn - 2017 - History and Philosophy of Logic 38 (2):99-126.
    Recent formalizations of Aristotle's modal syllogistic have made use of an interpretative assumption with precedent in traditional commentary: That Aristotle implicitly relies on a distinction between two classes of terms. I argue that the way Rini employs this distinction undermines her attempt to show that Aristotle gives valid proofs of his modal syllogisms. Rini does not establish that Aristotle gives valid proofs of the arguments which she takes to best represent Aristotle's modal syllogisms, nor that Aristotle's modal syllogisms are instances (...)
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  11.  19
    Stephen Bellantoni and Stephen Cook. A New Recursion-Theoretic Characterization of the Polytime Functions. Computational Complexity, Vol. 2 , Pp. 97–110. - Arnold Beckmann and Andreas Weiermann. A Term Rewriting Characterization of the Polytime Functions and Related Complexity Classes. Archive for Mathematical Logic, Vol. 36 , Pp. 11–30. [REVIEW]Karl-Heinz Niggl - 2000 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 6 (3):351-353.
  12.  18
    The Monodic Fragment of Propositional Term Modal Logic.Anantha Padmanabha & R. Ramanujam - 2019 - Studia Logica 107 (3):533-557.
    We study term modal logics, where modalities can be indexed by variables that can be quantified over. We suggest that these logics are appropriate for reasoning about systems of unboundedly many reasoners and define a notion of bisimulation which preserves propositional fragment of term modal logics. Also we show that the propositional fragment is already undecidable but that its monodic fragment is decidable, and expressive enough to include interesting assertions.
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  13.  19
    Reviews - J. H. Woodger. Translator's Preface. Logic, Semantics, Metamathematics, Papers From 1923 to 1938.Oxford at the Clarendon Press, London1956, Pp. Vii–Ix. - Alfred Tarski. Author's Acknowledgments.Logic, Semantics, Metamathematics, Papers From 1923 to 1938.Oxford at the Clarendon Press, London1956, Pp. Xi–Xii. - Alfred Tarski. On the Primitive Term of Logistic. Modified English Translation Based on 2852–4. Logic, Semantics, Metamathematics, Papers From 1923 to 1938.Oxford at the Clarendon Press, London1956, Pp. 1–23. - Alfred Tarski. Foundations of the Geometry of Solids.Logic, Semantics, Metamathematics, Papers From 1923 to 1938.Oxford at the Clarendon Press, London1956, Pp. 24–29. - Alfred Tarski. On Some Fundamental Concepts of Metamathematics. English Translation of 2857. Logic, Semantics, Metamathematics, Papers From 1923 to 1938.Oxford at the Clarendon Press, London1956, 30–37. - Jan Łukasiewicz and Alfred Tarski. Investigations Into the Sentential Calculus. English Transl. [REVIEW]W. A. Pogorzelski & S. J. Surma - 1969 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 34 (1):99-106.
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  14.  6
    Categorical Abstract Logic: Hidden Multi-Sorted Logics as Multi-Term Π-Institutions.George Voutsadakis - 2017 - Bulletin of the Section of Logic 45 (2).
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  15.  5
    Andreas Weiermann. Complexity Bounds for Some Finite Forms of Kruskal's Theorem. Journal of Symbolic Computation, Vol. 18 , Pp. 463–448. - Andreas Weiermann. Termination Proofs for Term Rewriting Systems with Lexicographic Path Ordering Imply Multiply Recursive Derivation Lengths. Theoretical Computer Science, Vol. 139 , Pp. 355–362. - Andreas Weiermann. Bounding Derivation Lengths with Functions From the Slow Growing Hierarchy. Archive of Mathematical Logic, Vol. 37 , Pp. 427–441. [REVIEW]Georg Moser - 2004 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 10 (4):588-590.
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  16.  21
    Dynamic Term-Modal Logic. Kooi, Barteld - unknown
    abstract. A first-order dynamic epistemic logic is developed where the names of the agents are also terms in the sense of first-order logic. Consequently one can quantify over epistemic modalities. Us- ing constructs from dynamic logic one can express many interesting concepts. First-order update models are developed and added to the language as modalities.
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  17.  16
    The Term Istithnā' in Arabic LogicThe Term Istithna' in Arabic Logic.Kwame Gyekye - 1972 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 92 (1):88.
  18.  38
    On Translating the Term "Drstānta" in Early Buddhist Formal Logic.Douglas D. Daye - 1988 - Philosophy East and West 38 (2):147-156.
