Results for 'universal Turing machine'

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  1. Beyond the Universal Turing Machine.Jack Copeland - 1999 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 77 (1):46-67.
    We describe an emerging field, that of nonclassical computability and nonclassical computing machinery. According to the nonclassicist, the set of well-defined computations is not exhausted by the computations that can be carried out by a Turing machine. We provide an overview of the field and a philosophical defence of its foundations.
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  2.  63
    What Turing Did After He Invented the Universal Turing Machine.B. Jack Copeland & Diane Proudfoot - 2000 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 9 (4):491-509.
    Alan Turing anticipated many areas of current research incomputer and cognitive science. This article outlines his contributionsto Artificial Intelligence, connectionism, hypercomputation, andArtificial Life, and also describes Turing's pioneering role in thedevelopment of electronic stored-program digital computers. It locatesthe origins of Artificial Intelligence in postwar Britain. It examinesthe intellectual connections between the work of Turing and ofWittgenstein in respect of their views on cognition, on machineintelligence, and on the relation between provability and truth. Wecriticise widespread and influential misunderstandings (...)
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  3.  51
    The Turing Machine May Not Be the Universal Machine.Matjaz Gams - 2002 - Minds and Machines 12 (1):137-142.
    Can mind be modeled as a Turing machine? If you find such questions irrelevant, e.g. because the subject is already exhausted, then you need not read the book Mind versus Computer (Gams et al., 1991). If, on the other hand, you do find such questions relevant, then perhaps you need not read Dunlop's review of the book (Dunlop, 2000). (...).
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  4.  62
    Beyond the Universal Turing Machine.B. Jack Copeland & Richard Sylvan - 1999 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 77 (1):46-66.
  5.  8
    Boris Trakhtenbrot. Comparing the Church and Turing Approaches: Two Prophetical Messages. The Universal Turing Machine, A Half-Century Survey, Edited by Rolf Herken, Kammerer & Unversagt, Hamburg and Berlin, and Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York, 1988, Pp. 603–630. [REVIEW]Giuseppe Longo - 1994 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 59 (4):1434-1436.
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  6.  19
    A Universal Turing Machine with Two Internal States.Claude E. Shannon - 1971 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 36 (3):532-532.
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  7.  8
    Davis M. D.. A Note on Universal Turing Machines. Automata Studies, Edited by Shannon C. E. And McCarthy J., Annals of Mathematics Studies No. 34, Lithoprinted, Princeton University Press, Princeton 1956, Pp. 167–175.Davis Martin. The Definition of Universal Turing Machine. Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society, Vol. 8 , Pp. 1125–1126. [REVIEW]R. J. Nelson - 1970 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 35 (4):590.
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    Rolf Herken . The Universal Turing Machine: A Half-Century Survey. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988. Pp. Xiv + 661. ISBN 0-19-853741-7. £55.00. [REVIEW]Steve Russ - 1989 - British Journal for the History of Science 22 (4):451-452.
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    Bečvář Jiří. A Universal Turing Machine with a Programming Tape. Colloquium on the Foundations of Mathematics, Mathematical Machines and Their Applications, Tihany, 11–15 September 1962, Edited by Kalmár László, Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest 1965, Pp. 11–20. [REVIEW]R. M. Baer - 1971 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 36 (3):535.
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  10.  7
    Shannon Claude E.. A Universal Turing Machine with Two Internal States. Automata Studies, Edited by Shannon C. E. And McCarthy J., Annals of Mathematics Studies No. 34, Lithoprinted, Princeton University Press, Princeton 1956, Pp. 157–165. [REVIEW]Patrick C. Fischer - 1971 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 36 (3):532.
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  11.  6
    Review: E. F. Moore, A Simplified Universal Turing Machine[REVIEW]Raymond J. Nelson - 1954 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 19 (1):57-58.
