Results for 'truth in a model'

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  1. The Concept of Truth in a Finite Universe.Panu Raatikainen - 2000 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 29 (6):617-633.
    The prospects and limitations of defining truth in a finite model in the same language whose truth one is considering are thoroughly examined. It is shown that in contradistinction to Tarski's undefinability theorem for arithmetic, it is in a definite sense possible in this case to define truth in the very language whose truth is in question.
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  2.  33
    Recognition Culture and Comprehensive Truth. Towards a Model of Fallibility Assumed.Anton Carpinschi - 2009 - Cultura 6 (2):226-245.
    The aim of this paper is to single out the path towards a model of fallibility assumed by the establishment and implementation of the culture of recognition and comprehensive truth. Starting from the hypostases of the human, this anthropological model defines the fallible human being, the author of the comprehensive truth oriented towards the culture of recognition. The main idea of this demarche is, in fact, that between recognition and comprehension there is a deep, organic connection (...)
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  3.  70
    Beauty in Science: A New Model of the Role of Aesthetic Evaluations in Science. [REVIEW]Ulianov Montano - 2013 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 3 (2):133-156.
    In Beauty and Revolution in Science, James McAllister advances a rationalistic picture of science in which scientific progress is explained in terms of aesthetic evaluations of scientific theories. Here I present a new model of aesthetic evaluations by revising McAllister’s core idea of the aesthetic induction. I point out that the aesthetic induction suffers from anomalies and theoretical inconsistencies and propose a model free from such problems. The new model is based, on the one hand, on McAllister’s (...)
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  4. A Case for Satisfaction Classes: Model Theoretic Vs Axiomatic Approaches to the Notion of Truth.Andrea Strollo - 2013 - Logical Investigations 19:246-259.
    One of the basic question we can ask about truth in a formal setting is what, if anything, we gain when we have a truth predicate at disposal. For example, does the expressive power of a language change or does the proof strength of a theory increase? Satisfaction classes are often described as complicated model theoretic constructions unable to give useful information toward the notion of truth from a general point of view. Their import is narrowed (...)
     
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  5.  42
    Truth-Claiming in Fiction: Towards a Poetics of Literary Assertion.Jukka Mikkonen - 2009 - Nordic Journal of Aesthetics 20 (38):34.
    In the contemporary analytic philosophy of literature and especially literary theory, the paradigmatic way of understanding the beliefs and attitudes expressed in works of literary narrative fiction is to attribute them to an implied author, an entity which the literary critic Wayne C. Booth introduced in his influential study The Rhetoric of Fiction. Roughly put, the implied author is an entity between the actual author and the narrator whose beliefs and attitudes cannot be appropriately ascribed to the actual author. Over (...)
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  6.  25
    Error and Bias in Meta-Propositional Reasoning: A Case of the Mental Model Theory.W. Schroyens - 1999 - Thinking and Reasoning 5 (1):29 – 66.
    The mental model theory predicts variations in the percentage of errors in meta-propositional reasoning tasks but does not specify the nature of these errors. In the present study, we drew predictions concerning the nature of errors in a meta-propositional reasoning task by importing and elaborating the distinction between implicit and explicit models previously applied by the mental model theory to the domain of propositional reasoning. An experiment was conducted in which participants were asked to solve problems concerning the (...)
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  7.  71
    Bargaining for Truth and Reconciliation in South Africa: A Game-Theoretic Analysis.J. Duffy & D. Ross - 2001 - South African Journal of Philosophy 20 (2):67-90.
    As regimes move from illiberal to liberal, post-transition justice methodology has been employed to engender truth and reconciliation. These normative concepts have evolved into a policy of creating truth and reconciliation commissions that trade civil and criminal amnesty with applicants in ex change for information. This bargained-for exchange can be analyzed as an imperfect information game, where the commission attempts to maximize information while the applicant seeks amnesty for the lowest possible price. Using game-theoretic analysis, the authors (...) the truth-amnesty game and predict the optimal commission strategy. The analysis leads to the recommendation that future transitional justice commissions employ various specific lexicographic ordering strategies to minimize dead weight loss in the transaction. (shrink)
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  8.  11
    Bargaining for Truth and Reconciliation in South Africa: A Game-Theoretic Analysis.Jerrob Duffy & Don Ross - 2001 - South African Journal of Philosophy 20 (1):66-89.