  19.  8
    Undistributed Middle Term in the Logic of Gualtieri & Hicks's Immunoreactive Model.Charles E. Boklage - 1985 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8 (3):444-445.
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  20.  71
    Philosophical Logic: An Introduction to Advanced Topics.George Englebretsen & Charles Sayward - 2010 - continuum.
    This title introduces students to non-classical logic, syllogistic, to quantificational and modal logic. The book includes exercises throughout and a glossary of terms and symbols. Taking students beyond classical mathematical logic, "Philosophical Logic" is a wide-ranging introduction to more advanced topics in the study of philosophical logic. Starting by contrasting familiar classical logic with constructivist or intuitionist logic, the book goes on to offer concise but easy-to-read introductions to such subjects as quantificational and (...)
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  21.  17
    A Proof-Theoretic Treatment of Λ-Reduction with Cut-Elimination: Λ-Calculus as a Logic Programming Language.Michael Gabbay - 2011 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 76 (2):673 - 699.
    We build on an existing a term-sequent logic for the λ-calculus. We formulate a general sequent system that fully integrates αβη-reductions between untyped λ-terms into first order logic. We prove a cut-elimination result and then offer an application of cut-elimination by giving a notion of uniform proof for λ-terms. We suggest how this allows us to view the calculus of untyped αβ-reductions as a logic programming language (as well as a functional programming language, as it is (...)
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  22.  12
    Algebraic Logic Perspective on Prucnal’s Substitution.Alex Citkin - 2016 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 57 (4):503-521.
    A term td is called a ternary deductive term for a variety of algebras V if the identity td≈r holds in V and ∈θ yields td≈td for any A∈V and any principal congruence θ on A. A connective f is called td-distributive if td)≈ f,…,td). If L is a propositional logic and V is a corresponding variety that has a TD term td, then any admissible in L rule, the premises of which contain only td-distributive operations, (...)
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  23. "Philosophical Logic: An Introduction to Advanced Topics," by George Englebretsen and Charles Sayward. [REVIEW]Chad Carmichael - 2013 - Teaching Philosophy 36 (4):420-423.
    This book serves as a concise introduction to some main topics in modern formal logic for undergraduates who already have some familiarity with formal languages. There are chapters on sentential and quantificational logic, modal logic, elementary set theory, a brief introduction to the incompleteness theorem, and a modern development of traditional Aristotelian Logic.
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  24. Ancient Logic.Susanne Bobzien - 2006 - In Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    ABSTRACT: A comprehensive introduction to ancient (western) logic from earliest times to the 6th century CE, with an emphasis on topics which may be of interest to contemporary logicians. Content: 1. Pre-Aristotelian Logic 1.1 Syntax and Semantics 1.2 Argument Patterns and Valid Inference 2. Aristotle 2.1 Dialectics 2.2 Sub-sentential Classifications 2.3 Syntax and Semantics of Sentences 2.4 Non-modal Syllogistic 2.5 Modal Logic 3. The early Peripatetics: Theophrastus and Eudemus 3.1 Improvements and Modifications of Aristotle's Logic 3.2 (...)
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  25. How We Naturally Reason.Fred Sommers - manuscript
    In the 17th century, Hobbes stated that we reason by addition and subtraction. Historians of logic note that Hobbes thought of reasoning as “a ‘species of computation’” but point out that “his writing contains in fact no attempt to work out such a project.” Though Leibniz mentions the plus/minus character of the positive and negative copulas, neither he nor Hobbes say anything about a plus/minus character of other common logical words that drive our deductive judgments, words like ‘some’, ‘all’, (...)
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  26.  49
    The Logic of Categorematic and Syncategorematic Infinity.Sara L. Uckelman - 2015 - Synthese 192 (8):2361-2377.
    The medieval distinction between categorematic and syncategorematic words is usually given as the distinction between words which have signification or meaning in isolation from other words and those which have signification only when combined with other words . Some words, however, are classified as both categorematic and syncategorematic. One such word is Latin infinita ‘infinite’. Because infinita can be either categorematic or syncategorematic, it is possible to form sophisms using infinita whose solutions turn on the distinction between categorematic and syncategorematic (...)
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  27. Logic and Semantics for Imperatives.Nate Charlow - 2014 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 43 (4):617-664.
