Results for 'universal Turing machine'

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  1. Beyond the Universal Turing Machine.Jack Copeland - 1999 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 77 (1):46-67.
    We describe an emerging field, that of nonclassical computability and nonclassical computing machinery. According to the nonclassicist, the set of well-defined computations is not exhausted by the computations that can be carried out by a Turing machine. We provide an overview of the field and a philosophical defence of its foundations.
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  2.  69
    Beyond the Universal Turing Machine.B. Jack Copeland & Richard Sylvan - 1999 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 77 (1):46-66.
  3.  1
    A Simplified Universal Turing Machine.E. F. Moore - 1954 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 19 (1):57-58.
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  4.  14
    Rolf Herken . The Universal Turing Machine: A Half-Century Survey. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988. Pp. Xiv + 661. ISBN 0-19-853741-7. £55.00. [REVIEW]Steve Russ - 1989 - British Journal for the History of Science 22 (4):451-452.
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    Bečvář Jiří. A Universal Turing Machine with a Programming Tape. Colloquium on the Foundations of Mathematics, Mathematical Machines and Their Applications, Tihany, 11–15 September 1962, Edited by Kalmár László, Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest 1965, Pp. 11–20. [REVIEW]R. M. Baer - 1971 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 36 (3):535-535.
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    Review: Jiri Becvar, A Universal Turing Machine with a Programming Tape. [REVIEW]R. M. Baer - 1971 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 36 (3):535-535.
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  7.  21
    Shannon Claude E.. A Universal Turing Machine with Two Internal States. Automata Studies, Edited by Shannon C. E. And McCarthy J., Annals of Mathematics Studies No. 34, Lithoprinted, Princeton University Press, Princeton 1956, Pp. 157–165. [REVIEW]Patrick C. Fischer - 1971 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 36 (3):532.
  8.  74
    What Turing Did After He Invented the Universal Turing Machine.Diane Proudfoot & Jack Copeland - 2000 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 9:491-509.
    Alan Turing anticipated many areas of current research incomputer and cognitive science. This article outlines his contributionsto Artificial Intelligence, connectionism, hypercomputation, andArtificial Life, and also describes Turing's pioneering role in thedevelopment of electronic stored-program digital computers. It locatesthe origins of Artificial Intelligence in postwar Britain. It examinesthe intellectual connections between the work of Turing and ofWittgenstein in respect of their views on cognition, on machineintelligence, and on the relation between provability and truth. Wecriticise widespread and influential misunderstandings (...)
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  9.  12
    Uwe Schöning. Complexity Theory and Interaction. The Universal Turing Machine, A Half-Century Survey, Edited by Rolf Herken, Kammerer & Unverzagt, Hamburg and Berlin, and Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York, 1988. Pp. 561–580. [REVIEW]Steven Lindell - 1991 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 56 (3):1091-1092.
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  10.  15
    Boris Trakhtenbrot. Comparing the Church and Turing Approaches: Two Prophetical Messages. The Universal Turing Machine, A Half-Century Survey, Edited by Rolf Herken, Kammerer & Unversagt, Hamburg and Berlin, and Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York, 1988, Pp. 603–630. [REVIEW]Giuseppe Longo - 1994 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 59 (4):1434-1436.
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  11.  17
    Davis M. D.. A Note on Universal Turing Machines. Automata Studies, Edited by Shannon C. E. And McCarthy J., Annals of Mathematics Studies No. 34, Lithoprinted, Princeton University Press, Princeton 1956, Pp. 167–175.Davis Martin. The Definition of Universal Turing Machine. Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society, Vol. 8 , Pp. 1125–1126. [REVIEW]R. J. Nelson - 1970 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 35 (4):590.
  12.  6
    Review: E. F. Moore, A Simplified Universal Turing Machine[REVIEW]Raymond J. Nelson - 1954 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 19 (1):57-58.
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    Review: M. D. Davis, A Note on Universal Turing Machines; Martin Davis, The Definition of Universal Turing Machine[REVIEW]R. J. Nelson - 1970 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 35 (4):590-590.
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  14.  11
    Allen H. Brady. The Busy Beaver Game and the Meaning of Life. The Universal Turing Machine, A Half-Century Survey, Edited by Rolf Herken, Kammerer & Unverzagt, Hamburg and Berlin, and Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York, 1988. Pp. 259–277. [REVIEW]Arnold Oberschelp - 1991 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 56 (3):1091-1091.
