Results for 'terrorism'

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  1.  5
    Terrorism and Justice: Moral Argument in a Threatened World.Michael O'Keefe & C. A. J. Coady - 2002 - Melbourne Univ. Publishing.
    This is the first book to address philosophically the moral and political underpinnings of terrorism and anti-terrorism. It brings together authors with different attitudes and original perspectives on attitudes and ethical and practical justifications for terrorism.
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  2.  12
    Terrorism: A Philosophical Investigation.Igor Primoratz - 2012 - Polity.
    Defining terrorism -- State terrorism and counterterrorism -- Complicity of the victims -- The consequences of terrorism -- Terrorism, rights, and justice -- Terrorism, supreme emergency, and moral disaster -- Is terrorism morally distinctive? -- Case study : terror bombing of German cities -- Case study : terrorism in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.
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  3.  1
    Terror, Terrorism, States, and Societies: A Historical and Philosophical Perspective.Samir Kumar Das & Rada Iveković (eds.) - 2010 - Women Unlimited.
    section 1. Reason, language, and the self -- section 2. Law, emergency, and exception -- section 3. Terrorism as a paradigm of (in)security -- section 4. Terrorism and the crisis of the political.
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  4.  55
    Anti-Terrorism Politics and the Risk of Provoking.Franz Dietrich - 2014 - Journal of Theoretical Politics 3 (26):405-41.
    Tough anti-terrorism policies are often defended by focusing on a fixed minority of the population who prefer violent outcomes, and arguing that toughness reduces the risk of terrorism from this group. This reasoning implicitly assumes that tough policies do not increase the group of 'potential terrorists', i.e., of people with violent preferences. Preferences and their level of violence are treated as stable, exogenously fixed features. To avoid this unrealis- tic assumption, I formulate a model in which policies can (...)
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  5. Defining Terrorism.Anne Schwenkenbecher - 2012 - In Terrorism: A Philosophical Enquiry. Palgrave-Macmillan. pp. 7-47.
    Without doubt, terrorism is one of the most vehemently debated subjects in current political affairs as well as in academic discourse. Yet, although it constitutes an issue of general socio-political interest, neither in everyday language nor in professional (political, legal, or academic) contexts does there exist a generally accepted definition of terrorism. The question of how it should be defined has been answered countless times, with as much variety as quantity in the answers. In academic discourse, it is (...)
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  6. Justifying Terrorism.Thom Brooks - 2010 - Public Affairs Quarterly 24 (3):189-196.
    Virginia Held's recent How Terrorism Is Wrong offers us any number of important contributions to how we think about terrorist violence. My discussion will focus on only one of these contributions, namely, how terrorism may be justified. This justification rests upon a group being denied a voice. Thus, terrorism may become justified where this demand to be heard is denied, coupled with the corollary that all nonviolent options have been exhausted. I will argue that we should require (...)
     
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  7.  48
    Terrorism: The Philosophical Issues.Igor Primoratz (ed.) - 2004 - Palgrave-Macmillan.
    This is the first comprehensive discussion of all the main philosophical issues raised by terrorism against the background of its past and recent developments. Prominent philosophers discuss definitions of terrorism, approaches to its moral evaluation, and the contentious subject of state terrorism. Also included are four case studies, showing how the concepts and arguments philosophers deploy in discussing violence, war and terrorism apply to particular instances of both insurgent and state terrorism, ranging from World War (...)
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  8.  14
    Terrorism for Humanity: Inquiries in Political Philosophy.Ted Honderich - 2003 - London: Pluto Press.
    Wretchedness and terrorism, and differences we make between them -- A theory of justice, an anarchism, and the obligation to obey the law -- The principle of humanity -- Our omissions and their terrorism -- On democratic terrorism -- Doctrines, commitments, and four conclusions about terrorism for humanity.
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  9. Manchester Terrorist: Politics, Not Religion.Ray Scott Percival - manuscript
    It is facile and factually incorrect to represent suicide terrorists as simply seeking mass destruction, as demented or believing that they will be rewarded by "seventy-two virgins in paradise". In my book The Myth of the Closed Mind: Understanding How and Why People are Rational I felt it was important to deal with the issue of terrorism by consulting explanatory theories of human behaviour and the substantial research on the strategic pattern of terrorist incidents over the decades, led principally (...)