    In this paper I will develop a view about the semantics of imperatives, which I term Modal Noncognitivism, on which imperatives might be said to have truth conditions (dispositionally, anyway), but on which it does not make sense to see them as expressing propositions (hence does not make sense to ascribe to them truth or falsity). This view stands against “Cognitivist” accounts of the semantics of imperatives, on which imperatives are claimed to express propositions, which are then enlisted in (...)
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  28.  18
    Types of I -Free Hereditary Right Maximal Terms.Katalin Bimbó - 2005 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 34 (5/6):607 - 620.
    The implicational fragment of the relevance logic "ticket entailment" is closely related to the so-called hereditary right maximal terms. I prove that the terms that need to be considered as inhabitants of the types which are theorems of $T_\rightarrow$ are in normal form and built in all but one casefrom B, B' and W only. As a tool in the proof ordered term rewriting systems are introduced. Based on the main theorem I define $FIT_\rightarrow$ - a Fitch-style calculus (...)
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  29.  31
    Making Sense of “Informal Logic”.Ralph H. Johnson - 2006 - Informal Logic 26 (3):231-258.
    This paper is an exercise in intellectual history, an attempt to understand how a specific term—”informal logic”— came to be interpreted in so many different ways. I trace the emergence and development of “informal logic” to help explain the many different meanings, how they emerged and how they are related. This paper is also, to some degree, an account of a movement that developed outside the mainstream of philosophy, whose origins lie in a desire to make (...) useful (echoing Dewey). (shrink)
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  30. Term Models for Abstraction Principles.Leon Horsten & Øystein Linnebo - 2016 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 45 (1):1-23.
    Kripke’s notion of groundedness plays a central role in many responses to the semantic paradoxes. Can the notion of groundedness be brought to bear on the paradoxes that arise in connection with abstraction principles? We explore a version of grounded abstraction whereby term models are built up in a ‘grounded’ manner. The results are mixed. Our method solves a problem concerning circularity and yields a ‘grounded’ model for the predicative theory based on Frege’s Basic Law V. However, the method (...)
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  31.  30
    Foundations of Nominal Techniques: Logic and Semantics of Variables in Abstract Syntax.Murdoch J. Gabbay - 2011 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 17 (2):161-229.
    We are used to the idea that computers operate on numbers, yet another kind of data is equally important: the syntax of formal languages, with variables, binding, and alpha-equivalence. The original application of nominal techniques, and the one with greatest prominence in this paper, is to reasoning on formal syntax with variables and binding. Variables can be modelled in many ways: for instance as numbers (since we usually take countably many of them); as links (since they may `point' to a (...)
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  32.  39
    A Logic Inspired by Natural Language: Quantifiers As Subnectors.Nissim Francez - 2014 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 43 (6):1153-1172.
    Inspired by the grammar of natural language, the paper presents a variant of first-order logic, in which quantifiers are not sentential operators, but are used as subnectors . A quantified term formed by a subnector is an argument of a predicate. The logic is defined by means of a meaning-conferring natural-deduction proof-system, according to the proof-theoretic semantics program. The harmony of the I/E-rules is shown. The paper then presents a translation, called the Frege translation, from the defined (...)
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  33.  26
    Full Intuitionistic Linear Logic.Martin Hyland & Valeria de Paiva - 1993 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 64 (3):273-291.
    In this paper we give a brief treatment of a theory of proofs for a system of Full Intuitionistic Linear Logic. This system is distinct from Classical Linear Logic, but unlike the standard Intuitionistic Linear Logic of Girard and Lafont includes the multiplicative disjunction par. This connective does have an entirely natural interpretation in a variety of categorical models of Intuitionistic Linear Logic. The main proof-theoretic problem arises from the observation of Schellinx that cut elimination fails (...)
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  34. Equivalences Between Pure Type Systems and Systems of Illative Combinatory Logic.M. W. Bunder & W. J. M. Dekkers - 2005 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 46 (2):181-205.
    Pure Type Systems, PTSs, were introduced as a generalization of the type systems of Barendregt's lambda cube and were designed to provide a foundation for actual proof assistants which will verify proofs. Systems of illative combinatory logic or lambda calculus, ICLs, were introduced by Curry and Church as a foundation for logic and mathematics. In an earlier paper we considered two changes to the rules of the PTSs which made these rules more like ICL rules. This led to (...)
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  35.  23
    Dynamic Topological Logic Interpreted Over Minimal Systems.David Fernández-Duque - 2011 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 40 (6):767-804.
