Results for 'variables'

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  1.  46
    Descriptions as Variables.Paolo Santorio - 2013 - Philosophical Studies 164 (1):41-59.
    On a popular view dating back to Russell, descriptions, both definite and indefinite alike, work syntactically and semantically like quantifiers. I have an argument against Russell's view. The argument supports a different picture: descriptions can behave syntactically and semantically like variables. This basic idea can be implemented in very different systematic analyses, but, whichever way one goes, there will be a significant departure from Russell. The claim that descriptions are variables is not new: what I offer is a (...)
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  2.  33
    Performance Development and its Relationship to Demographic Variables Among Users of Computerized Management Information Systems in Gaza Electricity Distribution Company.Mazen J. Al Shobaki & Samy S. Abu Naser - 2016 - International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Research 2 (10):21-30.
    This paper aims to identify Performance development and its relationship to demographic variables among users of computerized management information systems in Gaza Electricity Distribution Company. This research used two dimensions. The first dimension is demographic variables among users of computerized management information systems and the second dimension the Development of Performance. The control sample was (360) questioners were distributed and (306) were retrieved back with a percentage of (85%). Several statistical tools were used for data analysis and hypotheses (...)
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  3.  37
    Iconic Variables.Philippe Schlenker, Jonathan Lamberton & Mirko Santoro - 2013 - Linguistics and Philosophy 36 (2):91-149.
    We argue that some sign language loci (i.e. positions in signing space that realize discourse referents) are both formal variables and simplified representations of what they denote; in other words, they are simultaneously logical symbols and pictorial representations. We develop a 'formal semantics with iconicity' that accounts for their dual life; the key idea ('formal iconicity') is that some geometric properties of signs must be preserved by the interpretation function. We analyze in these terms three kinds of iconic effects (...)
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  4.  79
    Binding Arguments and Hidden Variables.Jonathan Cohen & S. C. Rickless - 2007 - Analysis 67 (1):65-71.
    o (2000), 243). In particular, the idea is that binding interactions between the relevant expressions and natural lan- guage quantifiers are best explained by the hypothesis that those expressions harbor hidden but bindable variables. Recently, however, Herman Cappelen and Ernie Lepore have rejected such binding arguments for the presence of hid- den variables on the grounds that they overgeneralize — that, if sound, such arguments would establish the presence of hidden variables in all sorts of ex- pressions (...)
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  5. Comments on Shimony's “An Analysis of Stapp's 'A Bell-Type Theorem Without Hidden Variables' ”.Henry Stapp - 2006 - Foundations of Physics 36 (1):73-82.
    The hidden-variable theorems of Bell and followers depend upon an assumption, namely the hidden-variable assumption, that conflicts with the precepts of quantum philosophy. Hence from an orthodox quantum perspective those theorems entail no faster-than-light transfer of information. They merely reinforce the ban on hidden variables. The need for some sort of faster-than-light information transfer can be shown by using counterfactuals instead of hidden variables. Shimony’s criticism of that argument fails to take into account the distinction between no-faster-than-light connection (...)
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  6. Local Hidden Variables Underpinning of Entanglement and Teleportation.A. Kalev, A. Mann & M. Revzen - 2007 - Foundations of Physics 37 (1):125-143.
    Entangled states whose Wigner functions are non-negative may be viewed as being accounted for by local hidden variables (LHV). Recently, there were studies of Bell’s inequality violation (BIQV) for such states in conjunction with the well known theorem of Bell that precludes BIQV for theories that have LHV underpinning. We extend these studies to teleportation which is also based on entanglement. We investigate if, to what extent, and under what conditions may teleportation be accounted for via LHV theory. Our (...)
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  7. Von Neumann's 'No Hidden Variables' Proof: A Re-Appraisal. [REVIEW]Jeffrey Bub - 2010 - Foundations of Physics 40 (9-10):1333-1340.
