Results for 'universal Turing machine'

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  1.  41
    A Universal Turing Machine with Two Internal States.Claude E. Shannon - 1971 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 36 (3):532-532.
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  2.  23
    Universal Turing Machines: An Exercise in Coding.Hao Wang - 1957 - Zeitschrift fur mathematische Logik und Grundlagen der Mathematik 3 (6-10):69-80.
  3. Beyond the Universal Turing Machine.Jack Copeland - 1999 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 77 (1):46-67.
    We describe an emerging field, that of nonclassical computability and nonclassical computing machinery. According to the nonclassicist, the set of well-defined computations is not exhausted by the computations that can be carried out by a Turing machine. We provide an overview of the field and a philosophical defence of its foundations.
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  4.  72
    Beyond the Universal Turing Machine.B. Jack Copeland & Richard Sylvan - 1999 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 77 (1):46-66.
  5.  11
    Universal Turing Machines: An Exercise in Coding.Hao Wang - 1957 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 3 (6‐10):69-80.
  6.  8
    A Note on Universal Turing Machines.M. D. Davis & Martin Davis - 1970 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 35 (4):590-590.
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  7.  14
    Rolf Herken . The Universal Turing Machine: A Half-Century Survey. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988. Pp. Xiv + 661. ISBN 0-19-853741-7. £55.00. [REVIEW]Steve Russ - 1989 - British Journal for the History of Science 22 (4):451-452.
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  8.  13
    Yurii Rogozhin. Small Universal Turing Machines. Theoretical Computer Science, Vol. 168 , Pp. 215–240.Maurice Margenstern - 2003 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 9 (3):414-414.
  9.  21
    Shannon Claude E.. A Universal Turing Machine with Two Internal States. Automata Studies, Edited by Shannon C. E. And McCarthy J., Annals of Mathematics Studies No. 34, Lithoprinted, Princeton University Press, Princeton 1956, Pp. 157–165. [REVIEW]Patrick C. Fischer - 1971 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 36 (3):532.
  10.  10
    Bečvář Jiří. A Universal Turing Machine with a Programming Tape. Colloquium on the Foundations of Mathematics, Mathematical Machines and Their Applications, Tihany, 11–15 September 1962, Edited by Kalmár László, Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest 1965, Pp. 11–20. [REVIEW]R. M. Baer - 1971 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 36 (3):535-535.
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  11.  6
    Review: Jiri Becvar, A Universal Turing Machine with a Programming Tape. [REVIEW]R. M. Baer - 1971 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 36 (3):535-535.
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  12.  1
    A Simplified Universal Turing Machine.E. F. Moore - 1954 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 19 (1):57-58.
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  13.  61
    The Turing Machine May Not Be the Universal Machine.Matjaz Gams - 2002 - Minds and Machines 12 (1):137-142.
    Can mind be modeled as a Turing machine? If you find such questions irrelevant, e.g. because the subject is already exhausted, then you need not read the book Mind versus Computer (Gams et al., 1991). If, on the other hand, you do find such questions relevant, then perhaps you need not read Dunlop's review of the book (Dunlop, 2000). (...).
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  14.  15
    Boris Trakhtenbrot. Comparing the Church and Turing Approaches: Two Prophetical Messages. The Universal Turing Machine, A Half-Century Survey, Edited by Rolf Herken, Kammerer & Unversagt, Hamburg and Berlin, and Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York, 1988, Pp. 603–630. [REVIEW]Giuseppe Longo - 1994 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 59 (4):1434-1436.
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  15.  52
    M. L. Minsky. Size and Structure of Universal Turing Machines Using Tag Systems. Recursive Function Theory, Proceedings of Symposia in Pure Mathematics, Vol. 5, American Mathematical Society, Providence 1962, Pp. 229–238. [REVIEW]Martin Davis - 1966 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 31 (4):655-655.
  16.  18
    Davis M. D.. A Note on Universal Turing Machines. Automata Studies, Edited by Shannon C. E. And McCarthy J., Annals of Mathematics Studies No. 34, Lithoprinted, Princeton University Press, Princeton 1956, Pp. 167–175.Davis Martin. The Definition of Universal Turing Machine. Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society, Vol. 8 , Pp. 1125–1126. [REVIEW]R. J. Nelson - 1970 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 35 (4):590.