    As regimes move from illiberal to liberal, post-transition justice methodology has been employed to engender truth and reconciliation. These normative concepts have evolved into a policy of creating truth and reconciliation commissions that trade civil and criminal amnesty with applicants in exchange for information. This bargained-for exchange can be analyzed as an imperfect information game, where the commission attempts to maximize information while the applicant seeks amnesty for the lowest possible price. Using game-theoretic analysis, the authors model (...)
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  9. The Metaphysical Interpretation of Logical Truth.Tuomas Tahko - 2014 - In Penelope Rush (ed.), The Metaphysics of Logic: Logical Realism, Logical Anti-Realism and All Things In Between. Cambridge University Press. pp. 233-248.
    The starting point of this paper concerns the apparent difference between what we might call absolute truth and truth in a model, following Donald Davidson. The notion of absolute truth is the one familiar from Tarski’s T-schema: ‘Snow is white’ is true if and only if snow is white. Instead of being a property of sentences as absolute truth appears to be, truth in a model, that is relative truth, is evaluated in (...)
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  10.  21
    Human Being Transcending Itself: Creative Process in Art as a Model of Our Relation to the Ultimate Reality.Erich Mistrík - 2011 - Human Affairs 21 (2):119-128.
    The paper reviews some of the links between the notion of “ultimate reality” and everyday life, mainly art, beauty, the creative processes in art, and citizenship. If, according to M. Heidegger, art reveals the truth of being , then we may find some historical descriptions of creative processes that are very close to descriptions of ultimate reality. Three examples of these kinds of descriptions are discussed . The final aim is to show how the interpretation of ultimate reality can (...)
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  11. Between Non-Cognitivism and Realism in Ethics: A Three Fold Model.Olga Ramirez - 2011 - Prolegomena (Croatia) 10 (1):101-11202.
    Abstracts The aim of the paper is to propose an alternative model to realist and non-cognitive explanations of the rule-guided use of thick ethical concepts and to examine the implications that may be drawn from this and similar cases for our general understanding of rule-following and the relation between criteria of application, truth and correctness. It addresses McDowell’s non-cognitivism critique and challenges his defence of the entanglement thesis for thick ethical concepts. Contrary to non-cognitivists, however, I propose to (...)
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  12. The Anatomy of Truth: Literary Modes as a Kantian Model for Understanding the Openness of Knowledge and Morality to Faith.Gene Fendt - 2006 - In Chris L. Firestone & Stephen R. Palmquist (eds.), Kant and the New Philosophy of Religion. Bloomington, IN, USA: Indiana University Press. pp. 90-104.
    Kant's famous statement (from the first Critique) that he found it necessary to deny knowledge in order to make room for faith acknowledges a religious or theological telos to the entire critical project. This article outlines a series of relations of 'knowledge' to 'faith' in the architectonic repetitions with variation that plays from the first Critique through the Religion. Various deployments of 'truth' at each stage presume a kind of 'faith' or trust all the way along. These deployments are (...)
     
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  13.  19
    Plane Truth: A Qualitative Study of Employee Dishonesty in the Airline Industry. [REVIEW]Elizabeth D. Scott - 2003 - Journal of Business Ethics 42 (4):321 - 337.
    Interviews with flight attendants are analyzed to refine a person-situation model of organizational dishonesty. The refined model suggests that organizational characteristics have direct and indirect (through flight characteristics) effects on likelihood of dishonesty, type of dishonesty, and motivation for dishonesty. The interviews confirm the existence of three motivations for dishonesty in customer service interactions. In addition to the three motivations originally modeled (enrichment, altruism, and revenge), flight attendants demonstrated a fourth: enforce personal moral codes, and a fifth: habituation. (...)
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  14.  18
    ‘It is a Truth Universally Acknowledged’…, You Know?: The Role of Adaptive Management and Prosody to Start a Turn in Conversation.Jesús Romero-Trillo - 2015 - Pragmatics and Society 6 (1):117-145.
