Results for 'values in science'

1000+ found
Order:
  1.  4
    Values in Science, Biodiversity Research, and the Problem of Particularity.Tobias Schönwitz - 2022 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 32 (1):69-101.
    How to deal with non-epistemic values in science presents a pressing problem for science and society as well as for philosophers of science. In recent years, accounts of democratizing science have been proposed as a possible solution to this. By providing a case study on the establishment of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy comment: Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services comment: (IPBES), I argue that such accounts run into a problem when values are embedded in (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  2. Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Values in Science: Rethinking the Dichotomy.Helen E. Longino - 1996 - In Lynn Hankinson Nelson & Jack Nelson (eds.), Feminism, Science, and the Philosophy of Science. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 39--58.
    Underdetermination arguments support the conclusion that no amount of empirical data can uniquely determine theory choice. The full content of a theory outreaches those elements of it (the observational elements) that can be shown to be true (or in agreement with actual observations).2 A number of strategies have been developed to minimize the threat such arguments pose to our aspirations to scientific knowledge. I want to focus on one such strategy: the invocation of additional criteria drawn from a pool of (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   100 citations  
  3. Values in Science Beyond Underdetermination and Inductive Risk.Matthew J. Brown - 2013 - Philosophy of Science 80 (5):829-839.
    Proponents of the value ladenness of science rely primarily on arguments from underdetermination or inductive risk, which share the premise that we should only consider values where the evidence runs out or leaves uncertainty; they adopt a criterion of lexical priority of evidence over values. The motivation behind lexical priority is to avoid reaching conclusions on the basis of wishful thinking rather than good evidence. This is a real concern, however, that giving lexical priority to evidential considerations (...)
    Direct download (9 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   72 citations  
  4. Values in Science.Ernan McMullin - 2012 - Zygon 47 (4):686-709.
    In this essay, which was his presidential address to the Philosophy of Science Association, Ernan McMullin argued that the watershed between “classic” philosophy of science and the “new” philosophy of science can best be understood by analyzing the change in our perception of the role played by values in science. He begins with some general remarks about the nature of value, goes on to explore some of the historical sources for the claim that judgement in (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   107 citations  
  5. Aesthetic Values in Science.Milena Ivanova - 2017 - Philosophy Compass 12 (10):e12433.
    Scientists often use aesthetic values in the evaluation and choice of theories. Aesthetic values are not only regarded as leading to practically more useful theories but are often taken to stand in a special epistemic relation to the truth of a theory such that the aesthetic merit of a theory is evidence of its truth. This paper explores what aesthetic considerations influence scientists' reasoning, how such aesthetic values relate to the utility of a scientific theory, and how (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   9 citations  
  6. Values in Science.Kevin C. Elliott - 2022 - Cambridge University Press.
    This Element introduces the philosophical literature on values in science by examining four questions: How do values influence science? Should we actively incorporate values in science? How can we manage values in science responsibly? What are some next steps for those who want to help promote responsible roles for values in science? It explores arguments for and against the “value-free ideal” for science and concludes that it should be rejected. (...)
    No categories
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  7. On Values in Science: Is the Epistemic/Non-Epistemic Distinction Useful?Phyllis Rooney - 1992 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1992:13-22.
    The debate about the rational and the social in science has sometimes been developed in the context of a distinction between epistemic and non-epistemic values. Paying particular attention to two important discussion in the last decade, by Longino and by McMullin, I argue that a fuller understanding of values in science ultimately requires abandoning the distinction itself. This is argued directly in terms of an analysis of the lack of clarity concerning what epistemic values are. (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   52 citations  
  8. Values in Science.Ernan McMullin - 1982 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1982 (4):3-28.
    This paper argues that the appraisal of theory is in important respects closer in structure to value-judgement than it is to the rule-governed inference that the classical tradition in philosophy of science took for granted.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   123 citations  
  9. Values in Science: The Case of Scientific Collaboration.Kristina Rolin - 2015 - Philosophy of Science 82 (2):157-177.
    Much of the literature on values in science is limited in its perspective because it focuses on the role of values in individual scientists’ decision making, thereby ignoring the context of scientific collaboration. I examine the epistemic structure of scientific collaboration and argue that it gives rise to two arguments showing that moral and social values can legitimately play a role in scientists’ decision to accept something as scientific knowledge. In the case of scientific collaboration some (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   16 citations  
  10. Values in Science.Heather E. Douglas - 2016 - In Paul Humphreys (ed.), Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Science. New York, NY, USA: pp. 609-630.