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  12.  4
    Moore E. F.. A Simplified Universal Turing Machine. Proceedings of the Association for Computing Machinery, Meeting at Toronto, Ont., Jointly Sponsored by the Association for Computing Machinery and the University of Toronto, September 8 to 10, 1952, Photo-Offset, Sauls Lithograph Company, Washington, D.C., 1952, Pp. 50–55. [REVIEW]Raymond J. Nelson - 1954 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 19 (1):57-58.
  13.  6
    Review: M. D. Davis, A Note on Universal Turing Machines; Martin Davis, The Definition of Universal Turing Machine[REVIEW]R. J. Nelson - 1970 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 35 (4):590-590.
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  14.  5
    Review: Jiri Becvar, A Universal Turing Machine with a Programming Tape. [REVIEW]R. M. Baer - 1971 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 36 (3):535-535.
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  15.  3
    Review: Claude E. Shannon, A Universal Turing Machine with Two Internal States. [REVIEW]Patrick C. Fischer - 1971 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 36 (3):532-532.
  16. Andrew Hodges. Alan Turing and the Turing Machine. The Universal Turing Machine, A Half-Century Survey, Edited by Rolf Herken, Kammerer & Unverzagt, Hamburg and Berlin, and Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York, 1988. Pp. 3–15. - Stephen C. Kleene. Turing's Analysis of Computahility, and Major Applications of It. The Universal Turing Machine, A Half-Century Survey, Edited by Rolf Herken, Kammerer & Unverzagt, Hamburg and Berlin, and Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York, 1988. Pp. 17–54. - Robin Gandy. The Confluence of Ideas in 1936. The Universal Turing Machine, A Half-Century Survey, Edited by Rolf Herken, Kammerer & Unverzagt, Hamburg and Berlin, and Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York, 1988. Pp. 55–111. - Solomon Feferman. Turing in the Land of O. The Universal Turing Machine, A Half-Century Survey, Edited by Rolf Herken, Kammerer & Unverzagt, Hamburg and Berlin, and Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York, 1988. Pp. 113–147. - Martin Davis. Mathematica. [REVIEW]John N. Crossley - 1991 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 56 (3):1089-1090.
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  17. Andrew Hodges. Alan Turing and the Turing Machine. The Universal Turing Machine, A Half-Century Survey, Edited by Rolf Herken, Kammerer & Unverzagt, Hamburg and Berlin, and Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York, 1988. Pp. 3–15. - Stephen C. Kleene. Turing's Analysis of Computahility, and Major Applications of It. The Universal Turing Machine, A Half-Century Survey, Edited by Rolf Herken, Kammerer & Unverzagt, Hamburg and Berlin, and Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York, 1988. Pp. 17–54. - Robin Gandy. The Confluence of Ideas in 1936. The Universal Turing Machine, A Half-Century Survey, Edited by Rolf Herken, Kammerer & Unverzagt, Hamburg and Berlin, and Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York, 1988. Pp. 55–111. - Solomon Feferman. Turing in the Land of O. The Universal Turing Machine, A Half-Century Survey, Edited by Rolf Herken, Kammerer & Unverzagt, Hamburg and Berlin, and Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York, 1988. Pp. 113–147. - Martin Davis. Mathematica. [REVIEW]John N. Crossley - 1991 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 56 (3):1089-1090.
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  18. Shafi Goldwasser, Silvio Micali, and Charles Rackoff. The Knowledge Complexity of Interactive Proof Systems. SIAM Journal on Computing, Vol. 18 , Pp. 186–208. - Oded Goldreich, Silvio Micali, and Avi Wigderson. Proofs That Release Minimum Knowledge. Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science 1986, Proceedings of the 12th Symposium, Bratislava, Czechoslovakia, August 25–29, 1986, Edited by J. Gruska, B. Rovan, and J. Wiedermann, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 233, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, Etc., 1986, Pp. 639–650. - Oded Goldreich. Randomness, Interactive Proofs, and Zero-Knowledge—a Survey. The Universal Turing Machine, A Half-Century Survey, Edited by Rolf Herken, Kammerer & Unverzagt, Hamburg and Berlin, and Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York, 1988, Pp. 377–405. [REVIEW]Lance Fortnow - 1991 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 56 (3):1092-1094.