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  15.  5
    Michael J. Beeson. Computerizing Mathematics: Logic and Computation. The Universal Turing Machine, A Half-Century Survey, Edited by Rolf Herken, Kammerer & Unverzagt, Hamburg and Berlin, and Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York, 1988. Pp. 191–225. [REVIEW]J. C. Shepherdson - 1991 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 56 (3):1090-1091.
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  16.  59
    The Turing Machine May Not Be the Universal Machine.Matjaz Gams - 2002 - Minds and Machines 12 (1):137-142.
    Can mind be modeled as a Turing machine? If you find such questions irrelevant, e.g. because the subject is already exhausted, then you need not read the book Mind versus Computer (Gams et al., 1991). If, on the other hand, you do find such questions relevant, then perhaps you need not read Dunlop's review of the book (Dunlop, 2000). (...).
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  17.  17
    Andrew Hodges. Alan Turing and the Turing Machine. The Universal Turing Machine, A Half-Century Survey, Edited by Rolf Herken, Kammerer & Unverzagt, Hamburg and Berlin, and Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York, 1988. Pp. 3–15. - Stephen C. Kleene. Turing's Analysis of Computahility, and Major Applications of It. The Universal Turing Machine, A Half-Century Survey, Edited by Rolf Herken, Kammerer & Unverzagt, Hamburg and Berlin, and Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York, 1988. Pp. 17–54. - Robin Gandy. The Confluence of Ideas in 1936. The Universal Turing Machine, A Half-Century Survey, Edited by Rolf Herken, Kammerer & Unverzagt, Hamburg and Berlin, and Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York, 1988. Pp. 55–111. - Solomon Feferman. Turing in the Land of O. The Universal Turing Machine, A Half-Century Survey, Edited by Rolf Herken, Kammerer & Unverzagt, Hamburg and Berlin, and Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York, 1988. Pp. 113–147. - Martin Davis. Mathematica. [REVIEW]John N. Crossley - 1991 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 56 (3):1089-1090.
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  18.  3
    Review: Claude E. Shannon, A Universal Turing Machine with Two Internal States. [REVIEW]Patrick C. Fischer - 1971 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 36 (3):532-532.
  19.  24
    Shafi Goldwasser, Silvio Micali, and Charles Rackoff. The Knowledge Complexity of Interactive Proof Systems. SIAM Journal on Computing, Vol. 18 , Pp. 186–208. - Oded Goldreich, Silvio Micali, and Avi Wigderson. Proofs That Release Minimum Knowledge. Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science 1986, Proceedings of the 12th Symposium, Bratislava, Czechoslovakia, August 25–29, 1986, Edited by J. Gruska, B. Rovan, and J. Wiedermann, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 233, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, Etc., 1986, Pp. 639–650. - Oded Goldreich. Randomness, Interactive Proofs, and Zero-Knowledge—a Survey. The Universal Turing Machine, A Half-Century Survey, Edited by Rolf Herken, Kammerer & Unverzagt, Hamburg and Berlin, and Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York, 1988, Pp. 377–405. [REVIEW]Lance Fortnow - 1991 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 56 (3):1092-1094.
  20. The Myth of the Turing Machine: The Failings of Functionalism and Related Theses.Chris Eliasmith - 2002 - Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence 14 (1):1-8.
    The properties of Turing’s famous ‘universal machine’ has long sustained functionalist intuitions about the nature of cognition. Here, I show that there is a logical problem with standard functionalist arguments for multiple realizability. These arguments rely essentially on Turing’s powerful insights regarding computation. In addressing a possible reply to this criticism, I further argue that functionalism is not a useful approach for understanding what it is to have a mind. In particular, I show that the difficulties (...)
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  21. A Universal Inductive Turing Machine.D. Osherson & S. Weinstein - 1989 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 56:661-672.
     
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  22.  37
    Cartesian Dualism, and Universe as Turing Machine.Daniel King - 2003 - Philosophy Today 47 (2):138-146.
    In the field of computability and algorithmicity, there have recently been two essays that are of great interest: Peter Slezak's "Descartes's Diagonal Deduction," and David Deutsch's "Quantum Theory, the Church-Turing Principle and the Universal Quantum Computer." In brief, the former shows that Descartes' Cogito argument is structurally similar to Godel's proof that there are statements true but cannot be proven within a formal system such as Principia Mathematica, while Deutsch provides strong arguments for believing that the universe can (...)
