The two center time dependent Dirac equation, for an electron in the external field of two colliding ultrarelativistic heavy ions is considered. In the ultrarelativistic limit, the ions are practically moving at the speed of light and the electromagnetic fields of the ions are confined to the light fronts by the extreme Lorentz contraction and by the choice of gauge, designed to remove the long-range Coulomb effects. An exact solution to the ultrarelativistic limit of the two-center Dirac equation is found (...) by using light-front variables and a light-fronts representation. Previously unexplained experimental results obtained at CERN's SPS are explained in this way and predictions are made as to where one should look, in momentum space, and in space-time, if one wants to study and observe non-perturbative electromagnetic pair-production effects in extremely relativistic heavy-ion collisions. (shrink)
Semiclassical theory based upon complexified classical mechanics is developed for periodically time-dependent scattering systems, which are minimal models of multi-dimensional systems. Semiclassical expression of the wave-matrix is derived, which is represented as the sum of the contributions from classical trajectories, where all the dynamical variables as well as the time are extended to the complex-domain. The semiclassical expression is examined by a periodically perturbed 1D barrier system and an excellent agreement with the fully quantum result is confirmed. In a (...) stronger perturbation regime, the tunneling component of the wave-matrix exhibits a remarkable interference fringes, which is clarified by the semiclassical theory as an interference among multiple complex tunneling trajectories. It turns out that such a peculiar behavior is the manifestation of an intrinsic multi-dimensional effect closely related to a singular movement of singularities possessed by the complex classical trajectories. (shrink)
Analysing time-dependent independent variables requires the use of process-oriented statistical models. Yet social scientists have often had to use data collected at a single point in time, making their task difficult. Making several assumptions about the covariates, the present study uses survival analysis and other statistical techniques to analyse the 1996 South African population census data and examine the effects of selected independent variables on the timing of parenthood in the country. It was found that the onset of (...) parenthood occurs late in South Africa compared with the pattern in most other African societies. While education plays a role in the postponement of parenthood within racial groups, it fails to explain the differences between African and Coloured women on the one hand, and White and Asian women on the other hand, a finding that suggests the existence of two regimes of family formation in South African society. (shrink)
In this work we extend approximate aggregation methods in time discrete linear models to the case of time varying environments. Approximate aggregation consists in describing some features of the dynamics of a general system involving many coupled variables in terms of the dynamics of a reduced system with a few number of variables. We present a time discrete time varying model in which we distinguish two time scales. By using perturbation methods we transform the system to make the (...) global variables appear and build up the aggregated system. The asymptotic relationships between the general and aggregated systems are explored in the cases of a cyclically varying environment and a changing environment in process of stabilization. We show that under quite general conditions the knowledge of the behavior of the aggregated system characterizes that of the general system. The general method is also applied to aggregate a multiregional time dependent Leslie model showing that the aggregated model has demographic rates depending on the equilibrium proportions of individuals in the different patches. (shrink)
To relax the apparent tension between nonlocal hidden variables and relativity, we propose that the observable proper time is not the same quantity as the usual proper-time parameter appearing in local relativistic equations. Instead, the two proper times are related by a nonlocal rescaling parameter proportional to |ψ|2, so that they coincide in the classical limit. In this way particle trajectories may obey local relativistic equations of motion in a manner consistent with the appearance of nonlocal quantum correlations. To (...) illustrate the main idea, we first present two simple toy models of local particle trajectories with nonlocal time, which reproduce some nonlocal quantum phenomena. After that, we present a realistic theory with a capacity to reproduce all predictions of quantum theory. (shrink)
For time-independent fields the Aharonov-Bohm effect has been obtained by idealizing the coordinate space as multiply-connected and using representations of its fundamental homotopy group to provide information on what is physically identified as the magnetic flux. With a time-dependent field, multiple-connectedness introduces the same degree of ambiguity; by taking into account electromagnetic fields induced by the time dependence, full physical behavior is again recovered once a representation is selected. The selection depends on a single arbitrary time (hence the so-called holonomies (...) are not unique), although no physical effects depend on the value of that particular time. These features can also be phrased in terms of the selection of self-adjoint extensions, thereby involving yet another question that has come up in this context, namely, boundary conditions for the wave function. (shrink)
A quantization procedure without Hamiltonian is reported which starts from a statistical ensemble of particles of mass m and an associated continuity equation. The basic variables of this theory are a probability density ρ, and a scalar field S which defines a probability current j=ρ ∇ S/m. A first equation for ρ and S is given by the continuity equation. We further assume that this system may be described by a linear differential equation for a complex-valued state variable χ. (...) Using these assumptions and the simplest possible Ansatz χ(ρ,S), for the relation between χ and ρ,S, Schrödinger’s equation for a particle of mass m in a mechanical potential V(q,t) is deduced. For simplicity the calculations are performed for a single spatial dimension (variable q). Using a second Ansatz χ(ρ,S,q,t), which allows for an explicit q,t-dependence of χ, one obtains a generalized Schrödinger equation with an unusual external influence described by a time-dependent Planck constant. All other modifications of Schrödinger’ equation obtained within this Ansatz may be eliminated by means of a gauge transformation. Thus, this second Ansatz may be considered as a generalized gauging procedure. Finally, making a third Ansatz, which allows for a non-unique external q,t-dependence of χ, one obtains Schrödinger’s equation with electrodynamic potentials A,φ in the familiar gauge coupling form. This derivation shows a deep connection between non-uniqueness, quantum mechanics and the form of the gauge coupling. A possible source of the non-uniqueness is pointed out. (shrink)
Few have done more than Martin Gutzwiller to clarify the connection between classical time-dependent motion and the time-independent states of quantum systems. Hence it seems appropriate to include the following discussion of the origins of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation in this volume dedicated to him.