  17.  26
    Shafi Goldwasser, Silvio Micali, and Charles Rackoff. The Knowledge Complexity of Interactive Proof Systems. SIAM Journal on Computing, Vol. 18 , Pp. 186–208. - Oded Goldreich, Silvio Micali, and Avi Wigderson. Proofs That Release Minimum Knowledge. Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science 1986, Proceedings of the 12th Symposium, Bratislava, Czechoslovakia, August 25–29, 1986, Edited by J. Gruska, B. Rovan, and J. Wiedermann, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 233, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, Etc., 1986, Pp. 639–650. - Oded Goldreich. Randomness, Interactive Proofs, and Zero-Knowledge—a Survey. The Universal Turing Machine, A Half-Century Survey, Edited by Rolf Herken, Kammerer & Unverzagt, Hamburg and Berlin, and Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York, 1988, Pp. 377–405. [REVIEW]Lance Fortnow - 1991 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 56 (3):1092-1094.
  18.  13
    Uwe Schöning. Complexity Theory and Interaction. The Universal Turing Machine, A Half-Century Survey, Edited by Rolf Herken, Kammerer & Unverzagt, Hamburg and Berlin, and Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York, 1988. Pp. 561–580. [REVIEW]Steven Lindell - 1991 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 56 (3):1091-1092.
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  19.  11
    Allen H. Brady. The Busy Beaver Game and the Meaning of Life. The Universal Turing Machine, A Half-Century Survey, Edited by Rolf Herken, Kammerer & Unverzagt, Hamburg and Berlin, and Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York, 1988. Pp. 259–277. [REVIEW]Arnold Oberschelp - 1991 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 56 (3):1091-1091.
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  20.  75
    What Turing Did After He Invented the Universal Turing Machine.Diane Proudfoot & Jack Copeland - 2000 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 9:491-509.
    Alan Turing anticipated many areas of current research incomputer and cognitive science. This article outlines his contributionsto Artificial Intelligence, connectionism, hypercomputation, andArtificial Life, and also describes Turing's pioneering role in thedevelopment of electronic stored-program digital computers. It locatesthe origins of Artificial Intelligence in postwar Britain. It examinesthe intellectual connections between the work of Turing and ofWittgenstein in respect of their views on cognition, on machineintelligence, and on the relation between provability and truth. Wecriticise widespread and influential misunderstandings (...)
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  21.  5
    Michael J. Beeson. Computerizing Mathematics: Logic and Computation. The Universal Turing Machine, A Half-Century Survey, Edited by Rolf Herken, Kammerer & Unverzagt, Hamburg and Berlin, and Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York, 1988. Pp. 191–225. [REVIEW]J. C. Shepherdson - 1991 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 56 (3):1090-1091.
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  22.  10
    Review: M. L. Minsky, Size and Structure of Universal Turing Machines Using Tag Systems. [REVIEW]Martin Davis - 1966 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 31 (4):655-655.
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  23.  11
    Review: M. D. Davis, A Note on Universal Turing Machines; Martin Davis, The Definition of Universal Turing Machine[REVIEW]R. J. Nelson - 1970 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 35 (4):590-590.
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  24.  7
    Review: E. F. Moore, A Simplified Universal Turing Machine[REVIEW]Raymond J. Nelson - 1954 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 19 (1):57-58.
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  25.  17
    Andrew Hodges. Alan Turing and the Turing Machine. The Universal Turing Machine, A Half-Century Survey, Edited by Rolf Herken, Kammerer & Unverzagt, Hamburg and Berlin, and Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York, 1988. Pp. 3–15. - Stephen C. Kleene. Turing's Analysis of Computahility, and Major Applications of It. The Universal Turing Machine, A Half-Century Survey, Edited by Rolf Herken, Kammerer & Unverzagt, Hamburg and Berlin, and Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York, 1988. Pp. 17–54. - Robin Gandy. The Confluence of Ideas in 1936. The Universal Turing Machine, A Half-Century Survey, Edited by Rolf Herken, Kammerer & Unverzagt, Hamburg and Berlin, and Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York, 1988. Pp. 55–111. - Solomon Feferman. Turing in the Land of O. The Universal Turing Machine, A Half-Century Survey, Edited by Rolf Herken, Kammerer & Unverzagt, Hamburg and Berlin, and Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York, 1988. Pp. 113–147. - Martin Davis. Mathematica. [REVIEW]John N. Crossley - 1991 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 56 (3):1089-1090.
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  26. Super Turing-Machines.Jack Copeland - 1998 - Complexity 4 (1):30-32.
    The tape is divided into squares, each square bearing a single symbol—'0' or '1', for example. This tape is the machine's general-purpose storage medium: the machine is set in motion with its input inscribed on the tape, output is written onto the tape by the head, and the tape serves as a short-term working memory for the results of intermediate steps of the computation. The program governing the particular computation that the machine is to perform is also (...)