    This article describes the prosodic features of the most frequent pragmatic markers in English conversations that contribute to the management of context in interaction. Often, turn-taking has been analyzed either from a structural perspective, in which the participants are treated as subjects that pursue rules, accommodating to pre-established patterns, or from a pragmatic perspective with a focus on the intentionality of the speaker in the use of pragmatic markers. It is my contention in this article that pragmatic markers are ancillary (...)
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  15. Truth in Fiction, Impossible Worlds, and Belief Revision.Francesco Berto & Christopher Badura - 2018 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 97 (1):178-193.
    We present a theory of truth in fiction that improves on Lewis's [1978] ‘Analysis 2’ in two ways. First, we expand Lewis's possible worlds apparatus by adding non-normal or impossible worlds. Second, we model truth in fiction as belief revision via ideas from dynamic epistemic logic. We explain the major objections raised against Lewis's original view and show that our theory overcomes them.
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  16.  33
    Beyond a Rule‐Following Model of Skillful Practice in Teacher Development.Derek Gottlieb - 2012 - Educational Theory 62 (5):501-516.
    Both contemporary popular and scholarly discourse on teacher development and evaluation assumes the truth of a certain view of normative human behavior, one that holds that skill in a given domain is predicated upon the application of maxims, rules, or principles in a given situation. Such a view would allow one to isolate behaviors associated with expert practice, distill the rules that give rise to them, and both develop new teachers and evaluate practicing teachers on the basis of such (...)
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  17.  96
    The Model-Theoretic Argument: From Skepticism to a New Understanding.Gila Sher - 2016 - In Sanford Goldberg (ed.), The Brain in a Vat. Cambridge, Britain: Cambridge University Press. pp. 208-225.
    In this paper I investigate Putnam’s model-theoretic argument from a transcendent standpoint, in spite of Putnam’s well-known objections to such a standpoint. This transcendence, however, requires ascent to something more like a Tarskian meta-level than what Putnam regards as a “God’s eye view”. Still, it is methodologically quite powerful, leading to a significant increase in our investigative tools. The result is a shift from Putnam’s skeptical conclusion to a new understanding of realism, truth, correspondence, knowledge, and theories, or (...)
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  18.  20
    Set Theory Influenced Logic, Both Through its Semantics, by Expanding the Possible Models of Various Theories and by the Formal Definition of a Model; and Through its Syntax, by Allowing for Logical Languages in Which Formulas Can Be Infinite in Length or in Which the Number of Symbols is Uncountable.Truth Definitions - 1998 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 4 (3).
  19.  22
    Dreams in a Vat.Danilo Suster - 2016 - European Journal of Analytic Philosophy 12 (2):89-105.
    Putnam’s semantic argument against the BIV hypothesis and Sosa’s argument against dream skepticism based on the imagination model of dreaming share some important structural features. In both cases the skeptical option is supposed to be excluded because preconditions of its intelligibility are not fulfilled (affirmation and belief in the dream scenario, thought and reference in the BIV scenario). Putnam’s reasoning is usually interpreted differently, as a classic case of deception, but this feature is not essential. I propose to interpret (...)
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  20.  65
    The Inaccuracy of Partial Truth in Yablovian If-Thenism.Joseph Ulatowski - 2017 - Australasian Philosophical Review 1 (2):206-211.
    Yablo has argued for an alternative form of if-thenism that is more conducive with his figurative fictionalism. This commentary sets out to challenge whether the remainder, ρ, tends to be an inaccurate representation of the conditions that are supposed to complete the enthymeme from φ to Ψ. Whilst by some accounts the inaccuracies shouldn't set off any alarm bells, the truth of ρ is too inexact. The content of ρ, a partial truth, must display a sensitivity to the (...)
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  21.  4
    A Model-Theoretic Realist Interpretation of Science.Emma Ruttkamp - 1999 - Dissertation, University of South Africa (South Africa)
    My model-theoretic realist account of science places linguistic systems and the corresponding non-linguistic structures at different stages of the scientific process. It is shown that science and its progress cannot be analysed in terms of only one of these strata. Philosophy of science literature offers mainly two approaches; to the structure of scientific knowledge analysed in terms of theories and their models, the "statement" and the "non-statement" approaches. In opposition to the statement approach's belief that scientific knowledge is embodied (...)
