Results for 'tokens'

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  1. Indexicals and the Metaphysics of Semantic Tokens: When Shapes and Sounds Become Utterances.Cathal O'Madagain - 2014 - Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 3 (1):71-79.
    To avoid difficulties facing intention-based accounts of indexicals, Cohen () recently defends a conventionalist account that focuses on the context of tokening. On this view, a token of ‘here’ or ‘now’ refers to the place or time at which it tokens. However, although promising, such an account faces a serious problem: in many speech acts, multiple apparent tokens are produced. If I call Alaska from Paris and say ‘I'm here now’, an apparent token of my utterance will be (...)
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  2. Individuating Mental Tokens: The Split-Brain Case.Elizabeth Schechter - 2010 - Philosophia 38 (1):195-216.
    Some philosophers have argued that so long as two neural events, within a subject, are both of the same type and both carry the same content, then these events may jointly constitute a single mental token, regardless of the sort of causal relation to each other that they bear. These philosophers have used this claim—which I call the “singularity-through-redundancy” position—in order to argue that a split-brain subject normally has a single stream of consciousness, disjunctively realized across the two hemispheres. This (...)
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  3. When Shapes and Sounds Become Words: Indexicals and the Metaphysics of Semantic Tokens.Cathal O'Madagain - forthcoming - Thought: A Journal of Philosophy.
    To avoid difficulties that arise when we appeal to speaker intentions or multiple rules to determine the meaning of indexicals, Cohen (2013) recently defends a conventionalist account of these terms that focuses on their context of tokening. Apart from some tricky cases already discussed in the literature, however, such an account faces a serious difficulty: in many speech acts, multiple apparent tokens are produced – for example when a speaker speaks on a telephone, and her utterance is heard both (...)
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  4.  89
    Expressions and Tokens.Philip Hugly & Charles Sayward - 1981 - Analysis 41 (4):181-187.
    The purpose of this paper is to uncover and correct several confusions about expressions, tokens and the relations between them that crop up in even highly sophisticated writing about language and logic.
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  5.  48
    On the Theory of Labels-Tokens.Urszula Wybraniec-Skardowska - 1981 - Bulletin of the Section of Logic 10 (1):30-33.
    This note is based on a lecture delivered at the Conference on the Scien- tic Research of the Mathematical Center of Opole, Turawa, May 10-11th, 1980. A somewhat extended version will be published in the Proceedings of the Conference. At the same time it is an abstract of a part of a planned larger paper, which will involve the theory of label-tokens. The theory is included into the author's monograph in Polish "Teorie Językow Syntaktycznie Kategorialnych", PWN, Warszawa-Wrocław 1985 and (...)
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  6.  9
    Sciences of Historical Tokens and Theoretical Types : History and the Social Sciences.Aviezer Tucker - 2012 - In Harold Kincaid (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Social Science. Oxford University Press. pp. 274.
  7.  84
    Types and Tokens: On Abstract Objects.Linda Wetzel - 2009 - MIT Press.
    In this book, Linda Wetzel examines the distinction between types and tokens and argues that types exist (as abstract objects, since they lack a unique ...
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  8. Types and Tokens.Linda Wetzel - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    The distinction between a type and its tokens is a useful metaphysical distinction. In §1 it is explained what it is, and what it is not. Its importance and wide applicability in linguistics, philosophy, science and everyday life are briefly surveyed in §2. Whether types are universals is discussed in §3. §4 discusses some other suggestions for what types are, both generally and specifically. Is a type the sets of its tokens? What exactly is a word, a symphony, (...)
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  9.  11
    Institution Types and Institution Tokens: An Unproblematic Distinction?Rico Hauswald - 2018 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 48 (6):594-607.
    The distinction between institution types and institution tokens plays an important role in Francesco Guala’s philosophy of institutions. In this commentary, I argue that this distinction faces a number of difficulties that are not sufficiently addressed in Understanding Institutions. In particular, I critically discuss Guala’s comparison between the taxonomy of organisms and the taxonomy of institutions, consider the semantics of institution terms on different levels in this taxonomy, and argue for an alternative solution to the problem of how to (...)