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  23. Universal Intelligence: A Definition of Machine Intelligence.Shane Legg & Marcus Hutter - 2007 - Minds and Machines 17 (4):391-444.
    A fundamental problem in artificial intelligence is that nobody really knows what intelligence is. The problem is especially acute when we need to consider artificial systems which are significantly different to humans. In this paper we approach this problem in the following way: we take a number of well known informal definitions of human intelligence that have been given by experts, and extract their essential features. These are then mathematically formalised to produce a general measure of intelligence for arbitrary machines. (...)
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  24.  51
    Turing and the Serendipitous Discovery of the Modern Computer.Aurea Anguera de Sojo, Juan Ares, Juan A. Lara, David Lizcano, María A. Martínez & Juan Pazos - 2013 - Foundations of Science 18 (3):545-557.
    In the centenary year of Turing’s birth, a lot of good things are sure to be written about him. But it is hard to find something new to write about Turing. This is the biggest merit of this article: it shows how von Neumann’s architecture of the modern computer is a serendipitous consequence of the universal Turing machine, built to solve a logical problem.
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  25. A Universal Inductive Inference Machine.Daniel N. Osherson, Michael Stob & Scott Weinstein - 1991 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 56 (2):661-672.
    A paradigm of scientific discovery is defined within a first-order logical framework. It is shown that within this paradigm there exists a formal scientist that is Turing computable and universal in the sense that it solves every problem that any scientist can solve. It is also shown that universal scientists exist for no regular logics that extend first-order logic and satisfy the Löwenheim-Skolem condition.
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  26.  75
    Turing's Golden: How Well Turing's Work Stands Today.Justin Leiber - 2006 - Philosophical Psychology 19 (1):13-46.
    A. M. Turing has bequeathed us a conceptulary including 'Turing, or Turing-Church, thesis', 'Turing machine', 'universal Turing machine', 'Turing test' and 'Turing structures', plus other unnamed achievements. These include a proof that any formal language adequate to express arithmetic contains undecidable formulas, as well as achievements in computer science, artificial intelligence, mathematics, biology, and cognitive science. Here it is argued that these achievements hang together and have prospered well in the (...)
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  27. Super Turing-Machines.Jack Copeland - 1998 - Complexity 4 (1):30-32.
    The tape is divided into squares, each square bearing a single symbol—'0' or '1', for example. This tape is the machine's general-purpose storage medium: the machine is set in motion with its input inscribed on the tape, output is written onto the tape by the head, and the tape serves as a short-term working memory for the results of intermediate steps of the computation. The program governing the particular computation that the machine is to perform is also (...)
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  28.  85
    The Turing Guide.Jack Copeland, Jonathan Bowen, Robin Wilson & Mark Sprevak (eds.) - 2017 - Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    This volume celebrates the various facets of Alan Turing (1912–1954), the British mathematician and computing pioneer, widely considered as the father of computer science. It is aimed at the general reader, with additional notes and references for those who wish to explore the life and work of Turing more deeply. -/- The book is divided into eight parts, covering different aspects of Turing’s life and work. -/- Part I presents various biographical aspects of Turing, some from (...)
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  29.  14
    Jon Agar, Turing and the Universal Machine: The Making of the Modern Computer. Revolutions in Science. Duxford: Icon Books, 2001. Pp. IV+153. Isbn 1-84046-250-7. £5.99, $9.95. [REVIEW]Martin Campbell-Kelly - 2002 - British Journal for the History of Science 35 (4):475-485.
  30. Neural and Super-Turing Computing.Hava T. Siegelmann - 2003 - Minds and Machines 13 (1):103-114.
    ``Neural computing'' is a research field based on perceiving the human brain as an information system. This system reads its input continuously via the different senses, encodes data into various biophysical variables such as membrane potentials or neural firing rates, stores information using different kinds of memories (e.g., short-term memory, long-term memory, associative memory), performs some operations called ``computation'', and outputs onto various channels, including motor control commands, decisions, thoughts, and feelings. We show a natural model of neural computing that (...)
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  31.  43
    Computable Diagonalizations and Turing’s Cardinality Paradox.Dale Jacquette - 2014 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 45 (2):239-262.
    A. N. Turing’s 1936 concept of computability, computing machines, and computable binary digital sequences, is subject to Turing’s Cardinality Paradox. The paradox conjoins two opposed but comparably powerful lines of argument, supporting the propositions that the cardinality of dedicated Turing machines outputting all and only the computable binary digital sequences can only be denumerable, and yet must also be nondenumerable. Turing’s objections to a similar kind of diagonalization are answered, and the implications of the paradox for (...)
