Results for 'vectors'

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  1.  75
    Vector Space Semantics: A Model-Theoretic Analysis of Locative Prepositions. [REVIEW]Joost Zwarts & Yoad Winter - 2000 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 9 (2):169-211.
    This paper introduces a compositional semantics of locativeprepositional phrases which is based on a vector space ontology.Model-theoretic properties of prepositions like monotonicity andconservativity are defined in this system in a straightforward way.These notions are shown to describe central inferences with spatialexpressions and to account for the grammaticality of prepositionmodification. Model-theoretic constraints on the set of possibleprepositions in natural language are specified, similar to the semanticuniversals of Generalized Quantifier Theory.
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  2. Vector Reliability: A New Approach to Epistemic Justification.Mark E. Wunderlich - 2003 - Synthese 136 (2):237 - 262.
    Critics of reliability theories of epistemic justificationoften claim that the `generality problem' is an insurmountabledifficulty for such theories. The generality problem is theproblem of specifying the level of generality at which abelief-forming process is to be described for the purposeof assessing its reliability. This problem is not asintractable as it seems. There are illuminating solutionsto analogous problems in the ethics literature. Reliabilistsought to attend to utilitarian approaches to choices betweeninfinite utility streams; they also ought to attend towelfarist approaches to social (...)
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  3.  67
    Vectors and Change.John Bigelow & Robert Pargetter - 1989 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 40 (3):289-306.
    Vectors, we will argue, are not just mathematical abstractions. They are also physical properties--universals. What make them distinctive are the rich and varied essences of these universals, and the complex pattern of internal relations which hold amongst them.
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  4.  9
    Vector Coding and Command Fibres.Peter Fraser - 1978 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 1 (1):22-23.
  5.  49
    Vectors as Relative Positions: A Compositional Semantics of Modified PPs.J. Zwarts - 1997 - Journal of Semantics 14 (1):57-86.
    The interpretation of modified PPs, like one meter behind the disk, far outside the village, or right under the lamp, has never received much attention in the literature about prepositions. However, as this paper shows, the modification of PPs presents an intriguing problem for a compositional semantics of PPs. This problem can be solved when the PP is interpreted, not as a set of points or mereological portions of space, but as a set of vectors, that represent positions relative (...)
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  6.  2
    Support Vector Machines and Affective Science.Chris H. Miller, Matthew D. Sacchet & Ian H. Gotlib - 2020 - Emotion Review 12 (4):297-308.
    Support vector machines are being used increasingly in affective science as a data-driven classification method and feature reduction technique. Whereas traditional statistical methods typically compare group averages on selected variables, SVMs use a predictive algorithm to learn multivariate patterns that optimally discriminate between groups. In this review, we provide a framework for understanding the methods of SVM-based analyses and summarize the findings of seminal studies that use SVMs for classification or data reduction in the behavioral and neural study of emotion (...)
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  7. Victims, Vectors and Villains: Are Those Who Opt Out of Vaccination Morally Responsible for the Deaths of Others?Euzebiusz Jamrozik, Toby Handfield & Michael J. Selgelid - 2016 - Journal of Medical Ethics (12):762-768.
    Mass vaccination has been a successful public health strategy for many contagious diseases. The immunity of the vaccinated also protects others who cannot be safely or effectively vaccinated—including infants and the immunosuppressed. When vaccination rates fall, diseases like measles can rapidly resurge in a population. Those who cannot be vaccinated for medical reasons are at the highest risk of severe disease and death. They thus may bear the burden of others' freedom to opt out of vaccination. It is often asked (...)
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  8.  18
    The Vectors of Mind.L. L. Thurstone - 1934 - Psychological Review 41 (1):1-32.
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  9.  29
    Vectors on Curved Space.Peter Forrest - 2009 - Dialectica 63 (4):491-501.
    In this paper I provide an ontology for the co‐variant vectors, contra‐variant vectors and tensors that are familiar from General Relativity. This ontology is developed in response to a problem that Timothy Maudlin uses to argue against universals in the interpretation of physics. The problem is that if vector quantities are universals then there should be a way of identifying the same vector quantity at two different places, but there is no absolute identification of vector quantities, merely a (...)
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  10. Static and Dynamic Vector Semantics for Lambda Calculus Models of Natural Language.Mehrnoosh Sadrzadeh & Reinhard Muskens - 2018 - Journal of Language Modelling 6 (2):319-351.
    Vector models of language are based on the contextual aspects of language, the distributions of words and how they co-occur in text. Truth conditional models focus on the logical aspects of language, compositional properties of words and how they compose to form sentences. In the truth conditional approach, the denotation of a sentence determines its truth conditions, which can be taken to be a truth value, a set of possible worlds, a context change potential, or similar. In the vector models, (...)
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  11.  41
    Vector Correlation of Amplitude Variation with Azimuth and Curvature in a Post-Hydraulic-Fracture Barnett Shale Survey.Shiguang Guo, Sumit Verma, Qing Wang, Bo Zhang & Kurt J. Marfurt - 2016 - Interpretation: SEG 4 (1):SB23-SB35.