    Dynamic Topological Logic ( ) is a modal logic which combines spatial and temporal modalities for reasoning about dynamic topological systems , which are pairs consisting of a topological space X and a continuous function f : X → X . The function f is seen as a change in one unit of time; within one can model the long-term behavior of such systems as f is iterated. One class of dynamic topological systems where the long-term (...)
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  36.  57
    Kant’s General Logic and Aristotle.Kurt Mosser - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 16:181-189.
    In the Critique of Pure Reason, Kant uses the termlogic” in a bewildering variety of ways, at times making it close to impossible to determine whether he is referring to (among others) general logic, transcendental logic, transcendental analytic, a "special" logic relative to a specific science, a "natural" logic, a logic intended for the "learned" (Gelehrter), some hybrid of these logics, or even some still-more abstract notion that ranges over all of these (...)
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  37.  9
    Defining the Term "Argument".P. Chittleborough & M. E. Newman - 1993 - Informal Logic 15 (3).
    Informal logic has expanded the concept of an 'argument' beyond that presented traditionally by formal logicians-to include arguments as encountered in 'real-life'. Existent definitions of argument structure are argued to be inadequate by failing to fully recognise that, ultimately, arguments have a human source. Accordingly, a new definition is proposed which appeals to relevant cognitive and behavioural factors. The definition retains some traditional concepts, but introduces the term 'supportive' as a modification to 'premiss'. The concept of a 'persuader' (...)
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  38.  6
    Distributed Relation Logic.Gerard Allwein, William L. Harrison & Thomas Reynolds - 2017 - Logic and Logical Philosophy 26 (1):19-61.
    We extend the relational algebra of Chin and Tarski so that it is multisorted or, as we prefer, typed. Each type supports a local Boolean algebra outfitted with a converse operator. From Lyndon, we know that relation algebras cannot be represented as proper relation algebras where a proper relation algebra has binary relations as elements and the algebra is singly-typed. Here, the intensional conjunction, which was to represent relational composition in Chin and Tarski, spans three different local algebras, thus the (...)
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  39.  23
    Epistemic Logic Without Closure.Stephan Leuenberger & Martin Smith - forthcoming - Synthese.
    All standard epistemic logics legitimate something akin to the principle of closure, according to which knowledge is closed under competent deductive inference. And yet the principle of closure, particularly in its multiple premise guise, has a somewhat ambivalent status within epistemology. One might think that serious concerns about closure point us away from epistemic logic altogether—away from the very idea that the knowledge relation could be fruitfully treated as a kind of modal operator. This, however, need not be so. (...)
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  40.  61
    Dual Intuitionistic Logic and a Variety of Negations: The Logic of Scientific Research.Yaroslav Shramko - 2005 - Studia Logica 80 (2-3):347-367.
    We consider a logic which is semantically dual (in some precise sense of the term) to intuitionistic. This logic can be labeled as “falsification logic”: it embodies the Popperian methodology of scientific discovery. Whereas intuitionistic logic deals with constructive truth and non-constructive falsity, and Nelson's logic takes both truth and falsity as constructive notions, in the falsification logic truth is essentially non-constructive as opposed to falsity that is conceived constructively. We also briefly clarify (...)
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  41.  99
    Varieties of Reflection in Kant's Logic.Melissa McBay Merritt - 2015 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 23 (3):478-501.
    For Kant, ‘reflection’ is a technical term with a range of senses. I focus here on the senses of reflection that come to light in Kant's account of logic, and then bring the results to bear on the distinction between ‘logical’ and ‘transcendental’ reflection that surfaces in the Amphiboly chapter of the Critique of Pure Reason. Although recent commentary has followed similar cues, I suggest that it labours under a blind spot, as it neglects Kant's distinction between ‘pure’ (...)
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  42.  45
    Free Logic: Selected Essays.Karel Lambert - 2002 - Cambridge University Press.
    Free logic is an important field of philosophical logic that first appeared in the 1950s. J. Karel Lambert was one of its founders and coined the term itself. The essays in this collection explore the philosophical foundations of free logic and its application to areas as diverse as the philosophy of religion and computer science. Amongst the applications on offer are those to the analysis of existence statements, to definite descriptions and to partial functions. The volume (...)
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  43.  36
    Intermediate Logic.David Bostock - 1997 - Oxford University Press.