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  10. Causal Relata: Tokens, Types, or Variables?Daniel Murray Hausman - 2005 - Erkenntnis 63 (1):33-54.
    The literature on causation distinguishes between causal claims relating properties or types and causal claims relating individuals or tokens. Many authors maintain that corresponding to these two kinds of causal claims are two different kinds of causal relations. Whether to regard causal relations among variables as yet another variety of causation is also controversial. This essay maintains that causal relations obtain among tokens and that type causal claims are generalizations concerning causal relations among these tokens.
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  11.  71
    Smith On Times And Tokens.Joshua M. Mozersky - 2001 - Synthese 129 (3):405-411.
    In this essay I respond to Quentin Smith's charge that 'the date-analysis version of the tenseless theory of time cannot give adequate accounts of the truth conditions of the statements made by tensed sentence-tokens'. His argument is based on an analysis of certain counterfactual situations that is at odds with the date-analysis account of language and hence succeeds only in begging the question against that theory. To anticipate: his argument fails if one allows that temporal indexicals such as 'now' (...)
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  12.  33
    Does Level Generation Always Generate Act-Tokens?Alicia Juarrero Roque - 1983 - Philosophy Research Archives 9:177-192.
    After a brief summary of Alvin Goldman’s theory of the “level-generation” of complex act-tokens from basic acts, it is argued that if the occurrent want which causes the basic act becomes deactivated in medias res, or during the interval between the basic act and the generated events, the latter do not qualify as actions proper. A discussion follows of Steven Davis’s at tempts to provide a counterexample to GoIdman’s theory by suggesting an example in which the Goldman conditions are (...)
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  13.  4
    Does Level Generation Always Generate Act-Tokens?Alicia Juarrero Roque - 1983 - Philosophy Research Archives 9:177-192.
    After a brief summary of Alvin Goldman’s theory of the “level-generation” of complex act-tokens from basic acts, it is argued that if the occurrent want which causes the basic act becomes deactivated in medias res, or during the interval between the basic act and the generated events, the latter do not qualify as actions proper. A discussion follows of Steven Davis’s at tempts to provide a counterexample to GoIdman’s theory by suggesting an example in which the Goldman conditions are (...)
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  14. Typecasts, Tokens, and Spokespersons: A Case for Credibility Excess as Testimonial Injustice.Emmalon Davis - 2016 - Hypatia 31 (3):485-501.
    Miranda Fricker maintains that testimonial injustice is a matter of credibility deficit, not excess. In this article, I argue that this restricted characterization of testimonial injustice is too narrow. I introduce a type of identity-prejudicial credibility excess that harms its targets qua knowers and transmitters of knowledge. I show how positive stereotyping and prejudicially inflated credibility assessments contribute to the continued epistemic oppression of marginalized knowers. In particular, I examine harms such as typecasting, compulsory representation, and epistemic exploitation and consider (...)
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  15. Tokens, Dates And Tenseless Truth Conditions.Heather Dyke - 2002 - Synthese 131 (3):329-351.
    There are two extant versions of the new tenseless theory of time: the date version and the token-reflexive version. I ask whether they are equivalent, and if not, which of them is to be preferred. I argue that they are not equivalent, that the date version is unsatisfactory, and that the token-reflexive version is correct. I defend the token-reflexive version against a string of objections from Quentin Smith. My defence involves a discussion of the ontological and semantic significance of truth (...)
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  16.  45
    Types, Tokens, and Talk About Musical Works.Julian Dodd & Philip Letts - 2017 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 75 (3):249-263.
    It has recently been suggested that the type/token theorist concerning musical works cannot come up with an adequate semantic theory of those sentences in which we purport to talk about such works. Specifically, it has been claimed that, since types are abstract entities, a type/token theorist can only account for the truth of sentences such as “The 1812 Overture is very loud” and “Bach's Two Part Invention in C has an F-sharp in its fourth measure” by adopting an untenable semantic (...)