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  10. Terrorism, Supreme Emergency and Killing the Innocent.Anne Schwenkenbecher - 2009 - Perspectives - The Review of International Affairs 17 (1):105-126.
    Terrorist violence is often condemned for targeting innocents or non-combatants. There are two objections to this line of argument. First, one may doubt that terrorism is necessarily directed against innocents or non-combatants. However, I will focus on the second objection, according to which there may be exceptions from the prohibition against killing the innocent. In my article I will elaborate whether lethal terrorism against innocents can be justified in a supreme emergency. Starting from a critique of Michael Walzer’s (...)
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  11. Terrorism and the Uses of Terror.Jeremy Waldron - 2004 - The Journal of Ethics 8 (1):5-35.
    Terrorism”' is sometimes defined as a “form ofcoercion.” But there are important differences between ordinary coercion and terrorist intimidation. This paper explores some of those differences, particularly the relation between coercion, on the one hand, and terror and terrorization, on the other hand. The paper argues that while terrorism is not necessarily associated with terror in the literal sense, it does often seek to instill a mental state like terror in the populations that it targets. However, the point (...)
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  12.  85
    Terrorism, Security, and Nationality: An Introductory Study in Applied Political Philosophy.Paul Gilbert - 1994 - Routledge.
    Terrorism, Security and Nationality shows how the concepts and methods of political philosophy can be applied to the practical problems of terrorism, state violence and national security. The book clarifies a wide range of issues in applied political philosophy, including the ethics of war, theories of state and nation, the relationship between communities and nationalisms, and the uneasy balance of human rights and national security. Ethnicity, national identity and the interests of the state, concepts commonly cited to justify (...)
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  13. Is Terrorism a Serious Threat to International and National Security? NO: The Myth of Terrorism as an Existential Threat.Jessica Wolfendale - 2018 - In Richard Jackson & Samuel Justin Sinclair (eds.), Contemporary Debates on Terrorism. Abingdon OX14, UK: Routledge. pp. 80-87.
    In contemporary academic, political, and media discourse, terrorism is typically portrayed as an existential threat to lives and states, a threat driven by religious extremists who seek the destruction of Western civilization and who are immune to reason and negotiation. In many countries, including the US, the UK, and Australia, this existential threat narrative of terrorism has been used to justify sweeping counterterrorism legislation, as well as military operations and even the use of tactics such as torture and (...)
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  14. Art, Terrorism and the Negative Sublime.Arnold Berleant - 2009 - Contemporary Aesthetics 7.
    The range of the aesthetic has expanded to cover not only a wider range of objects and situations of daily life but also to encompass the negative. This includes terrorism, whose aesthetic impact is central to its use as a political tactic. The complex of positive and negative aesthetic values in terrorism are explored, introducing the concept of the sublime as a negative category to illuminate the analysis and the distinctive aesthetic of terrorism.
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  15. Terrorism.Suzanne Uniacke - 2016 - In Helen Frowe & Seth Lazar (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Ethics of War. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    This article explores the connection between terrorism and the ethics of war, specifically the relevance of the moral wrongfulness of terrorism in elucidating one important aspect of the ethics of war. It begins with an overview of terrorism’s central features and the ethical issues associated with terrorism. It then discusses two considerations. First, terrorism can occur within civil society as well as in contexts of armed combat or war. Second, terrorist tactics are answerable to principles (...)
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  16. The Terrorist Attacks in Norway, July 22nd 2011— Some Kantian Reflections.Helga Varden - 2014 - Norsk Filosofisk Tidsskrift 49 (3-4):236-259.
    This paper provides a Kantian interpretation of core issues involved in the trial following the terrorist attacks that struck Norway on July 22nd 2011. After a sketch of the controversies surrounding the trial itself, a Kantian theory of why the wrongdoer’s mind struck us as so endlessly disturbed is presented. This Kantian theory, I proceed by arguing, also helps us understand why it was so important to respond to the violence through the legal system and to treat the perpetrator, Anders (...)
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  17.  58
    “Organizational Terrorism” and Moral Choices – Exercising Voice When the Leader is the Problem.Mayra Canuto-Carranco - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 97 (1):159 - 171.