    Since the analysis by John Bell in 1965, the consensus in the literature is that von Neumann’s ‘no hidden variables’ proof fails to exclude any significant class of hidden variables. Bell raised the question whether it could be shown that any hidden variable theory would have to be nonlocal, and in this sense ‘like Bohm’s theory.’ His seminal result provides a positive answer to the question. I argue that Bell’s analysis misconstrues von Neumann’s argument. What von Neumann proved (...)
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  8.  83
    Hidden Variables as Computational Tools: The Construction of a Relativistic Spinor Field. [REVIEW]Peter Holland - 2006 - Foundations of Physics 36 (3):369-384.
    Hidden variables are usually presented as potential completions of the quantum description. We describe an alternative role for these entities, as aids to calculation in quantum mechanics. This is illustrated by the computation of the time-dependence of a massless relativistic spinor field obeying Weyl’s equation from a single-valued continuum of deterministic trajectories (the “hidden variables”). This is achieved by generalizing the exact method of state construction proposed previously for spin 0 systems to a general Riemannian manifold from which (...)
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  9.  4
    Quantifier Domain Restriction, Hidden Variables and Variadic Functions.Andrei Moldovan - 2016 - Organon F: Medzinárodný Časopis Pre Analytickú Filozofiu 3 (23):384-404.
    In this paper I discuss two objections raised against von Fintel’s (1994) and Stanley and Szabó’s (2000a) hidden variable approach to quantifier domain restriction (QDR). One of them concerns utterances of sentences involving quantifiers for which no contextual domain restriction is needed, and the other concerns multiple quantified contexts. I look at various ways in which the approaches could be amended to avoid these problems, and I argue that they fail. I conclude that we need a more flexible account of (...)
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  10.  73
    Variables of Scientific Concept Modeling and Their Formalization.Vladimir Kuznetsov - 2009 - In В.И Маркин (ed.), Philosophy of mathematics: current problems. Proceedings of the second international conference (Философия математики: актуальные проблемы. Тезисы второй международной конференции). pp. 268-270.
    There are no universally adopted answers to the natural questions about scientific concepts: What are they? What is their structure? What are their functions? How many kinds of them are there? Do they change? Ironically, most if not all scientific monographs or articles mention concepts, but the scientific studies of scientific concepts are rare in occurrence. It is well known that the necessary stage of any scientific study is constructing the model of objects in question. Many years logical modeling was (...)
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  11.  90
    Relational Hidden Variables and Non-Locality.Samson Abramsky - 2013 - Studia Logica 101 (2):411-452.
    We use a simple relational framework to develop the key notions and results on hidden variables and non-locality. The extensive literature on these topics in the foundations of quantum mechanics is couched in terms of probabilistic models, and properties such as locality and no-signalling are formulated probabilistically. We show that to a remarkable extent, the main structure of the theory, through the major No-Go theorems and beyond, survives intact under the replacement of probability distributions by mere relations.
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  12.  73
    Hidden Variables with Nonlocal Time.Hrvoje Nikolić - 2012 - Foundations of Physics 42 (5):632-646.
    To relax the apparent tension between nonlocal hidden variables and relativity, we propose that the observable proper time is not the same quantity as the usual proper-time parameter appearing in local relativistic equations. Instead, the two proper times are related by a nonlocal rescaling parameter proportional to |ψ|2, so that they coincide in the classical limit. In this way particle trajectories may obey local relativistic equations of motion in a manner consistent with the appearance of nonlocal quantum correlations. To (...)
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  13.  67
    Hidden Variables and Bell Inequalities on Quantum Logics.Sylvia Pulmannová - 2002 - Foundations of Physics 32 (2):193-216.
    In the quantum logic approach, Bell inequalities in the sense of Pitowski are related with quasi hidden variables in the sense of Deliyannis. Some properties of hidden variables on effect algebras are discussed.
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  14.  49
    Identifying Intervention Variables.Michael Baumgartner & Isabelle Drouet - 2013 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 3 (2):183-205.