  11. The Role of Values in Science.John-Michael Kuczynski - 2018
    It is shown that moral values are constitutive of the scientific process and therefore, contrary to the traditional view, not incidental to it.
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  12. Thinking About Values in Science: Ethical Versus Political Approaches.S. Andrew Schroeder - forthcoming - Canadian Journal of Philosophy:1-10.
    Philosophers of science now broadly agree that doing good science involves making non-epistemic value judgments. I call attention to two very different normative standards which can be used to evaluate such judgments: standards grounded in ethics and standards grounded in political philosophy. Though this distinction has not previously been highlighted, I show that the values in science literature contain arguments of each type. I conclude by explaining why this distinction is important. Seeking to determine whether some (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  13.  22
    A Tapestry of Values: An Introduction to Values in Science.Kevin C. Elliott - 2017 - Oxford University Press USA.
    The role of values in scientific research has become an important topic of discussion in both scholarly and popular debates. Pundits across the political spectrum worry that research on topics like climate change, evolutionary theory, vaccine safety, and genetically modified foods has become overly politicized. At the same time, it is clear that values play an important role in science by limiting unethical forms of research and by deciding what areas of research have the greatest relevance for (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   61 citations  
  14. Inductive Risk and Values in Science.Heather Douglas - 2000 - Philosophy of Science 67 (4):559-579.
    Although epistemic values have become widely accepted as part of scientific reasoning, non-epistemic values have been largely relegated to the "external" parts of science (the selection of hypotheses, restrictions on methodologies, and the use of scientific technologies). I argue that because of inductive risk, or the risk of error, non-epistemic values are required in science wherever non-epistemic consequences of error should be considered. I use examples from dioxin studies to illustrate how non-epistemic consequences of error (...)
    Direct download (9 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   278 citations  
  15.  24
    Science and Moral Imagination: A New Ideal for Values in Science.Matthew Brown - 2020 - Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.
    The idea that science is or should be value-free, and that values are or should be formed independently of science, has been under fire by philosophers of science for decades. Science and Moral Imagination directly challenges the idea that science and values cannot and should not influence each other. Matthew J. Brown argues that science and values mutually influence and implicate one another, that the influence of values on science (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  16.  44
    Value-Free Science?: Purity and Power in Modern Knowledge.Robert Proctor - 1991 - Harvard University Press.
    These are some of the central questions that Robert Proctor addresses in his study of the politics of modern science.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   65 citations  
  17.  95
    Using Democratic Values in Science: An Objection and Response.Andrew Schroeder - 2017 - Philosophy of Science 84 (5):1044-1054.
    Many philosophers of science have argued that social and ethical values have a significant role to play in core parts of the scientific process. This naturally suggests the following question: when such value choices need to be made, which or whose values should be used? A common answer to this question turns to democratic values—the values of the public or its representatives. I argue that this imposes a morally significant burden on certain scientists, effectively requiring (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   10 citations  
  18. Values in Science: Assessing the Case for Mixed Claims.Uwe Peters - forthcoming - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy.
    Social and medical scientists frequently produce empirical generalizations that involve concepts partly defined by value judgments. These generalizations, which have been called ‘mixed claims’, raise interesting questions. Does the presence of them in science imply that science is value-laden? Is the value-ladenness of mixed claims special compared to other kinds of value-ladenness of science? Do we lose epistemically if we reformulate these claims as conditional statements? And if we want to allow mixed claims in science, do (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  19. Cognitive Attitudes and Values in Science.Kevin C. Elliott & David Willmes - unknown - Philosophy of Science (5):807-817.
    We argue that the analysis of cognitive attitudes should play a central role in developing more sophisticated accounts of the proper roles for values in science. First, we show that the major recent efforts to delineate appropriate roles for values in science would be strengthened by making clearer distinctions among cognitive attitudes. Next, we turn to a specific example and argue that a more careful account of the distinction between the attitudes of belief and acceptance can (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   22 citations  
  20.  9
    Current Controversies in Values and Science.Kevin C. Elliott & Daniel Steel (eds.) - 2016 - Routledge.