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  22.  27
    A Model-Theoretic Interpretation of Science.Emma Ruttkamp - 1997 - South African Journal of Philosophy 16 (1):31-36.
    I am arguing that it is only by concentrating on the role of models in theory construction, interpretation and change, that one can study the progress of science sensibly. I define the level at which these models operate as a level above the purely empirical (consisting of various systems in reality) but also indeed below that of the fundamental formal theories (expressed linguistically). The essentially multi-interpretability of the theory at the general, abstract linguistic level, implies that it can potentially make (...)
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  23.  17
    Actualism and the Distinction of Truth Over Truth in a World.Edward Moad - 2008 - Sorites 20:43-48.
    Robert Adams characterizes actualism regarding possible worlds as «the view that if there are any true statements in which there are said to be nonactual possible worlds, they must be reducible to statements in which the only things there are said to be are things which there are in the actual world, and which are not identical with nonactual possibles.» In this paper, I will briefly explain actualism about possible worlds, showing that an essential pillar of the theory is the (...)
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  24.  68
    Reviewing Reduction in a Preferential Model‐Theoretic Context.Emma Ruttkamp & Johannes Heidema - 2005 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 19 (2):123 – 146.
    In this article, we redefine classical notions of theory reduction in such a way that model-theoretic preferential semantics becomes part of a realist depiction of this aspect of science. We offer a model-theoretic reconstruction of science in which theory succession or reduction is often better - or at a finer level of analysis - interpreted as the result of model succession or reduction. This analysis leads to 'defeasible reduction', defined as follows: The conjunction of the assumptions of (...)
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  25.  19
    Notes on a Few Issues in the Philosophy of Psychiatry.A. R. Singh & S. A. Singh - 2009 - Mens Sana Monographs 7 (1):128.
    _The first part called the Preamble tackles: (a) the issues of silence and speech, and life and disease; (b) whether we need to know some or all of the truth, and how are exact science and philosophical reason related; (c) the phenomenon of Why, How, and What; (d) how are mind and brain related; (e) what is robust eclecticism, empirical/scientific enquiry, replicability/refutability, and the role of diagnosis and medical model in psychiatry; (f) bioethics and the four principles of (...)
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  26.  30
    Testing a Model of Behavioral Intentions in the Republic of Macedonia: Differences Between the Private and the Public Sectors.Elisaveta Gjorgji Sardžoska & Thomas Li-Ping Tang - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 87 (4):495-517.
    In this study, we developed a model of unethical behavior intentions, collected data from managers of the private (n = 208) and the public (n = 307) sectors in the Republic of Macedonia, and tested our model across these two sectors. Results suggested that for both sectors, unethical behavior intentions were not related to the love of money and corporate ethical values, whereas irritation was negatively related to life satisfaction. Moreover, corporate ethical values were related to life satisfaction (...)
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  27.  33
    Stages in the Development of a Model Organism as a Platform for Mechanistic Models in Developmental Biology: Zebrafish, 1970–2000.Robert Meunier - 2012 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 43 (2):522-531.
    Model organisms became an indispensable part of experimental systems in molecular developmental and cell biology, constructed to investigate physiological and pathological processes. They are thought to play a crucial role for the elucidation of gene function, complementing the sequencing of the genomes of humans and other organisms. Accordingly, historians and philosophers paid considerable attention to various issues concerning this aspect of experimental biology. With respect to the representational features of model organisms, that is, their status as models, the (...)
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  28.  14
    The Periodic Table and the Model of Emerging Truth.Mark Weinstein - 2016 - Foundations of Chemistry 18 (3):195-212.
    The periodic table may be seen as the most successful example of inquiry in the history of science, both in terms of practical application and theoretic understanding. As such, it serves as a model for truth as it emerges from inquiry. This paper offers a sketch of a central moment in the history of chemistry that illustrates an intuitive metamathematical construction, a model of emerging truth. The MET, reflecting the structure the surrounds the periodic table, attempts (...)
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  29. A Model of Critical Thinking in Higher Education.Martin Davies - 2014 - In M. B. Paulsen (ed.), Higher Education: Handbook of Theory and Research. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer. pp. 41-92.