    The essential precondition of implementing interventionist techniques of causal reasoning is that particular variables are identified as so-called intervention variables. While the pertinent literature standardly brackets the question how this can be accomplished in concrete contexts of causal discovery, the first part of this paper shows that the interventionist nature of variables cannot, in principle, be established based only on an interventionist notion of causation. The second part then demonstrates that standard observational methods that draw on Bayesian (...)
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  15.  37
    Solomon's Argument on Hidden Variables in Quantum Theory.M. A. B. Whitaker - 2007 - Foundations of Physics 37 (6):989-997.
    J. Solomon [Journal de Physique 4, 34 (1933)] produced an argument of great generality claiming to demonstrate the impossibility of hidden variables in quantum theory, an argument which M. Jammer [The Philosophy of Quantum Mechanics(Wiley, New York, 1974)] said raised a number of questions. For the first time, this argument is discussed, a simple hidden variable model violating the argument is analysed in detail, and the error in the proof is located.
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  16.  74
    Proposition-Valued Random Variables as Information.Richard Bradley - 2010 - Synthese 175 (1):17 - 38.
    The notion of a proposition as a set of possible worlds or states occupies central stage in probability theory, semantics and epistemology, where it serves as the fundamental unit both of information and meaning. But this fact should not blind us to the existence of prospects with a different structure. In the paper I examine the use of random variables—in particular, proposition-valued random variables— in these fields and argue that we need a general account of rational attitude formation (...)
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  17.  32
    Testing Super-Deterministic Hidden Variables Theories.Sabine Hossenfelder - 2011 - Foundations of Physics 41 (9):1521-1531.
    We propose to experimentally test non-deterministic time evolution in quantum mechanics by consecutive measurements of non-commuting observables on the same prepared state. While in the standard theory the measurement outcomes are uncorrelated, in a super-deterministic hidden variables theory the measurements would be correlated. We estimate that for macroscopic experiments the correlation time is too short to have been noticed yet, but that it may be possible with a suitably designed microscopic experiment to reach a parameter range where one would (...)
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  18.  25
    Hidden Measurements, Hidden Variables and the Volume Representation of Transition Probabilities.Todd A. Oliynyk - 2005 - Foundations of Physics 35 (1):85-107.
    We construct, for any finite dimension n, a new hidden measurement model for quantum mechanics based on representing quantum transition probabilities by the volume of regions in projective Hilbert space. For n=2 our model is equivalent to the Aerts sphere model and serves as a generalization of it for dimensions n .≥ 3 We also show how to construct a hidden variables scheme based on hidden measurements and we discuss how joint distributions arise in our hidden variables scheme (...)
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  19.  26
    The Effect of Context Variables on Cognitive Effort in Multiattribute Binary Choice.S. Iglesias-Parro, E. I. de La Fuente & A. R. Ortega - 2002 - Theory and Decision 52 (2):101-125.
    This article reports an empirical investigation of the cognitive effort required to decide in multiattribute binary choice using a variation of the Additive Difference strategy. In contrast with other studies, this paper focuses on the effect of various context variables (rather than task variables) on cognitive effort. In order to select the context variables to be manipulated, we used the model proposed by Shugan (1980; J. Consumer Res. 75 (1980) 99). Our results indicate that there is a (...)
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  20.  22
    Quantification Without Variables in Connectionism.John A. Barnden & Kankanahalli Srinivas - 1996 - Minds and Machines 6 (2):173-201.
    Connectionist attention to variables has been too restricted in two ways. First, it has not exploited certain ways of doing without variables in the symbolic arena. One variable-avoidance method, that of logical combinators, is particularly well established there. Secondly, the attention has been largely restricted to variables in long-term rules embodied in connection weight patterns. However, short-lived bodies of information, such as sentence interpretations or inference products, may involve quantification. Therefore short-lived activation patterns may need to achieve (...)