It is shown that the time-dependent WKB expansion highlights some of the hidden properties of the Schrödinger equation and forms a natural bridge between that equation and the functional integral formulation of quantum mechanics. In particular it is shown that the leading (zero- and first-order in ħ) terms in the WKB expansion are essentially classical, and the relationship of this result to the classical nature of the WKB partition function, and of the anomalies in quantum field theory, is discussed.
Compound propositions which can successfully be defended in a quantumdialogue independent of the elementary propositions contained in it, must have this property also independent of the mutual elementary commensur-abilities. On the other hand, formal commensurabilities must be taken into account. Therefore, for propositions which can be proved by P, irrespective of both the elementary propositions and of the elementary commensur-abilities, there exists a formal strategy of success. The totality of propositions with a formal strategy of success in a quantum dialogue (...) form the effective quantum logic. The propositions of the effective quantum logic can be derived from a calculus Q eff which is — on the other hand — equivalent to a lattice L qi.Propositions about measuring results are above all time dependent propositions A(S;t). In a dialogue, different partial propositions will have in general different time values. If one can (accidentally) win a material dialogue, this dialogue can be related to a single time value. For the propositions of the effective quantum logic there exist formal strategies of success, independent of the elementary propositions contained in it. All partial propositions appearing in the dialogue are formally commensurable. Therefore the propositions of effective quantum logic which can be proved by formal dialogues can always be related to a single time. They present a description of the system S considered in which all partial propositions can be related jointly to the state of S.Therefore in the effective quantum logic we have — in the limit of equal time values — a situation which corresponds conceptually to the description of the system (S; ψ) in Hilbert space. Consequently, one would expect that also the lattice L qi — except from the tertium non datur 8 — agrees with the lattice L q of subspaces of Hilbert space. It has been shown that these lattices are in fact isomorphic. (shrink)
Using linear invariant operators in a constructive way we find the most general thermal density operator and Wigner function for time-dependent generalized oscillators. The general Wigner function has five free parameters and describes the thermal Wigner function about a classical trajectory in phase space. The contour of the Wigner function depicts an elliptical orbit with a constant area moving about the classical trajectory, whose eccentricity determines the squeezing of the initial vacuum.