    “Critical thinking in higher education” is a phrase that means many things to many people. It is a broad church. Does it mean a propensity for finding fault? Does it refer to an analytical method? Does it mean an ethical attitude or a disposition? Does it mean all of the above? Educating to develop critical intellectuals and the Marxist concept of critical consciousness are very different from the logician’s toolkit of finding fallacies in passages of text, or the practice of (...)
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  30. A Model for Ethical Decision Making in Business: Reasoning, Intuition, and Rational Moral Principles. [REVIEW]Jaana Woiceshyn - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 104 (3):311-323.
    How do business leaders make ethical decisions? Given the significant and wide-spread impact of business people’s decisions on multiple constituents, how they make decisions matters. Unethical decisions harm the decision makers themselves as well as others, whereas ethical decisions have the opposite effect. Based on data from a study on strategic decision making by 16 effective chief executive officers, I propose a model for ethical decision making in business in which reasoning and intuition interact through forming, recalling, and applying (...)
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  31.  29
    Moral Differences: Truth, Justice, and Conscience in a World of Conflict.Richard W. Miller - 1992 - Princeton University Press.
    In a wide-ranging inquiry Richard W. Miller provides new resources for coping with the most troubling types of moral conflict: disagreements in moral conviction, conflicting interests, and the tension between conscience and desires. Drawing on most fields in philosophy and the social sciences, including his previous work in the philosophy of science, he presents an account of our access to moral truth, and, within this framework, develops a theory of justice and an assessment of the role of morality in (...)
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  32.  29
    A Sense-Based, Process Model of Belief.Robert F. Hadley - 1991 - Minds and Machines 1 (3):279-320.
    A process-oriented model of belief is presented which permits the representation of nested propositional attitudes within first-order logic. The model (NIM, for nested intensional model) is axiomatized, sense-based (via intensions), and sanctions inferences involving nested epistemic attitudes, with different agents and different times. Because NIM is grounded upon senses, it provides a framework in which agents may reason about the beliefs of another agent while remaining neutral with respect to the syntactic forms used to express the latter (...)
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  33. Truth as a Value in Plato's Republic.Raphael Woolf - 2009 - Phronesis 54 (1):9-39.
    To what extent is possession of truth considered a good thing in the Republic? Certain passages of the dialogue appear to regard truth as a universal good, but others are more circumspect about its value, recommending that truth be withheld on occasion and falsehood disseminated. I seek to resolve this tension by distinguishing two kinds of truths, which I label 'philosophical' and 'non-philosophical'. Philosophical truths, I argue, are considered unqualifiedly good to possess, whereas non-philosophical truths are regarded (...)
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  34.  14
    What is so Special About Smell? Olfaction as a Model System in Neurobiology.Ann-Sophie Barwich - 2015 - Postgraduate Medical Journal 92:27-33.
    Neurobiology studies mechanisms of cell signalling. A key question is how cells recognise specific signals. In this context, olfaction has become an important experimental system over the past 25 years. The olfactory system responds to an array of structurally diverse stimuli. The discovery of the olfactory receptors (ORs), recognising these stimuli, established the olfactory pathway as part of a greater group of signalling mechanisms mediated by G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). GPCRs are the largest protein family in the mammalian genome and involved (...)
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  35.  5
    Validity of the Corporate Ethical Virtue Model in a South African Context: A Case Study.Ireze van Wyk - 2019 - African Journal of Business Ethics 13 (1).
    Ethics is reflected in the culture of an organisation. If necessary, the status of the ethical culture in an organisation can be measured. The purpose of this study was to identify an instrument that can measure ethical culture, and to establish its validity and reliability in a South African context. The Corporate Ethical Virtue Model was identified, as its validity had been subjected to reliability tests within a South African insurance company. The instrument’s reliability was confirmed through Cronbach Alpha (...)
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  36. On Truth Persistence. A Comparison Between European Portuguese and Italian in Relation to Sempre.Patricia Amaral & Fabio Del Prete - 2014 - In Variation within and across Romance Languages. Selected papers from the 41st Linguistic Symposium on Romance Languages.