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  21.  2
    Un Aporte a la Discusión Sobre El Status Metodológico de Las Variables y Escalas de Medición.Aníbal R. Bar - 2000 - Cinta de Moebio 7.
    This essay pretends to bring to discussion some ideas for the clearing of the concept of measurement, and, from there, to the discussion of the nature of variables and their scales.
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  22.  2
    Variables organizacionales y psicosociales asociadas al síndrome de burnout en trabajadores del ámbito educacional.Mauricio Ramírez Pérez & Reinaldo Zurita Zurita - 2010 - Polis 25.
    El propósito de este estudio es determinar las variables asociadas al desarrollo del Burnout en trabajadores de establecimientos educacionales municipalizados de la ciudad de Arica, analizando los resultados según estamento y diagnóstico de Burnout. Se utilizó un muestreo no probabilístico por disponibilidad, constituyéndose la muestra con 120 personas (71.7% mujeres y 28.3% hombres; un 30.8% presentó Burnout, un 40% evidenció riesgo de experimentarlo, y el 29.2% no presentaba signos de éste). Los modelos de regresión permiten explicar las puntuaciones para (...)
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  23.  10
    Evaluating Disease Management Programme Effectiveness: An Introduction to Instrumental Variables.Ariel Linden & John L. Adams - 2006 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 12 (2):148-154.
  24. Bound Variables and Schematic Letters.Philip Hugly & Charles Sayward - 1981 - Logique Et Analyse 95 (95):425-429.
    The paper purports to show, against Quine, that one can construct a language , which results from the extension of the theory of truth functions by introducing sentence letter quantification. Next a semantics is provided for this language. It is argued that the quantification is neither substitutional nor requires one to consider the sentence letters as taking entities as values.
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  25.  6
    Causal Diagrams and Change Variables.Eyal Shahar & Doron J. Shahar - 2012 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (1):143-148.
  26.  45
    Physics and the Measurement of Continuous Variables.R. N. Sen - 2008 - Foundations of Physics 38 (4):301-316.
    This paper addresses the doubts voiced by Wigner about the physical relevance of the concept of geometrical points by exploiting some facts known to all but honored by none: Almost all real numbers are transcendental; the explicit representation of any one will require an infinite amount of physical resources. An instrument devised to measure a continuous real variable will need a continuum of internal states to achieve perfect resolution. Consequently, a laboratory instrument for measuring a continuous variable in a finite (...)
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  27.  12
    Conflict and Information-Theory Variables as Determinants of Human Perceptual Curiosity.D. E. Berlyne - 1957 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 53 (6):399.
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  28.  5
    Effects of Exposure Variables on Figural Aftereffects Under Tachistoscopic Presentation.Elizabeth Fehrer & Donald Ganchrow - 1963 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 66 (5):506-513.
  29.  12
    Imaginary Part of Action, Future Functioning as Hidden Variables.H. B. Nielsen - 2011 - Foundations of Physics 41 (3):608-635.
    Beginning with a review the logically first stages in the project of Random Dynamics, hoping for all laws nature being emergent, we also review what can be considered a consequence of Random Dynamics, a model—by myself and Masao Ninomiya—, which in principle predicts the initial conditions in such a way as to minimize a certain functional of the history of the Universe through both past and future. This functional is indeed the imaginary part of the action, which exists (only) in (...)
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  30.  2
    Role of Response Variables in Recognition and Identification of Complex Visual Forms.Harold W. Hake & Charles W. Eriksen - 1956 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 52 (4):235.
  31.  3
    Learning Variables in the Judgment of Single Stimuli.Allen Parducci - 1954 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 48 (1):24.
  32.  7
    Effect of Stimulus Variables on Choice Reaction Times and Thresholds.J. Kaswan & S. Young - 1965 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 69 (5):511.
  33.  3
    Human Occipital Brain Potentials as Affected by Intensity-Duration Variables of Visual Stimulation.R. M. Cruikshank - 1937 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 21 (6):625.