    _Current Controversies in Values and Science_ asks ten philosophers to debate five questions that are driving contemporary work in this important area of philosophy of science. The book is perfect for the advanced student, building up her knowledge of the foundations of the field while also engaging its most cutting-edge questions. Introductions and annotated bibliographies for each debate, preliminary descriptions of each chapter, study questions, and a supplemental guide to further controversies involving values in science help (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   8 citations  
  21. Feminism, Underdetermination, and Values in Science.Kristen Intemann - 2005 - Philosophy of Science 72 (5):1001-1012.
    Several feminist philosophers of science have tried to open up the possibility that feminist ethical or political commitments could play a positive role in good science by appealing to the Duhem-Quine thesis and underdetermination of theories by observation. I examine several different interpretations of the claim that feminist values could play a legitimate role in theory justification and show that none of them follow from a logical gap between theory and observation. Finally, I sketch an alternative approach (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   36 citations  
  22. Longino's Concept of Values in Science.Miroslav Vacura - 2021 - Teorie Vědy / Theory of Science 43 (1):3-31.
    While classical neo-positivists reject any role for traditionally understood values in science, Kuhn identifies five specific values as criteria for assessing a scientific theory; this approach has been further developed by several other authors. This paper focuses on Helen Longino, who presents a significant contemporary critique of Kuhn’s concept. The most controversial aspect of Longino’s position is arguably her claim that the criterion of empirical adequacy is the least defensible basis for assessing theories. The de-emphasizing of the (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  23.  13
    Exploring Inductive Risk: Case Studies of Values in Science.Kevin C. Elliott & Ted Richards (eds.) - 2017 - Oup Usa.
    This book brings together eleven case studies of inductive risk-the chance that scientific inference is incorrect-that range over a wide variety of scientific contexts and fields. The chapters are designed to illustrate the pervasiveness of inductive risk, assist scientists and policymakers in responding to it, and productively move theoretical discussions of the topic forward.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   23 citations  
  24.  26
    Historical Epistemology: On the Diversity and Change of Epistemic Values in Science.Martin Carrier - 2012 - Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte 35 (3):239-251.
    Historische Epistemologie: Vielfalt und Wandel epistemischer Werte in der Wissenschaft. Die historische Epistemologie beinhaltet die Auffassung, dass das System des Wissens nicht durch die Beobachtungen festgelegt ist, sondern auch von epistemischen Anforderungen geprägt ist, die sich im historischen Forschungsprozess wandeln können. In der Folge ist das System des Wissens pfadabhängig in dem Sinn, dass seine Gestalt von epistemischen Entscheidungen beeinflusst ist, die zu bestimmten historischen Zeitpunkten getroffen wurden. Die vorliegende Arbeit zielt darauf ab, diesen Denkansatz auszuarbeiten, indem die doppelte Rolle (...)
    Direct download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  25. Why Things Matter: The Place of Values in Science, Psychoanalysis and Religion.David M. Black - 2011 - Routledge.
    In this book, David M. Black asks questions such as 'why do we care?' and 'what gives our values power?' using ideas from psychoanalysis and its adjacent sciences such as neuroscience and evolutionary biology in order to do so. _Why Things Matter_ explores how the comparatively new scientific discipline of consciousness studies requires us to recognize that subjectivity is as irreducible a feature of the world as matter and energy. Necessarily inter-disciplinary, this book draws on science, philosophy and (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  26. VALUES IN SCIENCE: An Introduction.Douglas Allchin - unknown
    Values intersect with science in three primary ways. First, there are values, particularly epistemic values, which guide scientific research itself. Second, the scientific enterprise is always embedded in some particular culture and values enter science through its individual practitioners, whether consciously or not. Finally, values emerge from science, both as a product and process, and may be redistributed more broadly in the culture or society. Also, scientific discoveries may pose new social challenges (...)
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  27. Values in Science.Gerald Doppelt - 2008 - In Martin Curd & Stathis Psillos (eds.), The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Science. Routledge.
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  28.  58
    Objectifying Values in Science: A Case Study.Mark Bedau - manuscript
    There are at least two different ways in which values and science can be connected. One is through the evaluation of science, and the other is through the scientific investigation of values. The evaluation of science is a non−scientific, political or ethical investigation of the practices of science. Various proposed and actual scientific practices call out for social and ethical evaluation. A few that have received recent attention are the human genome project, intelligence testing, (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  29. Value-Free Science: Ideals and Illusions?Harold Kincaid, John Dupre & Alison Wylie (eds.) - 2007 - Oxford University Press.