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  27.  3
    Review: Claude E. Shannon, A Universal Turing Machine with Two Internal States. [REVIEW]Patrick C. Fischer - 1971 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 36 (3):532-532.
  28. The Turing Machine on the Dissecting Table.Jana Horáková - 2013 - Teorie Vědy / Theory of Science 35 (2):269-288.
    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century there has been an increasing awareness that software rep- resents a blind spot in new media theory. The growing interest in software also influences the argument in this paper, which sets out from the assumption that Alan M. Turing's concept of the universal machine, the first theoretical description of a computer program, is a kind of bachelor machine. Previous writings based on a similar hypothesis have focused either on a (...)
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  29. A Universal Inductive Turing Machine.D. Osherson & S. Weinstein - 1989 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 56:661-672.
     
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  30.  21
    Kleene S. C.. Turing-Machine Computable Functionals of Finite Types I. Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science, Proceedings of the 1960 International Congress, Edited by Nagel Ernest, Suppes Patrick, and Tarski Alfred, Stanford University Press, Stanford, California, 1962, Pp. 38–45.Kleene S. C.. Turing-Machine Computable Functionals of Finite Types II. Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society, Ser. 3 Vol. 12 , Pp. 245–258. [REVIEW]D. A. Clarke - 1970 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 35 (4):588-589.
  31.  41
    Cartesian Dualism, and Universe as Turing Machine.Daniel King - 2003 - Philosophy Today 47 (2):138-146.
    In the field of computability and algorithmicity, there have recently been two essays that are of great interest: Peter Slezak's "Descartes's Diagonal Deduction," and David Deutsch's "Quantum Theory, the Church-Turing Principle and the Universal Quantum Computer." In brief, the former shows that Descartes' Cogito argument is structurally similar to Godel's proof that there are statements true but cannot be proven within a formal system such as Principia Mathematica, while Deutsch provides strong arguments for believing that the universe can (...)
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  32. The Myth of the Turing Machine: The Failings of Functionalism and Related Theses.Chris Eliasmith - 2002 - Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence 14 (1):1-8.
    The properties of Turing’s famous ‘universal machine’ has long sustained functionalist intuitions about the nature of cognition. Here, I show that there is a logical problem with standard functionalist arguments for multiple realizability. These arguments rely essentially on Turing’s powerful insights regarding computation. In addressing a possible reply to this criticism, I further argue that functionalism is not a useful approach for understanding what it is to have a mind. In particular, I show that the difficulties (...)
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  33. Philosophy and Science, the Darwinian-Evolved Computational Brain, a Non-Recursive Super-Turing Machine & Our Inner-World-Producing Organ.Hermann G. W. Burchard - 2016 - Open Journal of Philosophy 6 (1):13-28.
    Recent advances in neuroscience lead to a wider realm for philosophy to include the science of the Darwinian-evolved computational brain, our inner world producing organ, a non-recursive super- Turing machine combining 100B synapsing-neuron DNA-computers based on the genetic code. The whole system is a logos machine offering a world map for global context, essential for our intentional grasp of opportunities. We start from the observable contrast between the chaotic universe vs. our orderly inner world, the noumenal cosmos. (...)
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  34.  27
    Lin Shen and Rado Tibor. Computer Studies of Turing Machine Problems. Journal of the Association for Computing Machinery, Vol. 12 , Pp. 196–212.Brady Allen H.. The Conjectured Highest Scoring Machines for Rado's Σ for the Value K = 4. IEEE Transactions on Electronic Computers, Vol. EC-15 , Pp. 802–803.Green Milton W.. A Lower Bound on Rado's Sigma Function for Binary Turing Machines. Switching Circuit Theory and Logical Design, Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Symposium, Princeton University, Princeton, N.J., November 11-13, 1964, The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., New York 1964, Pp. 91–94. [REVIEW]H. B. Enderton - 1975 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 40 (4):617-617.
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  35. Universal Intelligence: A Definition of Machine Intelligence.Shane Legg & Marcus Hutter - 2007 - Minds and Machines 17 (4):391-444.
    A fundamental problem in artificial intelligence is that nobody really knows what intelligence is. The problem is especially acute when we need to consider artificial systems which are significantly different to humans. In this paper we approach this problem in the following way: we take a number of well known informal definitions of human intelligence that have been given by experts, and extract their essential features. These are then mathematically formalised to produce a general measure of intelligence for arbitrary machines. (...)