    Knowledge of induced fractures can help to evaluate the success of reservoir stimulation. Seismic P-waves through fracturing media can exhibit azimuthal variation in traveltime, amplitude, and thin-bed tuning, so amplitude variation with azimuth can be used to evaluate the hydraulic-fracturing-caused anisotropy. The Barnett Shale of the Fort Worth Basin was the first large-scale commercial shale gas play. We have analyzed two adjacent Barnett Shale seismic surveys: one acquired before hydraulic fracturing and the other acquired after hydraulic fracturing by more than (...)
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  12. Reality as a Vector in Hilbert Space.Sean M. Carroll - manuscript
    I defend the extremist position that the fundamental ontology of the world consists of a vector in Hilbert space evolving according to the Schrödinger equation. The laws of physics are determined solely by the energy eigenspectrum of the Hamiltonian. The structure of our observed world, including space and fields living within it, should arise as a higher-level emergent description. I sketch how this might come about, although much work remains to be done.
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  13.  33
    Mathematical Vectors and Physical Vectors.Ingvar Johansson - 2009 - Dialectica 63 (4):433-447.
    From a metaphysical point of view, it is important clearly to see the ontological difference between what is studied in mathematics and mathematical physics, respectively. In this respect, the paper is concerned with the vectors of classical physics. Vectors have both a scalar magnitude and a direction, and it is argued that neither conventionalism nor wholesale anti‐conventionalism holds true of either of these components of classical physical vectors. A quantification of a physical dimension requires the discovery of (...)
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  14.  11
    Vector Reliability: A New Approach to Epistemic Justification.Mark E. Wunderlich - 2003 - Synthese 136 (2):237-262.
    Critics of reliability theories of epistemic justificationoften claim that the `generality problem' is an insurmountabledifficulty for such theories. The generality problem is theproblem of specifying the level of generality at which abelief-forming process is to be described for the purposeof assessing its reliability. This problem is not asintractable as it seems. There are illuminating solutionsto analogous problems in the ethics literature. Reliabilistsought to attend to utilitarian approaches to choices betweeninfinite utility streams; they also ought to attend towelfarist approaches to social (...)
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  15.  29
    State Vector Reduction and Photon Coincidences.A. Szczepański - 1976 - Foundations of Physics 6 (4):427-433.
    The paper contains a discussion on two kinds of coincidence experiments. First, a standard two-photon coincidence experiment is considered and it is shown that its outcomes are incompatible with any classical radiation theory because of the role of the state vector reduction phenomenon in such an experiment. In the second part of the paper a proposed new kind of photon coincidence experiment is discussed. The classical and quantum predictions for the outcomes of this experiment differ dramatically and therefore the experiment (...)
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  16.  23
    Function Vector Synchronization Based on Fuzzy Control for Uncertain Chaotic Systems with Dead-Zone Nonlinearities.Sarah Hamel, Abdesselem Boulkroune & Amel Bouzeriba - 2016 - Complexity 21 (S1):234-249.
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  17.  16
    A Vector Product Formulation of Special Relativity and Electromagnetism.Charles P. Poole, Horacio A. Farach & Yakir Aharonov - 1980 - Foundations of Physics 10 (7-8):531-553.
    The vector product method developed in previous articles for space rotations and Lorentz transformations is extended to the cases of four-vectors, anti-symmetric tensors, and their transformations in Minkowski space. The electromagnetic fields are expressed in “six-vector” form using the notationH +iE, and this vector form is shown to be relativistically invariant. The wave equations of electromagnetism are derived using these vector products. The following three equations are deduced, which summarize electrodynamics in a compact form: (1) Maxwell's four equations expressed (...)
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  18. Spoils to the Vector - How to Model Causes If You Are a Realist About Powers.Stephen Mumford & Rani Lill Anjum - 2011 - The Monist 94 (1):54-80.
    A standard way of representing causation is with neuron diagrams. This has become popular since the influential work of David Lewis. But it should not be assumed that such representations are metaphysically neutral and amenable to any theory of causation. On the contrary, this way of representing causation already makes several Humean assumptions about what causation is, and which suit Lewis’s programme of Humean Supervenience. An alternative of a vector diagram is better suited for a powers ontology. Causation should be (...)
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  19.  24
    Vector Spaces and Binary Quantifiers.Michał Krynicki, Alistair Lachlan & Jouko Väänänen - 1984 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 25 (1):72-78.
  20.  16
    Maximal Vector Spaces Under Automorphisms of the Lattice of Recursively Enumerable Vector Spaces.Iraj Kalantari & Allen Retzlaff - 1977 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 42 (4):481-491.
  21.  53
    Complex Vector Formalism of Harmonic Oscillator in Geometric Algebra: Particle Mass, Spin and Dynamics in Complex Vector Space.K. Muralidhar - 2014 - Foundations of Physics 44 (3):266-295.