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  19. Uwe Schöning. Complexity Theory and Interaction. The Universal Turing Machine, A Half-Century Survey, Edited by Rolf Herken, Kammerer & Unverzagt, Hamburg and Berlin, and Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York, 1988. Pp. 561–580. [REVIEW]Steven Lindell - 1991 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 56 (3):1091-1092.
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  20. A Simplified Universal Turing Machine.E. F. Moore - 1954 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 19 (1):57-58.
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  21. Allen H. Brady. The Busy Beaver Game and the Meaning of Life. The Universal Turing Machine, A Half-Century Survey, Edited by Rolf Herken, Kammerer & Unverzagt, Hamburg and Berlin, and Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York, 1988. Pp. 259–277. [REVIEW]Arnold Oberschelp - 1991 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 56 (3):1091-1091.
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  22. Michael J. Beeson. Computerizing Mathematics: Logic and Computation. The Universal Turing Machine, A Half-Century Survey, Edited by Rolf Herken, Kammerer & Unverzagt, Hamburg and Berlin, and Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York, 1988. Pp. 191–225. [REVIEW]J. C. Shepherdson - 1991 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 56 (3):1090-1091.
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  23. A Universal Inductive Turing Machine.D. Osherson & S. Weinstein - 1989 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 56:661-672.
     
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  24.  7
    Jon Agar, Turing and the Universal Machine: The Making of the Modern Computer. Revolutions in Science. Duxford: Icon Books, 2001. Pp. IV+153. Isbn 1-84046-250-7. £5.99, $9.95. [REVIEW]Martin Campbell-Kelly - 2002 - British Journal for the History of Science 35 (4):475-485.
  25.  29
    Turing and the Serendipitous Discovery of the Modern Computer.Aurea Anguera de Sojo, Juan Ares, Juan A. Lara, David Lizcano, María A. Martínez & Juan Pazos - 2013 - Foundations of Science 18 (3):545-557.
    In the centenary year of Turing’s birth, a lot of good things are sure to be written about him. But it is hard to find something new to write about Turing. This is the biggest merit of this article: it shows how von Neumann’s architecture of the modern computer is a serendipitous consequence of the universal Turing machine, built to solve a logical problem.
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  26.  18
    Cartesian Dualism, and the Universe as Turing Machine.Daniel King - 2003 - Philosophy Today 47 (2):138-146.
    In the field of computability and algorithmicity, there have recently been two essays that are of great interest: Peter Slezak's "Descartes's Diagonal Deduction," and David Deutsch's "Quantum Theory, the Church-Turing Principle and the Universal Quantum Computer." In brief, the former shows that Descartes' Cogito argument is structurally similar to Godel's proof that there are statements true but cannot be proven within a formal system such as Principia Mathematica, while Deutsch provides strong arguments for believing that the universe can (...)
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  27. The Myth of the Turing Machine: The Failings of Functionalism and Related Theses.Chris Eliasmith - 2002 - Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence 14 (1):1-8.
    The properties of Turing’s famous ‘universal machine’ has long sustained functionalist intuitions about the nature of cognition. Here, I show that there is a logical problem with standard functionalist arguments for multiple realizability. These arguments rely essentially on Turing’s powerful insights regarding computation. In addressing a possible reply to this criticism, I further argue that functionalism is not a useful approach for understanding what it is to have a mind. In particular, I show that the difficulties (...)
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  28. Computing Machinery and Intelligence.Alan M. Turing - 1950 - Mind 59 (October):433-60.
    I propose to consider the question, "Can machines think?" This should begin with definitions of the meaning of the terms "machine" and "think." The definitions might be framed so as to reflect so far as possible the normal use of the words, but this attitude is dangerous, If the meaning of the words "machine" and "think" are to be found by examining how they are commonly used it is difficult to escape the conclusion that the meaning and the (...)