    This paper analyzes a non-temporal interpretation of the adverb sempre “always” in European Portuguese and Italian, in which the adverb expresses persistence of the truth of a proposition over time and displays specific contextual constraints (TP-sempre). Despite an overlap in the contexts in which TP-sempre may occur in both languages, we provide data showing that its distribution is not exactly the same in European Portuguese and Italian. In view of these data, we propose that TP-sempre is a modal operator (...)
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  37.  60
    Pluralism About Truth in Early Chinese Philosophy: A Reflection on Wang Chong’s Approach.Alexus McLeod - 2011 - Comparative Philosophy 2 (1):38.
    The debate concerning truth in Classical Chinese philosophy has for the most part avoided the possibility that pluralist theories of truth were part of the classical philosophical framework. I argue that the Eastern Han philosopher Wang Chong (c. 25-100 CE) can be profitably read as endorsing a kind of pluralism about truth grounded in the concept of shi 實 , or “actuality”. In my exploration of this view, I explain how it offers a different account of the (...)
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  38. Truth, Proof and Gödelian Arguments: A Defence of Tarskian Truth in Mathematics.Markus Pantsar - 2009 - Dissertation, University of Helsinki
    One of the most fundamental questions in the philosophy of mathematics concerns the relation between truth and formal proof. The position according to which the two concepts are the same is called deflationism, and the opposing viewpoint substantialism. In an important result of mathematical logic, Kurt Gödel proved in his first incompleteness theorem that all consistent formal systems containing arithmetic include sentences that can neither be proved nor disproved within that system. However, such undecidable Gödel sentences can be established (...)
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  39.  9
    A Model-Based Approach to the Wisdom of the Crowd in Category Learning.Irina Danileiko & Michael D. Lee - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (S3):861-883.
    We apply the “wisdom of the crowd” idea to human category learning, using a simple approach that combines people's categorization decisions by taking the majority decision. We first show that the aggregated crowd category learning behavior found by this method performs well, learning categories more quickly than most or all individuals for 28 previously collected datasets. We then extend the approach so that it does not require people to categorize every stimulus. We do this using a model-based method that (...)
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  40.  6
    Research in Epidemic and Emergency Situations: A Model for Collaboration and Expediting Ethics Review in Two Caribbean Countries.Derrick Aarons - 2018 - Developing World Bioethics 18 (4):375-384.
    Various forms of research are essential in emergency, disaster and disease outbreak situations, but challenges exist including the long length of time it takes to get research proposals approved. Consequently, it would be very advantageous to have an acceptable model for efficient coordination and communication between and among research ethics committees/IRBs and ministries of health, and templates for expediting ethical review of research proposals in emergency and epidemic situations to be used across the Caribbean and in other low and (...)
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  41.  81
    Trade-Offs in Model-Building: A More Target-Oriented Approach.John Matthewson - 2011 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 42 (2):324-333.
    In his 1966 paper “The Strategy of model-building in Population Biology”, Richard Levins argues that no single model in population biology can be maximally realistic, precise and general at the same time. This is because these desirable model properties trade-off against one another. Recently, philosophers have developed Levins’ claims, arguing that trade-offs between these desiderata are generated by practical limitations on scientists, or due to formal aspects of models and how they represent the world. However this project (...)
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  42. Hysteria, Race, and Phlogiston. A Model of Ontological Elimination in the Human Sciences.David Ludwig - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 45 (1):68-77.
    Elimination controversies are ubiquitous in philosophy and the human sciences. For example, it has been suggested that human races, hysteria, intelligence, mental disorder, propositional attitudes such as beliefs and desires, the self, and the super-ego should be eliminated from the list of respectable entities in the human sciences. I argue that eliminativist proposals are often presented in the framework of an oversimplified “phlogiston model” and suggest an alternative account that describes ontological elimination on a gradual scale between criticism of (...)
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  43. Truth in a Region.Delia Graff Fara - 2011 - In Paul Egre & Nathan Klinedinst (eds.), Vagueness and Language Use. Palgrave-Macmillan.
    In this paper I criticize a version of supervaluation semantics. This version is called "Region-Valuation" semantics. It's developed by Pablo Cobreros. I argue that all supervaluationists, regionalists in particular, and truth-value gap theorists of vagueness more generally, are commited to the validity of D-intro, the principle that every sentence entails its definitization (the truth of "Paul is tall" guarantees the truth of "Paul is definitely tall"). The principle embroils one in a paradox that's distinct from, but related (...)
