Results for 'variable'

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  1. The Problem of Variable Choice.James Woodward - 2016 - Synthese 193 (4):1047-1072.
    This paper explores some issues about the choice of variables for causal representation and explanation. Depending on which variables a researcher employs, many causal inference procedures and many treatments of causation will reach different conclusions about which causal relationships are present in some system of interest. The assumption of this paper is that some choices of variables are superior to other choices for the purpose of causal analysis. A number of possible criteria for variable choice are described and defended (...)
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  2. The Antinomy of the Variable: A Tarskian Resolution.Bryan Pickel & Brian Rabern - 2016 - Journal of Philosophy 113 (3):137-170.
    Kit Fine has reawakened a puzzle about variables with a long history in analytic philosophy, labeling it “the antinomy of the variable”. Fine suggests that the antinomy demands a reconceptualization of the role of variables in mathematics, natural language semantics, and first-order logic. The difficulty arises because: (i) the variables ‘x’ and ‘y’ cannot be synonymous, since they make different contributions when they jointly occur within a sentence, but (ii) there is a strong temptation to say that distinct variables (...)
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  3. Nonlocal Hidden-Variable Theories and Quantum Mechanics: An Incompatibility Theorem. [REVIEW]A. J. Leggett - 2003 - Foundations of Physics 33 (10):1469-1493.
    It is argued that among possible nonlocal hidden-variable theories a particular class (called here “crypto-nonlocal” or CN) is relatively plausible on physical grounds. CN theories have the property that (for example) the two photons emitted in an atomic cascade process are indistinguishable in their individual statistical properties from photons emitted singly, and that in the latter case the effects of nonlocality are unobservable. It is demonstrated that all CN theories are constrained by inequalities which are violated by the quantum-mechanical (...)
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  4. A Modal Restriction of R-Mingle with the Variable-Sharing Property.Gemma Robles, José M. Méndez & Francisco Salto - 2010 - Logic and Logical Philosophy 19 (4):341-351.
    A restriction of R-Mingle with the variable-sharing property and the Ackermann properties is defined. From an intuitive semantical point of view, this restriction is an alternative to Anderson and Belnap’s logic of entailment E.
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  5. Binding On the Fly: Cross-Sentential Anaphora in Variable— Free Semantics.Anna Szabolcsi - 2003 - In R. Oehrle & J. Kruijff (eds.), Resource Sensitivity, Binding, and Anaphora. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 215--227.
    Combinatory logic (Curry and Feys 1958) is a “variable-free” alternative to the lambda calculus. The two have the same expressive power but build their expressions differently. “Variable-free” semantics is, more precisely, “free of variable binding”: it has no operation like abstraction that turns a free variable into a bound one; it uses combinators—operations on functions—instead. For the general linguistic motivation of this approach, see the works of Steedman, Szabolcsi, and Jacobson, among others. The standard view in (...)
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  6. Variable Objects and Truthmaking.Friederike Moltmann - forthcoming - In Mircea Dumitru (ed.), Metaphysics, Meaning, and Modality. Themes from Kit Fine. Oxford University Press.
    This paper will focus on a philosophically significant construction whose semantics brings together two important notions in Kit Fine’s philosophy, the notion of truthmaking and the notion of a variable embodiment, or its extension, namely what I call a ‘variable object’. The analysis of the construction this paper will develop will be based on an account of clausal complements of intensional verbs that is of more general interest, based on truthmaking and the notion of a cognitive product, such (...)
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  7. The Foundational Significance of Leggett’s Non-Local Hidden-Variable Theories.Matthias Egg - 2013 - Foundations of Physics 43 (7):872-880.
    Laudisa (Found. Phys. 38:1110–1132, 2008) claims that experimental research on the class of non-local hidden-variable theories introduced by Leggett is misguided, because these theories are irrelevant for the foundations of quantum mechanics. I show that Laudisa’s arguments fail to establish the pessimistic conclusion he draws from them. In particular, it is not the case that Leggett-inspired research is based on a mistaken understanding of Bell’s theorem, nor that previous no-hidden-variable theorems already exclude Leggett’s models. Finally, I argue that (...)
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  8. Notes on a Semantic Analysis of Variable Binding Term Operators.J. Corcoran & John Herring - 1971 - Logique Et Analyse 55:644-657.