    We introduce the concept of "organizational terrorism" to describe dysfunctional leaders who are abusive and who treat organizational members with contempt and disregard. After identifying the moral duties of leaders in organizations, we explain how organization members respond to their dissatisfaction with organizations through Exit, Voice, Loyalty, or Neglect. We explain why exercising voice is the most effective moral choice in dealing with dysfunctional leaders.
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  18. Counter-Terrorism: Narrative Strategies.Ajit Maan - 2014 - Upa.
    Counter-Terrorism makes a connection, unique to terrorism studies, between the mechanisms of colonizing narratives and psychological warfare aimed at recruitment. There is an urgent need to understand the narrative tactics of terrorist recruitment and an equal if not greater need to destabilize and exploit the weaknesses of those narratives.
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  19.  36
    Terrorism and the Right to Resist: A Theory of Just Revolutionary War.Christopher J. Finlay - 2015 - Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    The words 'rebellion' and 'revolution' have gained renewed prominence in the vocabulary of world politics and so has the question of justifiable armed 'resistance'. In this book Christopher J. Finlay extends just war theory to provide a rigorous and systematic account of the right to resist oppression and of the forms of armed force it can justify. He specifies the circumstances in which rebels have the right to claim recognition as legitimate actors in revolutionary wars against domestic tyranny and injustice, (...)
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  20. Terrorism Against Non-Innocents: The Ethical Implications.Anne Schwenkenbecher - 2010 - In Paul Omoyefa (ed.), Basic Applied Ethics. VDM.
    The debate on the ethics of terrorism focuses for the most part on the argument that employing violence against innocents or non-combatants is morally wrong. This point is usually made in combination with a so called narrow definition of terrorism , i.e. one that defines terrorism as exclusively targeting innocents . Yet, some scholars prefer a so called wide definition of terrorism, i.e. they hold that it may well be directed against non-innocents. Leaving from the assumption (...)
     
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  21.  93
    Terrorism: A Philosophical Enquiry.Anne Schwenkenbecher - 2012 - Palgrave-Macmillan.
    Machine generated contents note: -- Acknowledgements -- Introduction -- PART I: DEFINING 'TERRORISM' -- On The Current Debate On Defining Terrorism -- What Is Terrorism? -- PART II: ETHICS OF TERRORISM OR CAN TERRORISM EVER BE PERMISSIBLE? -- Innocents and Non-Innocents -- Terrorism Against Non-Innocents -- Terrorism Against Innocents -- Collateral Damage -- Concluding Remarks -- References -- Index.
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  22. Terrorism, Jus Post Bellum and the Prospect of Peace.Anne Schwenkenbecher - 2017 - In Florian Demont-Biaggi (ed.), The Nature of Peace and the Morality of Armed Conflict. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 123-140.
    Just war scholars are increasingly focusing on the importance of jus post bellum – justice after war – for the legitimacy of military campaigns. Should something akin to jus post bellum standards apply to terrorist campaigns? Assuming that at least some terrorist actors pursue legitimate goals or just causes, do such actors have greater difficulty satisfying the prospect-of-success criterion of Just War Theory than military actors? Further, may the use of the terrorist method as such – state or non-state – (...)
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  23.  69
    Terrorism Undermines the Credbility of Moral Relativism.Vicente Medina - 2016 - Telos: Critical Theory of the Contemporary.
    The adage, “one person’s terrorist is another person’s freedom fighter,” is offered as a plausible example of evoking moral relativism. Moral relativists recognize no transcultural moral facts. So, for them, even the concept of harm would be subjective or context-sensitive. Yet one can appeal to cogent transcultural moral reasons to distinguish between deliberately and unjustifiably harming impeccably innocent people and those who might engage in justifiably harming those guilty of grave crimes. In the face of the preventable evil acts that (...)
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  24.  45
    Terrorism Unjustified: The Use and Misuse of Political Violence.Vicente Medina - 2015 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    I offer a hopefully compelling defense of the view of those whom I refer to as hard-core opponents of terrorism. For hard-core opponents, terrorism is categorically wrong and, therefore, morally and legally unjustified. I view terrorism as either equivalent to murder or man slaughter in domestic law, or equivalent to crimes against humanity or war crimes in international law. If my argument is compelling, at least two important results follow from it. First, that under no circumstances is (...)