  34.  3
    Probability Learning: Left-Right Variables and Response Latency.Irma R. Gerjuoy, Herbert Gerjuoy & Richard Mathias - 1964 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 68 (4):344.
  35.  2
    Human Escape Learning in Relation to Reinforcement Variables and Intertrial Conditions.James H. Straughan - 1956 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 52 (1):1.
  36.  3
    Choice of First Variables for Single and Repeated Multiple Estimates of Loudness.E. C. Poulton - 1969 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 80 (2p1):249.
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  37.  2
    Apparent Verticality: Fundamental Variables of Sensory-Tonic Theory Reinvestigated.Daniel J. Weintraub, Daniel C. O'Connell & Thomas J. McHale - 1964 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 68 (6):550.
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  38.  1
    Keeping Track of Changing Variables: Effects of Rehearsal Training and Rehearsal Prevention in Normal and Retarded Adolescents.Ann L. Brown, Joseph C. Campione, Norman W. Bray & Barbara L. Wilcox - 1973 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 101 (1):123.
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  39.  1
    Variables in Extinction Following Acquisition with Vicarious Reinforcement.Albert R. Marston - 1964 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 68 (3):312.
  40.  39
    Understanding Critical Variables for Customer Relationship Management in Higher Education Institution From Employees Perspective.Youssef M. Abu Amuna, Mazen J. Al Shobaki, Samy S. Abu Naser & Jehad J. Badwan - 2017 - International Journal of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering 6 (1):10-16.
    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the critical success factors and investigate the benefits that might be gained once implementing Electronic Customer Relationship Management at HEI from employee perspective. The study conducted at Al Quds Open University in Palestine and data collected from (300) employee through a questionnaire which consist of four variables. A number of statistical tools were intended for hypotheses testing and data analysis, including Spearman correlation coefficient for Validity, reliability correlation using Cronbach’s alpha, and (...)
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  41.  77
    From Simple Associations to Systematic Reasoning: A Connectionist Representation of Rules, Variables, and Dynamic Binding Using Temporal Synchrony.L. Shastri & V. Ajjanagadde - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (3):417-51.
    Human agents draw a variety of inferences effortlessly, spontaneously, and with remarkable efficiency – as though these inferences were a reflexive response of their cognitive apparatus. Furthermore, these inferences are drawn with reference to a large body of background knowledge. This remarkable human ability seems paradoxical given the complexity of reasoning reported by researchers in artificial intelligence. It also poses a challenge for cognitive science and computational neuroscience: How can a system of simple and slow neuronlike elements represent a large (...)
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  42.  24
    The Impact of Perceived Ethical Culture of the Firm and Demographic Variables on Auditors' Ethical Evaluation and Intention to Act Decisions.Breda Sweeney, Don Arnold & Bernard Pierce - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 93 (4):531 - 551.
    This study examined the impact of perceived ethical culture of the firm and selected demographic variables on auditors' ethical evaluation of, and intention to engage in, various time pressure-induced dysfunctional behaviours. Four audit cases and questionnaires were distributed to experienced pre-manager level auditors in Ireland and the U. S. The findings revealed that while perceived unethical pressure to engage in dysfunctional behaviours and unethical tone at the top were significant in forming an ethical evaluation, only perceived unethical pressure had (...)
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  43. High-Level Explanation and the Interventionist's 'Variables Problem'.L. R. Franklin-Hall - 2016 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 67 (2):553-577.
    The interventionist account of causal explanation, in the version presented by Jim Woodward, has been recently claimed capable of buttressing the widely felt—though poorly understood—hunch that high-level, relatively abstract explanations, of the sort provided by sciences like biology, psychology and economics, are in some cases explanatorily optimal. It is the aim of this paper to show that this is mistaken. Due to a lack of effective constraints on the causal variables at the heart of the interventionist causal-explanatory scheme, as (...)