    -/- A variable binding term operator (vbto) is a non-logical constant, say v, which combines with a variable y and a formula F containing y free to form a term (vy:F) whose free variables are exact ly those of F, excluding y. -/- Kalish-Montague proposed using vbtos to formalize definite descriptions, set abstracts {x: F}, minimalization in recursive function theory, etc. However, they gave no sematics for vbtos. Hatcher gave a semantics but one that has flaws. We give (...)
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  9.  30
    Complexity of the Two-Variable Fragment with Counting Quantifiers.Ian Pratt-Hartmann - 2005 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 14 (3):369-395.
    The satisfiability and finite satisfiability problems for the two-variable fragment of first-order logic with counting quantifiers are both in NEXPTIME, even when counting quantifiers are coded succinctly.
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  10.  16
    A General Characterization of the Variable-Sharing Property by Means of Logical Matrices.Gemma Robles & José M. Méndez - 2012 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 53 (2):223-244.
    As is well known, the variable-sharing property (vsp) is, according to Anderson and Belnap, a necessary property of any relevant logic. In this paper, we shall consider two versions of the vsp, what we label the "weak vsp" (wvsp) and the "strong vsp" (svsp). In addition, the "no loose pieces property," a property related to the wvsp and the svsp, will be defined. Each one of these properties shall generally be characterized by means of a class of logical matrices. (...)
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  11. Intensional Relative Clauses and the Semantics of Variable Objects.Friederike Moltmann - forthcoming - In Manfred Krifka & Schenner Mathias (eds.), Reconstruction Effects in Relative Clauses. De Gruyter.
    NPs with intensional relative clauses such as 'the book John needs to write' pose a significant challenge for semantic theory. Such NPs act like referential terms, yet they do not stand for a particular actual object. This paper will develop a semantic analysis of such NPs on the basis of the notion of a variable object. The analysis avoids a range of difficulties that a more standard analysis based on the notion of an individual concept would face. Most importantly, (...)
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  12.  54
    Free-Variable Tableaux for Propositional Modal Logics.Bernhard Beckert & Rajeev GorÉ - 2001 - Studia Logica 69 (1):59-96.
    Free-variable semantic tableaux are a well-established technique for first-order theorem proving where free variables act as a meta-linguistic device for tracking the eigenvariables used during proof search. We present the theoretical foundations to extend this technique to propositional modal logics, including non-trivial rigorous proofs of soundness and completeness, and also present various techniques that improve the efficiency of the basic naive method for such tableaux.
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  13.  9
    On Preservation Theorems for Two-Variable Logic.Erich Gradel & Eric Rosen - 1999 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 45 (3):315-325.
    We show that the existential preservation theorem fails for two-variable first-order logic FO2. It is known that for all k ≥ 3, FOk does not have an existential preservation theorem, so this settles the last open case, answering a question of Andreka, van Benthem, and Németi. In contrast, we prove that the homomorphism preservation theorem holds for FO2.
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  14.  96
    Variable-Binders as Functors.Achille C. Varzi - 1995 - Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 40:303-19.
    This work gives an extended presentation of the treatment of variable-binding operators adumbrated in [3:1993d]. Illustrative examples include elementary languages with quantifiers and lambda-equipped categorial languages. Some remarks are also offered to illustrate the philosophical import of the resulting picture. Particularly, a certain conception of logic emerges from the account: the view that logics are true theories in the model-theoretic sense, i.e. the result of selecting a certain class of models as the only “admissible” interpretation structures (for a given (...)
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  15.  39
    Operating on Functions with Variable Domains.Philip G. Calabrese - 2003 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 32 (1):1-18.
    The sum, difference, product and quotient of two functions with different domains are usually defined only on their common domain. This paper extends these definitions so that the sum and other operations are essentially defined anywhere that at least one of the components is defined. This idea is applied to propositions and events, expressed as indicator functions, to define conditional propositions and conditional events as three-valued indicator functions that are undefined when their condition is false. Extended operations of "and", "or", (...)
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  16.  4
    Variable Sharing in Substructural Logics: An Algebraic Characterization.Guillermo Badia - 2018 - Bulletin of the Section of Logic 47 (2):107-115.
    We characterize the non-trivial substructural logics having the variable sharing property as well as its strong version. To this end, we find the algebraic counterparts over varieties of these logical properties. -/- .
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  17.  13
    A Two-Variable Fragment of English.Ian Pratt-Hartmann - 2003 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 12 (1):13-45.