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  29.  20
    Von Neumann's Theory of Self-Reproducing Automata: A Useful Framework for Biosemiotics?Dennis P. Waters - 2012 - Biosemiotics 5 (1):5-15.
    As interpreted by Pattee, von Neumann’s Theory of Self-Reproducing Automata has proved to be a useful tool for understanding some of the difficulties and paradoxes of molecular biosemiotics. But is its utility limited to molecular systems or is it more generally applicable within biosemiotics? One way of answering that question is to look at the Theory as a model for one particular high-level biosemiotic activity, human language. If the model is not useful for language, then it certainly cannot be generally (...)
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  30.  31
    Computable Diagonalizations and Turing's Cardinality Paradox.Dale Jacquette - 2014 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 45 (2):239-262.
    A. N. Turing’s 1936 concept of computability, computing machines, and computable binary digital sequences, is subject to Turing’s Cardinality Paradox. The paradox conjoins two opposed but comparably powerful lines of argument, supporting the propositions that the cardinality of dedicated Turing machines outputting all and only the computable binary digital sequences can only be denumerable, and yet must also be nondenumerable. Turing’s objections to a similar kind of diagonalization are answered, and the implications of the paradox for (...)
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  31.  68
    On Potential Cognitive Abilities in the Machine Kingdom.José Hernández-Orallo & David L. Dowe - 2013 - Minds and Machines 23 (2):179-210.
    Animals, including humans, are usually judged on what they could become, rather than what they are. Many physical and cognitive abilities in the ‘animal kingdom’ are only acquired (to a given degree) when the subject reaches a certain stage of development, which can be accelerated or spoilt depending on how the environment, training or education is. The term ‘potential ability’ usually refers to how quick and likely the process of attaining the ability is. In principle, things should not be different (...)
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  32. Universal Intelligence: A Definition of Machine Intelligence.Shane Legg & Marcus Hutter - 2007 - Minds and Machines 17 (4):391-444.
    A fundamental problem in artificial intelligence is that nobody really knows what intelligence is. The problem is especially acute when we need to consider artificial systems which are significantly different to humans. In this paper we approach this problem in the following way: we take a number of well known informal definitions of human intelligence that have been given by experts, and extract their essential features. These are then mathematically formalised to produce a general measure of intelligence for arbitrary machines. (...)
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  33.  12
    Semantics and Symbol Grounding in Turing Machine Processes.Anna Sarosiek - 2017 - Semina Scientiarum 16:211-223.
    The aim of the paper is to present the underlying reason of the unsolved symbol grounding problem. The Church-Turing Thesis states that a physical problem, for which there is an algorithm of solution, can be solved by a Turing machine, but machine operations neglect the semantic relationship between symbols and their meaning. Symbols are objects that are manipulated on rules based on their shapes. The computations are independent of the context, mental states, emotions, or feelings. The (...)
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  34.  13
    From Symbol to ‘Symbol’, to Abstract Symbol: Response to Copeland and Shagrir on Turing-Machine Realism Versus Turing-Machine Purism.Eli Dresner & Ofra Rechter - 2016 - Minds and Machines 26 (3):253-257.
    In their recent paper “Do Accelerating Turing Machines Compute the Uncomputable?” Copeland and Shagrir draw a distinction between a purist conception of Turing machines, according to which these machines are purely abstract, and Turing machine realism according to which Turing machines are spatio-temporal and causal “notional" machines. In the present response to that paper we concede the realistic aspects of Turing’s own presentation of his machines, pointed out by Copeland and Shagrir, but argue that (...)
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  35. A Universal Inductive Inference Machine.Daniel N. Osherson, Michael Stob & Scott Weinstein - 1991 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 56 (2):661-672.
    A paradigm of scientific discovery is defined within a first-order logical framework. It is shown that within this paradigm there exists a formal scientist that is Turing computable and universal in the sense that it solves every problem that any scientist can solve. It is also shown that universal scientists exist for no regular logics that extend first-order logic and satisfy the Löwenheim-Skolem condition.