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    Von Neumann’s Theory of Self-Reproducing Automata: A Useful Framework for Biosemiotics?Dennis P. Waters - 2012 - Biosemiotics 5 (1):5-15.
    As interpreted by Pattee, von Neumann’s Theory of Self-Reproducing Automata has proved to be a useful tool for understanding some of the difficulties and paradoxes of molecular biosemiotics. But is its utility limited to molecular systems or is it more generally applicable within biosemiotics? One way of answering that question is to look at the Theory as a model for one particular high-level biosemiotic activity, human language. If the model is not useful for language, then it certainly cannot be generally (...)
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  33. The Essential Turing: Seminal Writings in Computing, Logic, Philosophy, Artificial Intelligence, and Artificial Life: Plus the Secrets of Enigma.Jack Copeland (ed.) - 2004 - Oxford University Press.
    Alan M. Turing, pioneer of computing and WWII codebreaker, is one of the most important and influential thinkers of the twentieth century. In this volume for the first time his key writings are made available to a broad, non-specialist readership. They make fascinating reading both in their own right and for their historic significance: contemporary computational theory, cognitive science, artificial intelligence, and artificial life all spring from this ground-breaking work, which is also rich in philosophical and logical insight. An (...)
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  34. On Potential Cognitive Abilities in the Machine Kingdom.José Hernández-Orallo & David L. Dowe - 2013 - Minds and Machines 23 (2):179-210.
    Animals, including humans, are usually judged on what they could become, rather than what they are. Many physical and cognitive abilities in the ‘animal kingdom’ are only acquired (to a given degree) when the subject reaches a certain stage of development, which can be accelerated or spoilt depending on how the environment, training or education is. The term ‘potential ability’ usually refers to how quick and likely the process of attaining the ability is. In principle, things should not be different (...)
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  35. Alan Turing's Systems of Logic: The Princeton Thesis.Andrew W. Appel (ed.) - 2012 - Princeton University Press.
    Between inventing the concept of a universal computer in 1936 and breaking the German Enigma code during World War II, Alan Turing, the British founder of computer science and artificial intelligence, came to Princeton University to study mathematical logic. Some of the greatest logicians in the world--including Alonzo Church, Kurt Gödel, John von Neumann, and Stephen Kleene--were at Princeton in the 1930s, and they were working on ideas that would lay the groundwork for what would become known as (...)
     
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  36.  26
    Towards a Historical Notion of ‘Turing—the Father of Computer Science’.Edgar G. Daylight - 2015 - History and Philosophy of Logic 36 (3):205-228.
    In the popular imagination, the relevance of Turing's theoretical ideas to people producing actual machines was significant and appreciated by everybody involved in computing from the moment he published his 1936 paper ‘On Computable Numbers’. Careful historians are aware that this popular conception is deeply misleading. We know from previous work by Campbell-Kelly, Aspray, Akera, Olley, Priestley, Daylight, Mounier-Kuhn, Haigh, and others that several computing pioneers, including Aiken, Eckert, Mauchly, and Zuse, did not depend on Turing's 1936 (...)-machine concept. Furthermore, it is not clear whether any substance in von Neumann's celebrated 1945 ‘First Draft Report on the EDVAC’ is influenced in any identifiable way by Turing's work. This raises the questions: When does Turing enter the field? Why did the Association for Computing Machinery honor Turing by associating his name to ACM's most prestigious award, the Turing Award? Previous authors have.. (shrink)
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  37. The Human Turing Machine: A Neural Framework for Mental Programs.Ariel Zylberberg, Stanislas Dehaene, Pieter R. Roelfsema & Mariano Sigman - 2011 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 15 (7):293-300.
  38.  40
    Eventually Infinite Time Turing Machine Degrees: Infinite Time Decidable Reals.P. D. Welch - 2000 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 65 (3):1193-1203.
    We characterise explicitly the decidable predicates on integers of Infinite Time Turing machines, in terms of admissibility theory and the constructible hierarchy. We do this by pinning down ζ, the least ordinal not the length of any eventual output of an Infinite Time Turing machine (halting or otherwise); using this the Infinite Time Turing Degrees are considered, and it is shown how the jump operator coincides with the production of mastercodes for the constructible hierarchy; further that (...)
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  39.  76
    Practical Intractability: A Critique of the Hypercomputation Movement. [REVIEW]Aran Nayebi - 2014 - Minds and Machines 24 (3):275-305.