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  44.  7
    The Varieties of Inner Speech: Links Between Quality of Inner Speech and Psychopathological Variables in a Sample of Young Adults.Simon McCarthy-Jones & Charles Fernyhough - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1586-1593.
    A resurgence of interest in inner speech as a core feature of human experience has not yet coincided with methodological progress in the empirical study of the phenomenon. The present article reports the development and psychometric validation of a novel instrument, the Varieties of Inner Speech Questionnaire , designed to assess the phenomenological properties of inner speech along dimensions of dialogicality, condensed/expanded quality, evaluative/motivational nature, and the extent to which inner speech incorporates other people’s voices. In response to findings that (...)
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  45.  15
    Constraints on Some Other Variables in Syntax.Orin Percus - 2000 - Natural Language Semantics 8 (3):173-229.
    In this paper I assume that syntactic structures contain items that function as variables over possible worlds (or things like possible worlds). I show that in certain syntactic positions we can use some variables but not other. I accordingly motivate a "binding theory" for the items that occupy these positions, and I discuss some consequences of this binding theory.
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  46.  42
    Predictors of External Whistleblowing: Organizational and Intrapersonal Variables[REVIEW]Randi L. Sims & John P. Keenan - 1998 - Journal of Business Ethics 17 (4):411-421.
    Research on whistleblowing has not yet provided a finite set of variables which have been shown to influence an employee's decision to report wrongdoing. Prior research on business ethics suggests that ethical business decisions are influenced by both organizational as well as intrapersonal variables. As such, this paper attempts to predict the decision to whistleblow using organizational and intrapersonal variables. External whistleblowing was found to be significantly related to supervisor support, informal policies, gender, and ideal values. External (...)
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  47.  86
    Control Variables and Mental Causation.John Campbell - 2010 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 110 (1):15-30.
    I introduce the notion of a ‘control variable’ which gives us a way of seeing how mental causation could be an unproblematic case of causation in general, rather than being some sui generis form of causation. Psychological variables may be the control variables for a system for which there are no physical control variables, even in a deterministic physical world. That explains how there can be psychological causation without physical causation, even in a deterministic physical world.
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  48. Death of a Companion Cat or Dog and Human Bereavement: Psychosocial Variables.Shelley Stokes, Donald Templer, Lynn Planchon & Jacqueline Keller - 2002 - Society and Animals 10 (1):93-105.
    This study found that death depression, general depression, and positive attitudes toward, and attachment to, companion animals were associated with greater grief following the death of cats and dogs both in a veterinary client group who had recently lost their companion animals and in a college student group with a history of companion animal loss. The correlations of both the above variables and the demographic and death circumstance variables tended to be higher with the veterinary clients. Death of (...)
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  49. Hidden Variables and the Two Theorems of John Bell.N. David Mermin - 1993 - Reviews of Modern Physics 65:803--815.
    Although skeptical of the prohibitive power of no-hidden-variables theorems, John Bell was himself responsible for the two most important ones. I describe some recent versions of the lesser known of the two (familiar to experts as the "Kochen-Specker theorem") which have transparently simple proofs. One of the new versions can be converted without additional analysis into a powerful form of the very much better known "Bell's Theorem," thereby clarifying the conceptual link between these two results of Bell.
     
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  50.  9
    Finding ERP-Signatures of Target Awareness: Puzzle Persists Because of Experimental Co-Variation of the Objective and Subjective Variables☆.Talis Bachmann - 2009 - Consciousness and Cognition 18 (3):804-808.
    Using masking techniques combined with electrophysiological recordings is a promising way to study neural correlates of visual awareness, as shown in recent studies. Here I comment on the following puzzling aspects typical for this endeavour that have made obstacles for a potentially even more impressive progress. First, the continuing practice of confounds between objective stimulus variables and subjective dependent measures. Second, complexity of timing the emergence of subjective conscious percept which is partly due to complex interactivity between target and (...)
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