     
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  44.  24
    Generalizing on Best Practices in Image Processing: A Model for Promoting Research Integrity.Dale J. Benos & Sara H. Vollmer - 2010 - Science and Engineering Ethics 16 (4):669-673.
    Modifying images for scientific publication is now quick and easy due to changes in technology. This has created a need for new image processing guidelines and attitudes, such as those offered to the research community by Doug Cromey (Cromey 2010). We suggest that related changes in technology have simplified the task of detecting misconduct for journal editors as well as researchers, and that this simplification has caused a shift in the responsibility for reporting misconduct. We also argue that the concept (...)
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  45.  18
    Organizational Influence in a Model of the Moral Decision Process of Accountants.Scott K. Jones & Kenneth M. Hiltebeitel - 1995 - Journal of Business Ethics 14 (6):417 - 431.
    This paper reports on a survey that investigated the moral decision processes of accountants. A formal belief revision model is adapted and hypotheses based on theorizations from the cognitive-developmental school are tested. The moral decision processes of accountants are hypothesized to be influenced by professional expectations, organizational expectations and internalized expectations. Subjects provided specific demographic data and were asked to access the appropriateness of fourteen principles for making moral decisions in business. Subjects were also asked to indicate which of (...)
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  46.  13
    Islamic Positivism and Scientific Truth: Qur’an and Archeology in a Creationist Documentary Film.Baudouin Dupret & Clémentine Gutron - 2016 - Human Studies 39 (4):621-643.
    The ambition of “scientific creationism” is to prove that science actually confirms religion. This is especially true in the case of Muslim creationism, which adopts a reasoning of a syllogistic type: divine revelation is truth; good science confirms truth; divine revelation is henceforth scientifically proven. Harun Yahya is a prominent Muslim “creationist” whose website hosts many texts and documentary films, among which “Evidence of the true faith in historical sources”. This is a small audiovisual production which, starting from (...)
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  47.  19
    Stabilizing Effect of Cannibalism in a Two Stages Population Model.Jonathan Rault, Eric Benoît & Jean-Luc Gouzé - 2013 - Acta Biotheoretica 61 (1):119-139.
    In this paper we build a prey–predator model with discrete weight structure for the predator. This model will conserve the number of individuals and the biomass and both growth and reproduction of the predator will depend on the food ingested. Moreover the model allows cannibalism which means that the predator can eat the prey but also other predators. We will focus on a simple version with two weight classes or stage and present some general mathematical results. In (...)
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  48.  69
    A Model of Path-Dependence in Decisions Over Multiple Propositions.Christian List - 2004 - American Political Science Review 98 (3):495-513.
    I model sequential decisions over multiple interconnected propositions and investigate path-dependence in such decisions. The propositions and their interconnections are represented in propositional logic. A sequential decision process is path-dependent if its outcome depends on the order in which the propositions are considered. Assuming that earlier decisions constrain later ones, I prove three main results: First, certain rationality violations by the decision-making agent—individual or group—are necessary and sufficient for path-dependence. Second, under some conditions, path-dependence is unavoidable in decisions made (...)
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  49.  50
    Trade-off Between Capacity and Generalization in a Model of Memory.Shimon Edelman - unknown
    Although computational considerations suggest that a resource-limited memory system may have to trade off capacity for generalization ability, such a trade-off has not been demonstrated in the past. We describe a simple model of memory that exhibits this trade-off and describe its performance in a variety of tasks.
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  50.  51
    Adjectival Vagueness in a Bayesian Model of Interpretation.Daniel Lassiter & Noah D. Goodman - 2017 - Synthese 194 (10):3801-3836.
    We derive a probabilistic account of the vagueness and context-sensitivity of scalar adjectives from a Bayesian approach to communication and interpretation. We describe an iterated-reasoning architecture for pragmatic interpretation and illustrate it with a simple scalar implicature example. We then show how to enrich the apparatus to handle pragmatic reasoning about the values of free variables, explore its predictions about the interpretation of scalar adjectives, and show how this model implements Edgington’s Vagueness: a reader, 1997) account of the sorites (...)
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