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  36.  62
    Turing's Golden: How Well Turing's Work Stands Today.Justin Leiber - 2006 - Philosophical Psychology 19 (1):13-46.
    A. M. Turing has bequeathed us a conceptulary including 'Turing, or Turing-Church, thesis', 'Turing machine', 'universal Turing machine', 'Turing test' and 'Turing structures', plus other unnamed achievements. These include a proof that any formal language adequate to express arithmetic contains undecidable formulas, as well as achievements in computer science, artificial intelligence, mathematics, biology, and cognitive science. Here it is argued that these achievements hang together and have prospered well in the (...)
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  37. Turing on the Integration of Human and Machine Intelligence.S. G. Sterrett - manuscript
    Abstract Philosophical discussion of Alan Turing’s writings on intelligence has mostly revolved around a single point made in a paper published in the journal Mind in 1950. This is unfortunate, for Turing’s reflections on machine (artificial) intelligence, human intelligence, and the relation between them were more extensive and sophisticated. They are seen to be extremely well-considered and sound in retrospect. Recently, IBM developed a question-answering computer (Watson) that could compete against humans on the game show Jeopardy! There (...)
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  38.  36
    Bringing Up Turing's 'Child-Machine'.Susan G. Sterrett - 2012 - In S. Barry Cooper (ed.), How the World Computes. pp. 703--713.
    Turing wrote that the “guiding principle” of his investigation into the possibility of intelligent machinery was “The analogy [of machinery that might be made to show intelligent behavior] with the human brain.” [10] In his discussion of the investigations that Turing said were guided by this analogy, however, he employs a more far-reaching analogy: he eventually expands the analogy from the human brain out to “the human community as a whole.” Along the way, he takes note of an (...)
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  39.  14
    From the Buzzing in Turing’s Head to Machine Intelligence Contests.Huma Shah & Kevin Warwick - 2010 - In TCIT 2010 / AISB 2010 Convention.
    This paper presents an analysis of three major contests for machine intelligence. We conclude that a new era for Turing’s test requires a fillip in the guise of a committed sponsor, not unlike DARPA, funders of the successful 2007 Urban Challenge.
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  40. Evolution: The Computer Systems Engineer Designing Minds.Aaron Sloman - 2011 - Avant: Trends in Interdisciplinary Studies 2 (2):45–69.
    What we have learnt in the last six or seven decades about virtual machinery, as a result of a great deal of science and technology, enables us to offer Darwin a new defence against critics who argued that only physical form, not mental capabilities and consciousness could be products of evolution by natural selection. The defence compares the mental phenomena mentioned by Darwin’s opponents with contents of virtual machinery in computing systems. Objects, states, events, and processes in virtual machinery which (...)
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  41.  58
    Philosophy and Science, the Darwinian-Evolved Computational Brain, a Non-Recursive Super-Turing Machine & Our Inner-World-Producing Organ.Hermann G. W. Burchard - 2016 - Open Journal of Philosophy 6 (1):13-28.
    Recent advances in neuroscience lead to a wider realm for philosophy to include the science of the Darwinian-evolved computational brain, our inner world producing organ, a non-recursive super- Turing machine combining 100B synapsing-neuron DNA-computers based on the genetic code. The whole system is a logos machine offering a world map for global context, essential for our intentional grasp of opportunities. We start from the observable contrast between the chaotic universe vs. our orderly inner world, the noumenal cosmos. (...)
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  42. Is the Human Mind a Turing Machine?D. King - 1996 - Synthese 108 (3):379-89.
    In this paper I discuss the topics of mechanism and algorithmicity. I emphasise that a characterisation of algorithmicity such as the Turing machine is iterative; and I argue that if the human mind can solve problems that no Turing machine can, the mind must depend on some non-iterative principle — in fact, Cantor's second principle of generation, a principle of the actual infinite rather than the potential infinite of Turing machines. But as there has been (...)