Weak measurements offer new insights into the behavior of quantum systems. Combined with post-selection, quantum mechanics predicts a range of new experimentally testable phenomena. In this paper I consider weak measurements performed on time-dependent pre- and post-selected ensembles, with emphasis on the decay of excited states. The results show that the standard exponential decay law is a limiting case of a more general law that depends on both the time of post-selection and the choice of final state. The generalized law (...) is illustrated for two interesting choices of post-selection. (shrink)
We review the relation between spacetime geometries with trace-torsion fields, the so-called Riemann–Cartan–Weyl (RCW) geometries, and their associated Brownian motions. In this setting, the drift vector field is the metric conjugate of the trace-torsion one-form, and the laplacian defined by the RCW connection is the differential generator of the Brownian motions. We extend this to the state-space of non-relativistic quantum mechanics and discuss the relation between a non-canonical quantum RCW geometry in state-space associated with the gradient of the quantum-mechanical expectation (...) value of a self-adjoint operator given by the generalized laplacian operator defined by a RCW geometry. We discuss the reduction of the wave function in terms of a RCW quantum geometry in state-space. We characterize the Schroedinger equation in terms of the RCW geometries and Brownian motions. Thus, in this work, the Schroedinger field is a torsion generating field, both for the linear and non-linear cases. We discuss the problem of the many times variables and the relation with dissipative processes, and the role of time as an active field, following Kozyrev and a recent experiment in non-relativistic quantum systems. We associate the Hodge dual of the drift vector field with a possible angular-momentum source for the phenomenae observed by Kozyrev. (shrink)
Following a line of research that I have developed for several years, I argue that the best strategy for understanding quantum gravity is to build a picture of the physical world where the notion of time plays no role at all. I summarize here this point of view, explaining why I think that in a fundamental description of nature we must “forget time”, and how this can be done in the classical and in the quantum theory. The idea is to (...) develop a formalism that treats dependent and independent variables on the same footing. In short, I propose to interpret mechanics as a theory of relations between variables, rather than the theory of the evolution of variables in time. (shrink)
A naive introduction of a dependency of the mass of a black hole on the Schwarzschild time coordinate results in singular behavior of curvature invariants at the horizon, violating expectations from complementarity. If instead a temporal dependence is introduced in terms of a coordinate akin to the river time representation, the Ricci scalar is nowhere singular away from the origin. It is found that for a shrinking mass scale due to evaporation, the null radial geodesics that generate the horizon are (...) slightly displaced from the coordinate singularity. In addition, a changing horizon scale significantly alters the form of the coordinate singularity in diagonal (orthogonal) metric coordinates representing the space-time. A Penrose diagram describing the growth and evaporation of an example black hole is constructed to examine the evolution of the coordinate singularity. (shrink)
This paper makes explicit and takes issue with the bizarre view, which is unfortunately prevalent among social scientists, that causal relations are features of models only. There are some good reasons to represent causal factors with independent variables. But the association between causes and independent variables is only a desideratum in model construction. It is not a criterion for judging which things are causes and which are effects.
if and only if for every W in V, W is independent of the set of all its non-descendants conditional on the set of its parents. One natural question that arises with respect to DAGs is when two DAGs are “statistically equivalent”. One interesting sense of “statistical equivalence” is “d-separation equivalence” (explained in more detail below.) In the case of DAGs, d-separation equivalence is also corresponds to a variety of other natural senses of statistical equivalence (such as representing the same (...) set of distributions). Theorems characterizing d-separation equivalence for directed acyclic graphs and that can be used as the basis for polynomial time algorithms for checking d-separation equivalence were provided by Verma and Pearl (1990), and Frydenberg (1990). The question we will examine is how to extend these results to cases where a DAG may have latent (unmeasured) variables or selection bias (i.e. some of the variables in the DAG have been conditioned on.) D-separation equivalence is of interest in part because there are algorithms for constructing DAGs with latent variables and selection bias that are based on observed conditional independence relations. For this class of algorithms, it is impossible to determine which of two d-separation equivalent causal structures generated a given probability distribution, given only the set of conditional independence and dependence relations true of the observed distribution. We will describe a polynomial (in the number of vertices) time algorithm for determining when two DAGs which may have latent variables or selection bias are d-separation equivalent. (shrink)
Mathematically, gauge theories are extraordinarily rich --- so rich, in fact, that it can become all too easy to lose track of the connections between results, and become lost in a mass of beautiful theorems and properties: indeterminism, constraints, Noether identities, local and global symmetries, and so on. -/- One purpose of this short article is to provide some sort of a guide through the mathematics, to the conceptual core of what is actually going on. Its focus is on the (...) Lagrangian, variational-problem description of classical mechanics, from which the link between gauge symmetry and the apparent violation of determinism is easy to understand; only towards the end will the Hamiltonian description be considered. -/- The other purpose is to warn against adopting too unified a perspective on gauge theories. It will be argued that the meaning of the gauge freedom in a theory like general relativity is (at least from the Lagrangian viewpoint) significantly different from its meaning in theories like electromagnetism. The Hamiltonian framework blurs this distinction, and orthodox methods of quantization obliterate it; this may, in fact, be genuine progress, but it is dangerous to be guided by mathematics into conflating two conceptually distinct notions without appreciating the physical consequences. (shrink)
The statistical properties of a single quantum object and an ensemble of independent such objects are considered in detail for two-level systems. Computer simulations of dynamic zero-point quantum fluctuations for a single quantum object are reported and compared with analytic solutions for the ensemble case.
If the energy-absorbing radio-frequency spin-flipping device used in perfect crystal neutron interferometry is an intermediate measuring device, then the experimental results contradict the associated wave packet collapse and support the real existence of the de Broglie pilot waves in both arms while the neutron travels in only one.