    For over a decade, the hypercomputation movement has produced computational models that in theory solve the algorithmically unsolvable, but they are not physically realizable according to currently accepted physical theories. While opponents to the hypercomputation movement provide arguments against the physical realizability of specific models in order to demonstrate this, these arguments lack the generality to be a satisfactory justification against the construction of any information-processing machine that computes beyond the universal Turing machine. To this end, (...)
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  40. Can a Turing Machine Know That the Gödel Sentence is True?Storrs McCall - 1999 - Journal of Philosophy 96 (10):525-532.
  41.  23
    Universal Turing Machines: An Exercise in Coding.Hao Wang - 1957 - Zeitschrift fur mathematische Logik und Grundlagen der Mathematik 3 (6-10):69-80.
  42. Computational Modeling Vs. Computational Explanation: Is Everything a Turing Machine, and Does It Matter to the Philosophy of Mind?Gualtiero Piccinini - 2007 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 85 (1):93 – 115.
    According to pancomputationalism, everything is a computing system. In this paper, I distinguish between different varieties of pancomputationalism. I find that although some varieties are more plausible than others, only the strongest variety is relevant to the philosophy of mind, but only the most trivial varieties are true. As a side effect of this exercise, I offer a clarified distinction between computational modelling and computational explanation.<br><br>.
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  43.  46
    Physical Oracles: The Turing Machine and the Wheatstone Bridge.Edwin J. Beggs, José Félix Costa & John V. Tucker - 2010 - Studia Logica 95 (1-2):279-300.
    Earlier, we have studied computations possible by physical systems and by algorithms combined with physical systems. In particular, we have analysed the idea of using an experiment as an oracle to an abstract computational device, such as the Turing machine. The theory of composite machines of this kind can be used to understand (a) a Turing machine receiving extra computational power from a physical process, or (b) an experimenter modelled as a Turing machine performing (...)
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  44.  4
    Eventually Infinite Time Turing Machine Degrees: Infinite Time Decidable Reals.P. D. Welch - 2000 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 65 (3):1193-1203.
    We characterise explicitly the decidable predicates on integers of Infinite Time Turing machines, in terms of admissibility theory and the constructible hierarchy. We do this by pinning down $\zeta$, the least ordinal not the length of any eventual output of an Infinite Time Turing machine ; using this the Infinite Time Turing Degrees are considered, and it is shown how the jump operator coincides with the production of mastercodes for the constructible hierarchy; further that the natural (...)
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  45. Philosophy and Science, the Darwinian-Evolved Computational Brain, a Non-Recursive Super-Turing Machine & Our Inner-World-Producing Organ.Hermann G. W. Burchard - 2016 - Open Journal of Philosophy 6 (1):13-28.
    Recent advances in neuroscience lead to a wider realm for philosophy to include the science of the Darwinian-evolved computational brain, our inner world producing organ, a non-recursive super- Turing machine combining 100B synapsing-neuron DNA-computers based on the genetic code. The whole system is a logos machine offering a world map for global context, essential for our intentional grasp of opportunities. We start from the observable contrast between the chaotic universe vs. our orderly inner world, the noumenal cosmos. (...)
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  46.  5
    The Present Theory of Turing Machine Computability.C. E. M. Yates & Hartley Rogers - 1966 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 31 (3):513.
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  47.  97
    Quantum Speed-Up of Computations.Itamar Pitowsky - 2002 - Proceedings of the Philosophy of Science Association 2002 (3):S168-S177.
    1. The Physical Church-Turing Thesis. Physicists often interpret the Church-Turing Thesis as saying something about the scope and limitations of physical computing machines. Although this was not the intention of Church or Turing, the Physical Church Turing thesis is interesting in its own right. Consider, for example, Wolfram’s formulation: One can expect in fact that universal computers are as powerful in their computational capabilities as any physically realizable system can be, that they can simulate any (...)
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  48.  13
    Turing-Machine Computable Functionals of Finite Types I.S. C. Kleene, Ernest Nagel, Patrick Suppes & Alfred Tarski - 1970 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 35 (4):588-589.
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  49.  11
    Turing Machine Arguments.R. J. Nelson - 1980 - Philosophy of Science 47 (4):630-633.
  50.  16
    Computer Studies of Turing Machine Problems.Shen Lin, Tibor Rado, Allen H. Brady & Milton W. Green - 1975 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 40 (4):617-617.
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