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  25.  81
    Terrorism Always Unjustified and Rarely Excused: Author’s Reply.Vicente Medina - 2019 - Reason Papers 41 (1):41-59.
    In my replies to some of my critics I argue that while the practice of terrorism is never justified, I concede that it is rarely but sometimes excused. As result, those who engage in excusable terrorism has a substantial burden of proof. They need to offer a compelling argument to show that the harm caused by their terrorist violence is actually excused by the extenuating circumstances and the goal that they are trying to achieve, so they will not (...)
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  26. Terrorism as a Toxic Term: Why Definition Matters.Vicente Medina - 2019 - Government Europa Quarterly (30):160-162.
    First, I argue that the contestability of the term “terrorism” is insufficient to justify the targeting of those who are innocent noncombatants beyond reasonable doubt; second, that states could be as vicious, if not even more so, than nonstate actors could be in perpetrating acts that might be described as terrorism, and, third, that an adequate definition of international terrorism must focus on the actual victims of such despicable acts.
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  27. Recognizing Terrorism.Claudia Card - 2007 - The Journal of Ethics 11 (1):1-29.
    It has been claimed that most of the world’s preventable suffering and death are caused not by terrorism but by poverty. That claim, if true, could be hard to substantiate. For most terrorism is not publicly recognized as such, and it is far commoner than paradigms of the usual suspects suggest. Everyday lives under oppressive regimes, in racist environments, and of women, children, and elders everywhere who suffer violence in their homes offer instances of terrorisms that seldom capture (...)
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  28. How Terrorism is Wrong: Morality and Political Violence.Virginia Held - 2008 - Oup Usa.
    How Terrorism is Wrong collects essays by Virginia Held that examine terrorism and other forms of political violence. Held assesses popular attitudes that glorify some kinds of violence and vilify others, and discusses the kinds of moral evaluation appropriate for terrorism, war, violent political change, or repression. This collection suggests ways of improving how we understand and deal with violence.
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  29.  7
    Terrorism and the Root Causes Argument.Alistair M. Macleod - 2004 - Social Philosophy Today 20:97-108.
    Without attempting a full-scale definition of “terrorism,” I assume that terrorist acts are politically motivated, that the political goals of terrorists are both diverse and a “mixed bag,” that terrorist acts inflict deliberate harm on innocent civilians, and that they are therefore to be condemned even when the goals they ostensibly serve are defensible goals. The various versions of the “root causes” argument seek to explain the phenomenon of terrorism, not to justify it. Nevertheless, anti-terrorism strategists must (...)
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  30. Terrorism and Collective Responsibility.Burleigh Taylor Wilkins - 1992 - Routledge.
    The terrorist threat remains a disturbing issue for the early 1990s. This book explores whether terrorism can ever be morally justifiable and if so under what circumstances. Professor Burleigh Taylor Wilkins suggests that the popular characterisation of terrorists as criminals fails to acknowledge the reasons why terrorists resort to violence. It is argued that terrorism cannot be adequately understood unless the collective responsibility of organised groups, such as political states, for wrongs allegedly done against the groups which the (...)
     
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  31.  1
    Terrorism and Collective Responsibility.Burleigh Taylor Wilkins - 1992 - Routledge.
    The terrorist threat remains a disturbing issue for the early 1990s. This book explores whether terrorism can ever be morally justifiable and if so under what circumstances. Professor Burleigh Taylor Wilkins suggests that the popular characterisation of terrorists as criminals fails to acknowledge the reasons why terrorists resort to violence. It is argued that terrorism cannot be adequately understood unless the collective responsibility of organised groups, such as political states, for wrongs allegedly done against the groups which the (...)
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  32.  42
    Terrorism, Ticking Time-Bombs, and Torture: A Philosophical Analysis.Fritz Allhoff - 2012 - University of Chicago Press.
    In Terrorism, Ticking Time-Bombs, and Torture, Fritz Allhoff demonstrates the weakness of the case against torture; while allowing that torture constitutes a moral wrong, he nevertheless argues that, in exceptional cases, it represents the ...
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  33.  36
    Opportunistic Terrorism.Suzanne Uniacke - 2014 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 11 (4):395-410.