    It has long been thought that science is our best hope for realizing objective knowledge, but that, to deliver on this promise, it must be value free. Things are not so simple, however, as recent work in science studies makes clear. The contributors to this volume investigate where and how values are involved in science, and examine the implications of this involvement for ideals of objectivity.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   77 citations  
  30.  11
    Connecting Inquiry and Values in Science Education.Eun Ah Lee & Matthew J. Brown - 2018 - Science & Education 27 (1-2):63-79.
    Conducting scientific inquiry is expected to help students make informed decisions; however, how exactly it can help is rarely explained in science education standards. According to classroom studies, inquiry that students conduct in science classes seems to have little effect on their decision-making. Predetermined values play a large role in students’ decision-making, but students do not explore these values or evaluate whether they are appropriate to the particular issue they are deciding, and they often ignore relevant (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  31.  71
    Wishful Thinking and Values in Science.Daniel Steel - 2018 - Philosophy of Science 85 (5):895-905.
    This article examines the concept of wishful thinking in philosophical literature on science and values. It suggests that this term tends to be used in an overly broad manner that fails to distinguish between separate types of bias, mechanisms that generate biases, and general theories that might explain those mechanisms. I explain how confirmation bias is distinct from wishful thinking and why it is more useful for examining the relationship between cognitive bias and beliefs about the existence of (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  32. The Error Is in the Gap: Synthesizing Accounts for Societal Values in Science.Christopher ChoGlueck - 2018 - Philosophy of Science 85 (4):704-725.
    Kevin Elliott and others separate two common arguments for the legitimacy of societal values in scientific reasoning as the gap and the error arguments. This article poses two questions: How are these two arguments related, and what can we learn from their interrelation? I contend that we can better understand the error argument as nested within the gap because the error is a limited case of the gap with narrower features. Furthermore, this nestedness provides philosophers with conceptual tools for (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   8 citations  
  33.  21
    Intrinsic Values in Science.Roberto de Andrade Martins - 2001 - Revista Patagónica de Filosofía 2 (2):5-25.
    In the early 20th century, science was supposed to be “value free”. In 1953 Richard Rudner claimed that “the scientist qua scientist makes value judgments”, and later philosophers discussed the relations between science and values. From the 60’s onward Michael Scriven and other authors came to the conclusion that non-moral values (intrinsic or epistemic values) are required to evaluate scientific works. This paper supports this general view. However, it stresses that there are several independent scientific (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  34. Introduction: Cognitive Attitudes and Values in Science.Daniel J. McKaughan & Kevin C. Elliott - 2015 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 53:57-61.
  35.  28
    Risk and Values in Science: A Peircean View.Daniele Chiffi & Ahti-Veikko Pietarinen - 2019 - Axiomathes 29 (4):329-346.
    Scientific evidence and scientific values under risk and uncertainty are strictly connected from the point of view of Peirce’s pragmaticism. In addition, economy and statistics play a key role in both choosing and testing hypotheses. Hence we may show also the connection between the methodology of the economy of research and statistical frequentism, both originating from pragmaticism. The connection is drawn by the regulative principles of synechism, tychism and uberty. These principles are values that have both epistemic and (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  36. Epistemic and Nonepistemic Values in Science.Mauro Dorato - 2004 - In Peter K. Machamer & Gereon Wolters (eds.), Science, Values, and Objectivity. University of Pittsburgh Press. pp. 52--77.
  37. Epistemic Values in Science.Valeriano Iranzo - 1995 - Sorites 1:81-95.
    The paper is a critical examination of some aspects of Laudan's views in his book Science and Values. Not only do the aims of science change; there are axiological disputes in science as well. Scientific disagreements are not solely theoretical or methodological. Progress in science consists not only in developing new theories more suitable for implementing certain epistemic values than earlier ones but also in reaching a deeper understanding of those values. The paper (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  38.  22
    Values in Science.Mariano Artigas - 2008 - In Evandro Agazzi & Fabio Minazzi (eds.), Science and Ethics: The Axiological Contexts of Science. P.I.E. Peter Lang. pp. 14--115.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  39. State of the Field: Transient Underdetermination and Values in Science.Justin Biddle - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 44 (1):124-133.