    Controlled languages are regimented fragments of natural languagedesigned to make the processing of natural language more efficient andreliable. This paper defines a controlled language, E2V, whose principalgrammatical resources include determiners, relative clauses, reflexivesand pronouns. We provide a formal syntax and semantics for E2V, in whichanaphoric ambiguities are resolved in a linguistically natural way. Weshow that the expressive power of E2V is equal to that of thetwo-variable fragment of first-order logic. It follows that the problemof determining the satisfiability of a (...)
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  18.  24
    Colliding Interests – Age as an Automobile Insurance Rating Variable: Equitable Rate-Making or Unfair Discrimination?Robert L. Brown, Darren Charters, Sally Gunz & Neil Haddow - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 72 (2):103-114.
    Many private business relationships are increasingly characterized by claims that certain actions should not be permitted since particular right claims are involved. Such claims should be taken seriously, but are they always ethically legitimate? This paper analyzes one context, the use of age as a rating variable in the pricing of automobile insurance, where such claims are made. By identifying, evaluating and assessing the relevant basis for the differentiation, actuarial equity, it is concluded that there is an ethical basis (...)
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  19.  35
    Variable Population Poverty Comparisons.Nicole Hassoun & S. Subramanian - 2012 - Journal of Development Economics 98 (2):238-241.
    This paper demonstrates that the property of Replication Invariance, generally considered to be an innocuous requirement for the extension of fixed-population poverty comparisons to variable-population contexts, is incompatible with other plausible variable- and fixed-population axioms. This fact raises questions about what constitutes an appropriate headcount assessment of poverty, in terms of whether one should focus on the proportion, or the absolute numbers, of the population in poverty. This observation, in turn, has important implications for tracking poverty and setting (...)
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  20.  15
    On Some Problems of Variable Population Poverty Comparisons.Nicole Hassoun & S. Subramanian - manuscript
    This note demonstrates that the property of Replication Invariance, generally considered to be an innocuous requirement for the extension of fixed-population poverty comparisons to variable- population contexts, is incompatible with other plausible variable-population axioms in the presence of specific canonical fixed-population axioms.
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  21.  11
    A Relativistic Hidden-Variable Interpretation for the Massive Vector Field Based on Energy-Momentum Flows.George Horton & Chris Dewdney - 2010 - Foundations of Physics 40 (6):658-678.
    This paper is motivated by the desire to formulate a relativistically covariant hidden-variable particle trajectory interpretation of the quantum theory of the vector field that is formulated in such a way as to allow the inclusion of gravity. We present a methodology for calculating the flows of rest energy and a conserved density for the massive vector field using the time-like eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the stress-energy-momentum tensor. Such flows may be used to define particle trajectories which follow the (...)
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  22.  8
    A Class of Simpler Logical Matrices for the Variable-Sharing Property.G. Robles & J. M. Méndez - 2011 - Logic and Logical Philosophy 20 (3):241-249.
    In our paper “A general characterization of the variable-sharing property by means of logical matrices”, a general class of so-called “Relevant logical matrices”, RMLs, is defined. The aim of this paper is to define a class of simpler Relevant logical matrices RMLs′serving the same purpose that RMLs, to wit: any logic verified by an RML′has the variable-sharing property and related properties predicable of the logic of entailment E and of the logic of relevance R.
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  23.  26
    Choice Reaction with Variable S-R Mapping.L. H. Shaffer - 1965 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 70 (3):284.
  24.  11
    Toward Routine Billion‐Variable Optimization Using Genetic Algorithms.David E. Goldberg, Kumara Sastry & Xavier Llorà - 2007 - Complexity 12 (3):27-29.
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  25.  8
    Some Effects of Partial Advance Information on Choice Reaction with Fixed or Variable S-R Mapping.L. H. Shaffer - 1966 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 72 (4):541.
  26.  5
    Some Effects of Variable-Within and Variable-Between Irrelevant Stimuli on Dimensional Learning, and Transfer.Bryan E. Shepp & Vicky A. Gray - 1971 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 89 (1):32.
  27.  19
    Information Deprivation as a Motivational Variable.Austin Jones, H. Jean Wilkinson & Ina Braden - 1961 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 62 (2):126.
  28.  11
    Presentation Modality as an Encoding Variable in Short-Term Memory.Ronald H. Hopkins, Richard E. Edwards & James R. Gavelek - 1971 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 90 (2):319.