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  43.  20
    On Stability and Solvability (or, When Does a Neural Network Solve a Problem?).Stan Franklin & Max Garzon - 1992 - Minds and Machines 2 (1):71-83.
    The importance of the Stability Problem in neurocomputing is discussed, as well as the need for the study of infinite networks. Stability must be the key ingredient in the solution of a problem by a neural network without external intervention. Infinite discrete networks seem to be the proper objects of study for a theory of neural computability which aims at characterizing problems solvable, in principle, by a neural network. Precise definitions of such problems and their solutions are given. Some consequences (...)
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  44.  77
    Narrow Versus Wide Mechanism: Including a Re-Examination of Turing's Views on the Mind-Machine Issue.B. Jack Copeland - 2000 - Journal of Philosophy 97 (1):5-33.
  45.  2
    Putnam’s Diagonal Argument and the Impossibility of a Universal Learning Machine.Tom F. Sterkenburg - 2019 - Erkenntnis 84 (3):633-656.
    Putnam construed the aim of Carnap’s program of inductive logic as the specification of a “universal learning machine,” and presented a diagonal proof against the very possibility of such a thing. Yet the ideas of Solomonoff and Levin lead to a mathematical foundation of precisely those aspects of Carnap’s program that Putnam took issue with, and in particular, resurrect the notion of a universal mechanical rule for induction. In this paper, I take up the question whether the (...)
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    Eventually Infinite Time Turing Machine Degrees: Infinite Time Decidable Reals.P. D. Welch - 2000 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 65 (3):1193-1203.
    We characterise explicitly the decidable predicates on integers of Infinite Time Turing machines, in terms of admissibility theory and the constructible hierarchy. We do this by pinning down ζ, the least ordinal not the length of any eventual output of an Infinite Time Turing machine (halting or otherwise); using this the Infinite Time Turing Degrees are considered, and it is shown how the jump operator coincides with the production of mastercodes for the constructible hierarchy; further that (...)
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  47.  36
    Physical Oracles: The Turing Machine and the Wheatstone Bridge.Edwin J. Beggs, José Félix Costa & John V. Tucker - 2010 - Studia Logica 95 (1-2):279-300.
    Earlier, we have studied computations possible by physical systems and by algorithms combined with physical systems. In particular, we have analysed the idea of using an experiment as an oracle to an abstract computational device, such as the Turing machine. The theory of composite machines of this kind can be used to understand (a) a Turing machine receiving extra computational power from a physical process, or (b) an experimenter modelled as a Turing machine performing (...)
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    Putnam's Diagonal Argument and the Impossibility of a Universal Learning Machine.Tom F. Sterkenburg - unknown
    The diagonalization argument of Putnam denies the possibility of a universal learning machine. Yet the proposal of Solomonoff and Levin promises precisely such a thing. In this paper I discuss how their proposed measure function manages to evade Putnam's diagonalization in one respect, only to fatally fall prey to it in another.
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    Eventually Infinite Time Turing Machine Degrees: Infinite Time Decidable Reals.P. D. Welch - 2000 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 65 (3):1193-1203.
    We characterise explicitly the decidable predicates on integers of Infinite Time Turing machines, in terms of admissibility theory and the constructible hierarchy. We do this by pinning down $\zeta$, the least ordinal not the length of any eventual output of an Infinite Time Turing machine ; using this the Infinite Time Turing Degrees are considered, and it is shown how the jump operator coincides with the production of mastercodes for the constructible hierarchy; further that the natural (...)
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  50.  55
    Practical Intractability: A Critique of the Hypercomputation Movement. [REVIEW]Aran Nayebi - 2014 - Minds and Machines 24 (3):275-305.
    For over a decade, the hypercomputation movement has produced computational models that in theory solve the algorithmically unsolvable, but they are not physically realizable according to currently accepted physical theories. While opponents to the hypercomputation movement provide arguments against the physical realizability of specific models in order to demonstrate this, these arguments lack the generality to be a satisfactory justification against the construction of any information-processing machine that computes beyond the universal Turing machine. To this end, (...)
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