    This paper critically addresses two central aspects of Frances Kamm’s account of conceptual and evaluative issues of terrorism in ‘Terrorism and Intending Evil’, Ethics for Enemies (oup 2011), chapter 2. The paper engages with what Kamm says about cases in which an act done from a morally bad intention or motive overtly exactly mimics a justifiable act. I argue that in such a case, an actor’s intention to terrorise is more significant to the question of whether what he (...)
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  34.  6
    Terrorism and the Politics of Naming.Michael Bhatia (ed.) - 2007 - Routledge.
    Previously published as a special issue of _Third World Quarterly_, this volume assesses the nature, power, role and function of names in global politics and the international media. Names are not objective, they accrue subjective associations, for example 'Terrorist' has a very different connotation to 'Freedom-fighter'. The contributors seek the truth beneath the names assigned in an effort to remove the obscurity created by the power of 'the politics of naming' to the reality of the situation, taking examples from Al (...)
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  35. Terrorism, Security, and the Threat of Counterterrorism.Jessica Wolfendale - 2007 - Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 30 (1):75-93.
  36. Terrorism and the Ethics of War: Responses to Joan McGregor, Sally Scholz, and Matthew Silliman.Stephen Nathanson - 2012 - Social Philosophy Today 28:187-198.
    The primary thesis of Terrorism and the Ethics of War is that terrorist acts are always wrong. I begin this paper by describing two views that I criticize in the book The first condemns all terrorism but applies the term in a biased way; the second defends some terrorist acts. I then respond to issues raised by the commentators. I discuss Joan McGregor’s concerns about the definition of terrorism and about how terrorism differs from other forms (...)
     
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  37.  6
    Terrorism & the Types of Wrongdoing.T. J. Donahue - 2010 - Public Affairs Quarterly 24 (3):197-208.
    One of the many striking theses for which Virginia Held argues in How Terrorism Is Wrong is that terrorism is not necessarily morally wrong. In principle, she argues, terrorism can sometimes be permissible . Call this "the Non-necessity Thesis," or NNT. As so often in this deep and thought-provoking book, Held gives a powerful and illuminating argument to this thesis. The argument begins by asserting what we may call "the Violations Distribution Principle" : if we must have (...)
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  38. Terrorism and International Justice, Edited by James P. Sterba. [REVIEW]Edmund F. Byrne - 2004 - Teaching Philosophy 27 (2):181-184.
  39. Terrorism and Guerilla Warfare -a Comparative Essay.Daniel Messelken - 2005 - In Georg Meggle (ed.), Ethics of Terrorism & Counter-Terrorism. Ontos. pp. 51–68.
    Over the last few years, virtually all forms of non-state violence have been labeled as “terrorism”. As a result, differences between various forms of war and violence are lost in the analysis. This article proposes a conceptual distinction between terrorism and guerrilla warfare by analyzing their differences and similarities. Definitions of terrorism and guerrilla warfare are presented. Starting with these definitions, the question of the legitimacy of terrorism and guerrilla violence is answered with reference to just (...)
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  40. Naming Terrorism as Evil.Alison M. Jaggar - 2007 - In Robin May Schott (ed.), Feminist Philosophy and the Problem of Evil. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. pp. 219-227.
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  41.  24
    Terrorism and Revolutionary Violence: The Emergence of Terrorism in the French Revolution.Verena Erlenbusch - 2015 - Critical Studies on Terrorism 8 (2):193-210.
    Accounts of terrorism, which locate the emergence of the concept in the French Revolution, tend to accept two premises. First, they assume that the concept of terrorism names a particular form of violence. Second, they regard Robespierre as the first practitioner of terrorism, thus suggesting an understanding of the term as state violence. While this article substantiates the second premise by way of a discussion of the first systematic articulation of terrorism by Tallien in 1794, it (...)
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  42. Defining Terrorism for Public Policy Purposes: The Group-Target Definition.Eric Reitan - 2010 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 7 (2):253-278.
    For the sake of developing and evaluating public policy decisions aimed at combating terrorism, we need a precise public definition of terrorism that distinguishes terrorism from other forms of violence. Ordinary usage does not provide a basis for such a definition, and so it must be stipulative. I propose essentially pragmatic criteria for developing such a stipulative public definition. After noting that definitions previously proposed in the philosophical literature are inadequate based on these criteria, I propose an (...)