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  17.  12
    Predelli's Threatening Note: Contexts, Utterances, and Tokens in the Philosophy of Language.John Perry - 2003 - Journal of Pragmatics 35 (3):373--387.
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  18. Names as Tokens and Names as Tools.M. W. Pelczar - 2001 - Synthese 128 (1-2):133 - 155.
    After presenting a variety of arguments in support of the idea that ordinary names are indexical, I respond to John Perry's recent arguments against the indexicality of names. I conclude by indicating some connections between the theory of names defended here and Wittgenstein's observations on naming, and suggest that the latter may have been misconstrued in the literature.
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  19. Grounds, Convention, and the Metaphysics of Linguistic Tokens.Brian Epstein - 2009 - Croatian Journal of Philosophy 9 (1):45-67.
    My aim in this paper is to discuss a metaphysical framework within which to understand “standard linguistic entities” (SLEs), such as words, sentences, phonemes, and other entities routinely employed in linguistic theory. In doing so, I aim to defuse certain kinds of skepticism, challenge convention-based accounts of SLEs, and present a series of distinctions for better understanding what the various accounts of SLEs do and do not accomplish.
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  20.  13
    Names as Tokens and Names as Tools.M. W. Pelczar - 2001 - Synthese 128 (1):133-155.
    After presenting a variety of arguments in support of the idea that ordinary names are indexical, I respond to John Perry's recent arguments against the indexicality of names. I conclude by indicating some connections between the theory of names defended here and Wittgenstein's observations on naming, and suggest that the latter may have been misconstrued in the literature.
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  21.  70
    2012 Presidential Address: Types and Tokens: On the Identity and Meaning of Names and Other Words.Risto Hilpinen - 2012 - Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 48 (3):259.
    Charles S. Peirce introduces the distinction between a token and a type into semiotics and philosophy by using as an example two ways of individuating words:(P1) A common mode of estimating the amount of matter in a MS. or printed book is to count the number of words. There will ordinarily be about twenty the's on a page, and of course they count as twenty words. In another sense of the word "word," however, there is but one word "the" in (...)
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  22.  6
    Stakeholder Tokens: A Constructive Method for Value Sensitive Design Stakeholder Analysis.Daisy Yoo - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology.
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  23.  99
    Externalism, the Environment, and Thought-Tokens.Amir Horowitz - 2005 - Erkenntnis 63 (1):133-138.
    In "Contents just are in the head" (Erkenntnis 54, pp. 321-4.) I have presented two arguments against the thesis of semantic externalism. In "Contents just aren't in the head" Anthony Brueckner has argued that my arguments are unsuccessful, since they rest upon some misconceptions regarding the nature of this thesis. (Erkenntnis 58, pp. 1-6.) In the present paper I will attempt to clarify and strengthen the case against semantic externalism, and show that Brueckner misses the point of my arguments.
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  24.  47
    Cartwright on Probabilistic Causality: Types, Tokens, and Capacities.Ellery Eells - 1995 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 55 (1):169-175.
  25.  79
    Some Types of Ambiguous Tokens.J. A. Fodor - 1963 - Analysis 24 (1):19.
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  26. Object Tokens, Binding and Visual Memory.Anne Treisman - 2006 - In Hubert Zimmer, Axel Mecklinger & Ulman Lindenberger (eds.), Handbook of Binding and Memory: Perspectives From Cognitive Neuroscience. Oxford University Press. pp. 315--338.
     
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  27.  12
    Expressions and Tokens.Philip Hugly & Alonso Church - 1981 - Analysis 41 (4):181.
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  28.  15
    Tokens, Types, and Nominalism.Ramon M. Lemos - 1984 - Critica 16 (46):31-45.