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  36.  52
    Turing and the Serendipitous Discovery of the Modern Computer.Aurea Anguera de Sojo, Juan Ares, Juan A. Lara, David Lizcano, María A. Martínez & Juan Pazos - 2013 - Foundations of Science 18 (3):545-557.
    In the centenary year of Turing’s birth, a lot of good things are sure to be written about him. But it is hard to find something new to write about Turing. This is the biggest merit of this article: it shows how von Neumann’s architecture of the modern computer is a serendipitous consequence of the universal Turing machine, built to solve a logical problem.
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  37.  14
    Jon Agar, Turing and the Universal Machine: The Making of the Modern Computer. Revolutions in Science. Duxford: Icon Books, 2001. Pp. IV+153. Isbn 1-84046-250-7. £5.99, $9.95. [REVIEW]Martin Campbell-Kelly - 2002 - British Journal for the History of Science 35 (4):475-485.
  38.  36
    There Can Be No Turing-Test-Passing Memorizing Machines.Stuart M. Shieber - 2014 - Philosophers' Imprint 14.
    Anti-behaviorist arguments against the validity of the Turing Test as a sufficient condition for attributing intelligence are based on a memorizing machine, which has recorded within it responses to every possible Turing Test interaction of up to a fixed length. The mere possibility of such a machine is claimed to be enough to invalidate the Turing Test. I consider the nomological possibility of memorizing machines, and how long a Turing Test they can pass. I (...)
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  39. Neural and Super-Turing Computing.Hava T. Siegelmann - 2003 - Minds and Machines 13 (1):103-114.
    ``Neural computing'' is a research field based on perceiving the human brain as an information system. This system reads its input continuously via the different senses, encodes data into various biophysical variables such as membrane potentials or neural firing rates, stores information using different kinds of memories (e.g., short-term memory, long-term memory, associative memory), performs some operations called ``computation'', and outputs onto various channels, including motor control commands, decisions, thoughts, and feelings. We show a natural model of neural computing that (...)
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  40. A Universal Inductive Inference Machine.Daniel N. Osherson, Michael Stob & Scott Weinstein - 1991 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 56 (2):661-672.
    A paradigm of scientific discovery is defined within a first-order logical framework. It is shown that within this paradigm there exists a formal scientist that is Turing computable and universal in the sense that it solves every problem that any scientist can solve. It is also shown that universal scientists exist for no regular logics that extend first-order logic and satisfy the Löwenheim-Skolem condition.
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  41.  83
    Reward-Punishment Symmetric Universal Intelligence.Samuel Allen Alexander & Marcus Hutter - forthcoming - In AGI-21.
    Can an agent's intelligence level be negative? We extend the Legg-Hutter agent-environment framework to include punishments and argue for an affirmative answer to that question. We show that if the background encodings and Universal Turing Machine (UTM) admit certain Kolmogorov complexity symmetries, then the resulting Legg-Hutter intelligence measure is symmetric about the origin. In particular, this implies reward-ignoring agents have Legg-Hutter intelligence 0 according to such UTMs.
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  42.  77
    Turing's Golden: How Well Turing's Work Stands Today.Justin Leiber - 2006 - Philosophical Psychology 19 (1):13-46.
    A. M. Turing has bequeathed us a conceptulary including 'Turing, or Turing-Church, thesis', 'Turing machine', 'universal Turing machine', 'Turing test' and 'Turing structures', plus other unnamed achievements. These include a proof that any formal language adequate to express arithmetic contains undecidable formulas, as well as achievements in computer science, artificial intelligence, mathematics, biology, and cognitive science. Here it is argued that these achievements hang together and have prospered well in the (...)
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  43.  65
    Reviews of Stephen Read, Philosophie der Logik. Eine Einführung, Übersetzt von Martin Suhr. Reinbek Bei Hamburg:Rowohlt Taschenbuch Verlag GmbH, 1997. 312 Pp, 26.90 DM Peter Millican and Andy Clark , Machines and Thought—the Legacy of Alan Turing, I, Introduction by P. Millican. Oxford:Clarendon Press, 1996. 297 Pp. £30.00. ISBN 0-19-823593-3 Roberto Pou and Peter M. Simons Formal Ontology. Dordrecht:Kluwer, 1996. Viii + 293 Pp. DF1 220, $135, £99. ISBN 0792 34104x Jaakko Hintikka, The Principles of Mathematics Revisited. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press, 1996. Xii + 288. No Price Stated. ISBN 0 521 49692 6 Luis Vega Renón, Una Guia de Historia de la Logica. Madrid:Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, 1996. 271 Pp. No Price Stated. ISBN 84 362 3372 7 Barry Smith, Austrian Philosophy. The Legacy of Franz Brentano. Chicago and La Salle, 111.:Open Court, 1994 . Xii + 381 Pp. No Price Stated. ISBN 0 81260 9256 X Hans Hahn, Gesammelte Abhandlungen, 3. Edited by L. Schmetterer. [REVIEW]Helge Rückert, N. Finnemann, Wolfe Mays & I. Grattan-Guinness - 1997 - History and Philosophy of Logic 18 (4):233-243.