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  43. Terrorism in the Arab-Israeli Conflict.Tomis Kapitan - unknown
    Terrorism is politically motivated violence directed against noncombatants. It is no doubt as ancient as organized warfare itself, emerging as soon as one society, pitted against another in the quest for land, resources, and dominance, was moved by a desire for vengeance, or, found advantages in operations against ‘soft’ targets. While terrorist violence has been present in the conflict between Jews and Arabs over Palestine for over eighty years, the prevalence of the rhetoric of ‘terror’ to describe Arab violence (...)
     
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  44. Terrorism.Tomis Kapitan - unknown
    Terrorism, as a form of politically motivated violence, is as ancient as organized warfare itself, emerging as soon as one society, pitted against another in the quest for land, resources, or domination, was moved by a desire for vengeance or found advantages in military operations against noncombatants or other ‘soft’ targets. It is sanctioned and glorified in holy scriptures and has been part of the genesis of states and the expansion of empires from the inception of recorded history. The (...)
     
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  45.  14
    Terrorism and International Justice.James P. Sterba (ed.) - 2003 - Oxford University Press.
    In this timely collection of thoughtful and provocative essays, a diverse group of prominent philosophers and political scientists discuss critical issues such as the nature and definition of terrorism.
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  46.  1
    Terrorists as Monsters: The Unmanageable Other From the French Revolution to the Islamic State.Marco Pinfari - 2019 - Oup Usa.
    This book helps the reader understand what lies behind the use of monster images in relation to terrorism, exploring why media and government officials present or frame terrorists as monsters, but also why terrorists themselves sometimes try to act as such. Marco Pinfari argues that portraying terrorists as unmanageable monsters typically serves specific political agendas that, in turn, are designed to legitimize specific counter-terrorist policies. For terrorists, acting in ways that can be perceived as uncontrollable and inhumane is a (...)
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  47.  19
    Humanity, Terrorism, Terrorist War: Palestine, 9/11, Iraq, 7/7..Ted Honderich & Jenny Teichman - 2007 - Philosophy 82 (322):661-665.
    This new book, published in the United Kingdom under the first title above and in the United States and Canada under the second, consists in argument about what makes for right or wrong in general, and then argument about right or wrong with respect to Palestine, 9/11, the Iraq War, 7/7, and what is to come. Hence, with respect to the latter connected things, it also makes judgements as to shares of moral responsibility. Six of its 29 sections appear below. (...)
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  48. Defining Terrorism.Scott C. Lowe - 2006 - The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy 2:253-256.
    The purpose of this paper is to argue against a certain view of what terrorism is. In particular, I wish to dispute the definition of terrorism used by philosophers Andrew Vails and Angelo Corlett who separately put forward arguments defending the possibility of morally legitimate acts of terrorism. In support of this conclusion, they each employ a broad definition of terrorism that makes room for highly discriminate, i.e., precisely targeted, acts of political violence to count as (...)
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  49.  10
    Globalization, Terrorism, and Morality: A Critique of Jean Baudrillard.Meutia Irina Mukhlis & Naupal - forthcoming - Intellectual Discourse:89-108.
    This paper challenges the claim, made by French sociologist andphilosopher, Jean Baudrillard in The Spirit of Terrorism, that contemporary“Islamic” terrorism as exemplified by the 9/11 attacks in the United States isa phenomenon that defies morality. By considering alternative explanationsand applying a thought experiment, we find that Baudrillard’s claim shouldbe rejected because it is based on invalid premises and inconsistencies.The problematic premises include Baudrillard’s statements that terror is aneffective strategy and the only means available to marginalized group seekingto oppose (...)
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  50.  24
    Terrorism and the Root Causes Argument.Alistair M. Macleod - 2004 - Social Philosophy Today 20:97-108.
    Without attempting a full-scale definition of “terrorism,” I assume (for the purposes of the argument of the paper) (1) that terrorist acts are politically motivated, (2) that the political goals of terrorists are both diverse and (morally) a “mixed bag,” (3) that terrorist acts inflict deliberate harm on innocent civilians, and (4) that they are therefore to be condemned even when the goals they ostensibly serve are defensible goals. The various versions of the “root causes” argument seek to explain (...)
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