  29.  28
    Incomplete Penetrance and Variable Expressivity: Is There a microRNA Connection?Jasmine K. Ahluwalia, Manoj Hariharan, Rhishikesh Bargaje, Beena Pillai & Vani Brahmachari - 2009 - Bioessays 31 (9):981-992.
  30.  17
    Variable Frequency of Knowledge of Results and the Learning of a Simple Skill.Edward A. Bilodeau & Ina McD Bilodeau - 1958 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 55 (4):379.
  31.  21
    Transition Effects in Three-Choice Reaction with Variable s-R Mapping.L. H. Shaffer - 1967 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 73 (1):101.
  32.  1
    Variable-Binders as Functors.Achille C. Varzi - 1995 - In Vito Sinisi & Jan Woleński (eds.), The Heritage of Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz. Amsterdam: Rodopi. pp. 303.
  33.  13
    Value of Standard and Very First Variable in Judgments of Reflectance of Grays with Various Ranges of Available Numbers.E. C. Poulton & D. C. V. Simmonds - 1963 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 65 (3):297.
  34.  10
    Effects of Variable Magnitude of Reward on a Lever-Pulling Response.Donald J. Lewis & Carl P. Duncan - 1961 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 62 (2):203.
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  35.  11
    Geometric and Arithmetic Means as Indexes of UCS Intensity with Variable Reinforcement.George E. Passey & Francis Sekyra - 1964 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 67 (1):7.
  36.  9
    Logics with Zero‐One Laws That Are Not Fragments of Bounded‐Variable Infinitary Logic.Iain A. Stewart - 1997 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 43 (2):158-178.
  37.  9
    Memory Span as a Function of Variable Presentation Speeds and Stimulus Durations.M. C. Corballis - 1966 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 71 (3):461.
  38.  7
    Effects of Variable-Irrelevant Dimensions on the Discrimination Reversal Learning of Nursery School Children.J. Dennis Nolan & Leah V. Pendarvis - 1970 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 86 (3):428.
  39.  4
    The Influence of Variable Time Intervals on Retention of Meaningful Material.F. O. Smith - 1942 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 30 (2):175.
  40.  2
    Probability of Conditioned Responses as a Function of Variable Intertrial Intervals.Karl Haberlandt, Kevin C. Hails & Robert Leghorn - 1974 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 102 (3):522.
  41. Towards a Variable-Free Semantics.Pauline Jacobson - 1999 - Linguistics and Philosophy 22 (2):117-185.
    The Montagovian hypothesis of direct model-theoretic interpretation of syntactic surface structures is supported by an account of the semantics of binding that makes no use of variables, syntactic indices, or assignment functions & shows that the interpretation of a large portion of so-called variable-binding phenomena can dispense with the level of logical form without incurring equivalent complexity elsewhere in the system. Variable-free semantics hypothesizes local interpretation of each surface constituent; binding is formalized as a type-shifting operation on expressions (...)
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  42.  44
    Emotional Behaviors, Emotivational Goals, Emotion Strategies: Multiple Levels of Organization Integrate Variable and Consistent Responses.Ira J. Roseman - 2011 - Emotion Review 3 (4):434-443.
    Researchers have found undeniable variability and irrefutable evidence of consistencies in emotional responses across situations, individuals, and cultures. Both must be acknowledged in constructing adequate, enduring models of emotional phenomena. In this article I outline an empirically-grounded model of the structure of the emotion system, in which relatively variable actions may be used to pursue relatively consistent goals within discrete emotion syndromes; the syndromes form a stable, coherent set of strategies for coping with crises and opportunities. I also discuss (...)
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  43.  58
    Introducing Variable-Rate Rule-Utilitarianism.Michael Ridge - 2006 - Philosophical Quarterly 56 (223):242 - 253.
    The basic idea of rule-utilitarianism is that right action should be defined in terms of what would be required by rules which would maximize either actual or expected utility if those rules gained general acceptance, or perhaps general compliance. Rule-utilitarians face a dilemma. They must characterize 'general acceptance' either as 100% acceptance, or as something less. On the first horn of the dilemma, rule-utilitarianism in vulnerable to the charge of utopianism; on the second, it is open to the charge of (...)
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  44. Variable Versus Fixed-Rate Rule-Utilitarianism.Brad Hooker & Guy Fletcher - 2008 - Philosophical Quarterly 58 (231):344–352.