    Intermediate Logic is an ideal text for anyone who has taken a first course in logic and is progressing to further study. It examines logical theory, rather than the applications of logic, and does not assume any specific technical grounding. The author introduces and explains each concept and term, ensuring readers have a firm foundation for study. He provides a broad, deep understanding of logic by adopting and comparing a variety of different methods and approaches.
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  44. Variable Binding Term Operators.John Corcoran, William Hatcher & John Herring - 1972 - Zeitschrift fur mathematische Logik und Grundlagen der Mathematik 18 (12):177-182.
    Chapin reviewed this 1972 ZEITSCHRIFT paper that proves the completeness theorem for the logic of variable-binding-term operators created by Corcoran and his student John Herring in the 1971 LOGIQUE ET ANALYSE paper in which the theorem was conjectured. This leveraging proof extends completeness of ordinary first-order logic to the extension with vbtos. Newton da Costa independently proved the same theorem about the same time using a Henkin-type proof. This 1972 paper builds on the 1971 “Notes on a (...)
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  45.  47
    Constructive Logic with Strong Negation is a Substructural Logic. I.Matthew Spinks & Robert Veroff - 2008 - Studia Logica 88 (3):325-348.
    The goal of this two-part series of papers is to show that constructive logic with strong negation N is definitionally equivalent to a certain axiomatic extension NFL ew of the substructural logic FL ew . In this paper, it is shown that the equivalent variety semantics of N (namely, the variety of Nelson algebras) and the equivalent variety semantics of NFL ew (namely, a certain variety of FL ew -algebras) are term equivalent. This answers a longstanding question (...)
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  46.  82
    Abelian Logic and the Logics of Pointed Lattice-Ordered Varieties.Francesco Paoli, Matthew Spinks & Robert Veroff - 2008 - Logica Universalis 2 (2):209-233.
    We consider the class of pointed varieties of algebras having a lattice term reduct and we show that each such variety gives rise in a natural way, and according to a regular pattern, to at least three interesting logics. Although the mentioned class includes several logically and algebraically significant examples (e.g. Boolean algebras, MV algebras, Boolean algebras with operators, residuated lattices and their subvarieties, algebras from quantum logic or from depth relevant logic), we consider here in greater (...)
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  47.  84
    Quantified Modal Logic and the Plural De Re.Phillip Bricker - 1989 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 14 (1):372-394.
    Modal sentences of the form "every F might be G" and "some F must be G" have a threefold ambiguity. in addition to the familiar readings "de dicto" and "de re", there is a third reading on which they are examples of the "plural de re": they attribute a modal property to the F's plurally in a way that cannot in general be reduced to an attribution of modal properties to the individual F's. The plural "de re" readings of modal (...)
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  48.  42
    Constructive Logic with Strong Negation is a Substructural Logic. II.M. Spinks & R. Veroff - 2008 - Studia Logica 89 (3):401-425.
    The goal of this two-part series of papers is to show that constructive logic with strong negation N is definitionally equivalent to a certain axiomatic extension NFL ew of the substructural logic FL ew. The main result of Part I of this series [41] shows that the equivalent variety semantics of N and the equivalent variety semantics of NFL ew are term equivalent. In this paper, the term equivalence result of Part I [41] is lifted to (...)
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  49.  5
    Categorical Abstract Algebraic Logic: Equivalent Institutions.George Voutsadakis - 2003 - Studia Logica 74 (1):275-311.
    A category theoretic generalization of the theory of algebraizable deductive systems of Blok and Pigozzi is developed. The theory of institutions of Goguen and Burstall is used to provide the underlying framework which replaces and generalizes the universal algebraic framework based on the notion of a deductive system. The notion of a term π-institution is introduced first. Then the notions of quasi-equivalence, strong quasi-equivalence and deductive equivalence are defined for π-institutions. Necessary and sufficient conditions are given for the quasi-equivalence (...)
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  50.  22
    Categorical Abstract Algebraic Logic: Equivalent Institutions.George Voutsadakis - 2003 - Studia Logica 74 (1-2):275 - 311.
    A category theoretic generalization of the theory of algebraizable deductive systems of Blok and Pigozzi is developed. The theory of institutions of Goguen and Burstall is used to provide the underlying framework which replaces and generalizes the universal algebraic framework based on the notion of a deductive system. The notion of a term -institution is introduced first. Then the notions of quasi-equivalence, strong quasi-equivalence and deductive equivalence are defined for -institutions. Necessary and sufficient conditions are given for the quasi-equivalence (...)
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