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  29.  59
    1. A Line Containing Infinitely Many Sentence Tokens.Signs Of Omission - 1999 - American Philosophical Quarterly 36:309-321.
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  30.  31
    Athenian Weights, Measures, and Tokens[REVIEW]J. M. Cook - 1965 - The Classical Review 15 (3):348-349.
  31.  36
    The Natures of Types and Tokens: On the Metaphysical Commitments of Non-Reductive Physicalism.Raphael van Riel - 2014 - Metaphysica 15 (1).
  32.  18
    Forms, Types, and Tokens in Aristotle's.Deborah K. W. Modrak - 1979 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 17 (4).
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  33.  6
    About 37% of Word-Tokens Are Nouns.Richard Hudson - 1994 - In Stephen Everson (ed.), Language. Cambridge University Press. pp. 70--2.
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  34.  21
    Forms, Types, and Tokens in Aristotle's Metaphysics.Deborah K. W. Modrak - 1979 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 17 (4):371-381.
  35. Tokens of Trust or Token Trust? Public Consultation and "Generation Scotland".Gill Haddow & Sarah Cunningham-Burley - 2008 - In Julie Brownlie, Alexandra Greene & Alexandra Howson (eds.), Researching Trust and Health. Routledge.
     
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  36.  62
    Review of Types and Tokens by Linda Wetzel. [REVIEW]Stephen Kearns - 2010 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews.
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  37.  38
    Types and Tokens: A Reply to Sharpe.Randall R. Dipert - 1980 - Mind 89 (356):587-588.
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  38.  24
    Two Tokens of the Inference to the Best Explanation: No-Miracle Argument and the Selectionist Explanation.Emre Arda Erdenk - 2015 - Beytulhikme An International Journal of Philosophy 5 (1):31.
  39.  54
    Yogic Revolution and Tokens of Conservatism in Vyāsa-Yoga.Yohanan Grinshpon - 1997 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 25 (2):129-138.
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  40.  52
    Types, Tokens, and Propositions: Quine's Alternative to Propositions.Paul K. Moser - 1984 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 44 (3):361-375.
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  41.  40
    Tokens, Types, Words, and Terms.Donald C. Williams - 1936 - Journal of Philosophy 33 (26):701-707.
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  42.  20
    Types, Tokens and the Identity of the Musical Work.Nigel Harrison - 1975 - British Journal of Aesthetics 15 (4):336-346.
  43.  12
    Subadult Ravens Generally Don't Transfer Valuable Tokens to Conspecifics When There is Nothing to Gain for Themselves.Jorg J. M. Massen, Megan Lambert, Martina Schiestl & Thomas Bugnyar - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  44.  13
    The Pupula Duplex and Other Tokens of an "Evil Eye" in the Light of Ophthalmology.Walton Brooks McDaniel & Albert M. Potts - 1971 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 15 (1):72-79.
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  45.  3
    Tokens, Suckers Und der Great New York Token War.Stefan Höhne - 2011 - Zeitschrift für Medien- Und Kulturforschung 2 (1):143-158.
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  46.  4
    Women's Liberation: Has the African Woman Settled for Tokens?E. MaxineAnkrah - 1973 - New Blackfriars 54 (637):264-274.
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  47.  1
    Things and Tokens.Vincent McNabb - 1932 - New Blackfriars 13 (146):303-307.
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  48. 8 Tokens of Trust or Token Trust?Public Consultation - 2008 - In Julie Brownlie, Alexandra Greene & Alexandra Howson (eds.), Researching Trust and Health. Routledge. pp. 152.
     
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  49. Words Like Faces+ Wittgenstein Challenge to the Depreciation of the Exteriority of Linguistic Tokens.D. Lesage - 1991 - Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 53 (2):205-231.
     
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  50. Adding Types, But Not Tokens, Affects Property Induction.Belinda Xie, Danielle J. Navarro & Brett K. Hayes - 2020 - Cognitive Science 44 (9).
    Cognitive Science, Volume 44, Issue 9, September 2020.
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