    Fixed-rate versions of rule-consequentialism and rule-utilitarianism evaluate rules in terms of the expected net value of one particular level of social acceptance, but one far enough below 100% social acceptance to make salient the complexities created by partial compliance. Variable-rate versions of rule-consequentialism and rule-utilitarianism instead evaluate rules in terms of their expected net value at all different levels of social acceptance. Brad Hooker has advocated a fixed-rate version. Michael Ridge has argued that the variable-rate version is better. (...)
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  45.  81
    Filling in the Mechanistic Details: Two-Variable Experiments as Tests for Constitutive Relevance. [REVIEW]Tudor M. Baetu - 2012 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 2 (3):337-353.
    This paper provides an account of the experimental conditions required for establishing whether correlating or causally relevant factors are constitutive components of a mechanism connecting input (start) and output (finish) conditions. I argue that two-variable experiments, where both the initial conditions and a component postulated by the mechanism are simultaneously manipulated on an independent basis, are usually required in order to differentiate between correlating or causally relevant factors and constitutively relevant ones. Based on a typical research project molecular biology, (...)
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  46.  32
    Paycheck Pronouns, Bach-Peters Sentences, and Variable-Free Semantics.Pauline Jacobson - 2000 - Natural Language Semantics 8 (2):77-155.
    This paper argues for the hypothesis of direct compositionality (as in, e.g., Montague 1974), according to which the combinatory syntactic rules specify a set of well-formed expressions while the semantic combinatory rules work in tandem to directly supply a model-theoretic interpretation to each expression as it is "built" in the syntax. (This thus obviates the need for any level like LF and, concomitantly, for any rules mapping surface structures to such a level.) I focus here on one related group of (...)
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  47.  8
    Organisations and Variable Embodiments.Daniele Porello, Roberta Ferrario & Claudio Masolo - 2018 - In Stefano Borgo, Pascal Hitzler & Oliver Kutz (eds.), Formal Ontology in Information Systems - Proceedings of the 10th International Conference, {FOIS} 2018, Cape Town, South Africa, 19-21 September 2018. pp. 127--140.
    How can organisations survive not only the substitution of members, but also other dramatic changes, like that of the norms regulating their activities, the goals they plan to achieve, or the system of roles that compose them? This paper is as first step towards a well-founded ontological analysis of the persistence of organisations through changes. Our analysis leverages Kit Fine’s notions of rigid and variable embodiment and proposes to view the (history of the) decisions made by the members of (...)
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  48.  83
    The General Propositional Form is a Variable’.Peter M. Sullivan - 2004 - Mind 113 (449):43-56.
    Wittgenstein presents in the Tractatus a variable purporting to capture the general form of proposition. One understanding of what Wittgenstein is doing there, an understanding in line with the ‘new’ reading of his work championed by Diamond, Conant and others, sees it as a deflationary or even an implosive move—a move by which a concept sometimes put by philosophers to distinctively metaphysical use is replaced, in a perspicuous notation, by an innocent device of generalization, thereby dispersing the clouds of (...)
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  49.  7
    A Local $$Psi $$-Epistemic Retrocausal Hidden-Variable Model of Bell Correlations with Wavefunctions in Physical Space.Indrajit Sen - 2019 - Foundations of Physics 49 (2):83-95.
    We construct a local \-epistemic hidden-variable model of Bell correlations by a retrocausal adaptation of the originally superdeterministic model given by Brans. In our model, for a pair of particles the joint quantum state \\rangle \) as determined by preparation is epistemic. The model also assigns to the pair of particles a factorisable joint quantum state \\rangle \) which is different from the prepared quantum state \\rangle \) and has an ontic status. The ontic state of a single particle (...)
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  50. Variable Binding Term Operators.John Corcoran, William Hatcher & John Herring - 1972 - Zeitschrift fur mathematische Logik und Grundlagen der Mathematik 18 (12):177-182.
    Chapin reviewed this 1972 ZEITSCHRIFT paper that proves the completeness theorem for the logic of variable-binding-term operators created by Corcoran and his student John Herring in the 1971 LOGIQUE ET ANALYSE paper in which the theorem was conjectured. This leveraging proof extends completeness of ordinary first-order logic to the extension with vbtos. Newton da Costa independently proved the same theorem about the same time using a Henkin-type proof. This 1972 paper builds on the 1971 “Notes on a Semantic Analysis (...)
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