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  44. The Turing Guide.Jack Copeland, Jonathan Bowen, Robin Wilson & Mark Sprevak (eds.) - 2017 - Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    This volume celebrates the various facets of Alan Turing (1912–1954), the British mathematician and computing pioneer, widely considered as the father of computer science. It is aimed at the general reader, with additional notes and references for those who wish to explore the life and work of Turing more deeply. -/- The book is divided into eight parts, covering different aspects of Turing’s life and work. -/- Part I presents various biographical aspects of Turing, some from (...)
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  45.  44
    Computable Diagonalizations and Turing’s Cardinality Paradox.Dale Jacquette - 2014 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 45 (2):239-262.
    A. N. Turing’s 1936 concept of computability, computing machines, and computable binary digital sequences, is subject to Turing’s Cardinality Paradox. The paradox conjoins two opposed but comparably powerful lines of argument, supporting the propositions that the cardinality of dedicated Turing machines outputting all and only the computable binary digital sequences can only be denumerable, and yet must also be nondenumerable. Turing’s objections to a similar kind of diagonalization are answered, and the implications of the paradox for (...)
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  46. The Essential Turing: Seminal Writings in Computing, Logic, Philosophy, Artificial Intelligence, and Artificial Life: Plus the Secrets of Enigma.Jack Copeland (ed.) - 2004 - Oxford University Press.
    Alan M. Turing, pioneer of computing and WWII codebreaker, is one of the most important and influential thinkers of the twentieth century. In this volume for the first time his key writings are made available to a broad, non-specialist readership. They make fascinating reading both in their own right and for their historic significance: contemporary computational theory, cognitive science, artificial intelligence, and artificial life all spring from this ground-breaking work, which is also rich in philosophical and logical insight. An (...)
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  47.  5
    Letter to Turing.Giuseppe Longo - 2019 - Theory, Culture and Society 36 (6):73-94.
    This personal, yet scientific, letter to Alan Turing, reflects on Turing's personality in order to better understand his scientific quest. It then focuses on the impact of his work today. By joining human attitude and particular scientific method, Turing is able to “immerse himself” into the phenomena on which he works. This peculiar blend justifies the epistolary style. Turing makes himself a “human computer”, he lives the dramatic quest for an undetectable imitation of a man, a (...)
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  48. Testing Turing's Parallel-Paired Imitation Game.Huma Shah & Kevin Warwick - 2010 - Kybernetes 39 (3).
    The purpose of this paper is to consider Turing's two tests for machine intelligence: the parallel-paired, three-participants game presented in his 1950 paper, and the “jury-service” one-to-one measure described two years later in a radio broadcast. Both versions were instantiated in practical Turing tests during the 18th Loebner Prize for artificial intelligence hosted at the University of Reading, UK, in October 2008. This involved jury-service tests in the preliminary phase and parallel-paired in the final phase.
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  49. Revisiting Turing and His Test: Comprehensiveness, Qualia, and the Real World.Vincent C. Müller & Aladdin Ayesh (eds.) - 2012 - AISB.
    Proceedings of the papers presented at the Symposium on "Revisiting Turing and his Test: Comprehensiveness, Qualia, and the Real World" at the 2012 AISB and IACAP Symposium that was held in the Turing year 2012, 2–6 July at the University of Birmingham, UK. Ten papers. - http://www.pt-ai.org/turing-test --- Daniel Devatman Hromada: From Taxonomy of Turing Test-Consistent Scenarios Towards Attribution of Legal Status to Meta-modular Artificial Autonomous Agents - Michael Zillich: My Robot is Smarter than Your Robot: (...)
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  50. Logically Possible Machines.Eric Steinhart - 2002 - Minds and Machines 12 (2):259-280.
    I use modal logic and transfinite set-theory to define metaphysical foundations for a general theory of computation. A possible universe is a certain kind of situation; a situation is a set of facts. An algorithm is a certain kind of inductively defined property. A machine is a series of situations that instantiates an algorithm in a certain way. There are finite as well as transfinite algorithms and machines of any degree of complexity (e.g., Turing and super-Turing machines (...)
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