    This paper examines the state of the field of “science and values”—particularly regarding the implications of the thesis of transient underdetermination for the ideal of value-free science, or what I call the “ideal of epistemic purity.” I do this by discussing some of the main arguments in the literature, both for and against the ideal. I examine a preliminary argument from transient underdetermination against the ideal of epistemic purity, and I discuss two different formulations of an objection (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   51 citations  
  40. From Tapestry to Loom: Broadening the Perspective on Values in Science.Heather Douglas - 2018 - Philosophy, Theory, and Practice in Biology 10 (8).
    After raising some minor philosophical points about Kevin Elliott’s A Tapestry of Values (2017), I argue that we should expand on the themes raised in the book and that philosophers of science need to pay as much attention to the loom of science (i.e., the institutional structures which guide the pursuit of science) as the tapestry of science. The loom of science includes such institutional aspects as patents, funding sources, and evaluation regimes that shape (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   8 citations  
  41.  58
    A Feminist Approach to Values in Science.Kristina Rolin - 2012 - Perspectives on Science 20 (3):320-330.
  42.  11
    Are Values in Science Like a Tapestry or a Patchwork Quilt?Erin Nash - 2017 - Science & Education 26 (7-9):1063-1069.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  43. Direct and Indirect Roles for Values in Science.Kevin C. Elliott - 2011 - Philosophy of Science 78 (2):303-324.
    Although many philosophers have employed the distinction between “direct” and “indirect” roles for values in science, I argue that it merits further clarification. The distinction can be formulated in several ways: as a logical point, as a distinction between epistemic attitudes, or as a clarification of different consequences associated with accepting scientific claims. Moreover, it can serve either as part of a normative ideal or as a tool for policing how values influence science. While various formulations (...)
    Direct download (10 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   36 citations  
  44.  16
    Values in Science: Unity as a Criterion of Scientific Choice. [REVIEW]Alvin M. Weinberg - 1984 - Minerva 22 (1):1-12.
  45. Towards a Systemic Research Methodology in Agriculture: Rethinking the Role of Values in Science.Hugo Fjelsted Alrøe & Erik Steen Kristensen - 2002 - Agriculture and Human Values 19 (1):3-23.
    The recent drastic development of agriculture, together with the growing societal interest in agricultural practices and their consequences, pose a challenge to agricultural science. There is a need for rethinking the general methodology of agricultural research. This paper takes some steps towards developing a systemic research methodology that can meet this challenge – a general self-reflexive methodology that forms a basis for doing holistic or (with a better term) wholeness-oriented research and provides appropriate criteria of scientific quality.From a philosophy (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   20 citations  
  46.  85
    Values in Pure and Applied Science.Sven Ove Hansson - 2007 - Foundations of Science 12 (3):257-268.
    In pure science, the standard approach to non-epistemic values is to exclude them as far as possible from scientific deliberations. When science is applied to practical decisions, non-epistemic values cannot be excluded. Instead, they have to be combined with scientific information in a way that leads to practically optimal decisions. A normative model is proposed for the processing of information in both pure and applied science. A general-purpose corpus of scientific knowledge, with high entry requirements, (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   11 citations  
  47.  66
    Dealing with Values in Science: Kinds, Roles and/or Procedures.Jeroen Van Bouwel - unknown
    In this paper, we inquire how the eternal tension between science and values has been tackled in philosophy of science by analysing three different strategies that have been used: focussing on different kinds of values and allowing some of these kinds to be present in science ; stipulating the role values are allowed to play ; and, specifying a social procedure in order to deal with values in science. Recently, the distinction between (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  48.  25
    Kevin C. Elliott. A Tapestry of Values: An Introduction to Values in Science[REVIEW]David Montminy & François Papale - forthcoming - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science.
  49. Ethical Values in a Changing World: Silver Jubilee Commemoration Volume of Sri Avinashilingam Home Science College.Rajammal P. Devadas & M. Chandramani (eds.) - 1987 - The College.
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  50.  26
    Connecting Inquiry and Values in Science Education: An Approach Based on John Dewey’s Perspective.Eun Ah Lee & Matthew J. Brown - unknown
    Science education owes a lot to John Dewey’s ideas of how science should be viewed and what science education should do. In this study, we explore how to help students use inquiry in decision-making based on John Dewey’s perspective. Science education aims for citizens to be scientifically literate, so that they can make informed-decisions in science-related issues. Conducting scientific inquiry is expected to help students make informed decisions, however, it is not clear how scientific inquiry (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
1 — 50 / 1000