    Elementary particles are considered as local oscillators under the influence of zeropoint fields. Such oscillatory behavior of the particles leads to the deviations in their path of motion. The oscillations of the particle in general may be considered as complex rotations in complex vector space. The local particle harmonic oscillator is analyzed in the complex vector formalism considering the algebra of complex vectors. The particle spin is viewed as zeropoint angular momentum represented by a bivector. It has been shown (...)
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  22.  33
    Movement Vectors and Deformation Mechanisms in Kinematic Restorations: A Case Study From the Colombian Eastern Cordillera.Emilio Carrillo, Andrés Mora, Richard A. Ketcham, Ricardo Amorocho, Mauricio Parra, Diego Costantino, Wilmer Robles, William Avellaneda, Juan S. Carvajal, Miguel F. Corcione, Wladimir Bello, Juan D. Figueroa, José F. Gómez, José L. González, Dennis Quandt, Martín Reyes, Ana M. Rangel, Ignacio Román, Yasmin Pelayo & José Porras - 2016 - Interpretation: SEG 4 (1):T31-T48.
    We have developed a new method to assess the movement of particles in different steps of a well-calibrated sequential kinematic restoration. Calibration included correct assessment of amounts of overburden, sedimentation, erosion, and thermal behavior through time. Our method allowed a better understanding of the mechanisms of deformation and uplift in different geologic provinces. In our pilot case study in the Colombian Eastern Cordillera, we have used movement vectors in balanced cross sections to document an initial phase of dominant vertical (...)
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  23.  12
    On Vector Spaces Over Specific Fields Without Choice.Paul Howard & Eleftherios Tachtsis - 2013 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 59 (3):128-146.
  24.  34
    Support Vector Machines for Predicting Apoptosis Proteins Types.Jing Huang & Feng Shi - 2005 - Acta Biotheoretica 53 (1):39-47.
    Apoptosis proteins have a central role in the development and homeostasis of an organism. These proteins are very important for understanding the mechanism of programmed cell death, and their function is related to their types. According to the classification scheme by Zhou and Doctor (2003), the apoptosis proteins are categorized into the following four types: (1) cytoplasmic protein; (2) plasma membrane-bound protein; (3) mitochondrial inner and outer proteins; (4) other proteins. A powerful learning machine, the Support Vector Machine, is applied (...)
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  25.  38
    Countable Vector Spaces with Recursive Operations Part II.J. C. E. Dekker - 1971 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 36 (3):477-493.
  26. Expanding the Vector Model for Dispositionalist Approaches to Causation.Joseph Baltimore - 2019 - Synthese 196 (12):5083-5098.
    Neuron diagrams are heavily employed in academic discussions of causation. Stephen Mumford and Rani Lill Anjum, however, offer an alternative approach employing vector diagrams, which this paper attempts to develop further. I identify three ways in which dispositionalists have taken the activities of powers to be related: stimulation, mutual manifestation, and contribution combination. While Mumford and Anjum do provide resources for representing contribution combination, which might be sufficient for their particular brand of dispositionalism, I argue that those resources are not (...)
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  27.  46
    Countable Vector Spaces with Recursive Operations Part I1.J. C. E. Dekker - 1969 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 34 (3):363-387.
  28.  10
    Multidimensional Vector Model of Stimulus–Response Compatibility.Motonori Yamaguchi & Robert W. Proctor - 2012 - Psychological Review 119 (2):272-303.
  29.  14
    Vector Symbolic Architectures Are a Viable Alternative for Jackendoff's Challenges.Ross W. Gayler - 2006 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (1):78-79.
    The authors, on the basis of brief arguments, have dismissed tensor networks as a viable response to Jackendoff's challenges. However, there are reasons to believe that connectionist approaches descended from tensor networks are actually very well suited to answering Jackendoff's challenges. I rebut their arguments for dismissing tensor networks and briefly compare the approaches.
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  30.  15
    Model-Theory of Vector-Spaces Over Unspecified Fields.David Pierce - 2009 - Archive for Mathematical Logic 48 (5):421-436.
    Vector spaces over unspecified fields can be axiomatized as one-sorted structures, namely, abelian groups with the relation of parallelism. Parallelism is binary linear dependence. When equipped with the n-ary relation of linear dependence for some positive integer n, a vector-space is existentially closed if and only if it is n-dimensional over an algebraically closed field. In the signature with an n-ary predicate for linear dependence for each positive integer n, the theory of infinite-dimensional vector spaces over algebraically closed fields is (...)
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  31.  64
    Limited Holism and Real-Vector-Space Quantum Theory.Lucien Hardy & William K. Wootters - 2012 - Foundations of Physics 42 (3):454-473.
    Quantum theory has the property of “local tomography”: the state of any composite system can be reconstructed from the statistics of measurements on the individual components. In this respect the holism of quantum theory is limited. We consider in this paper a class of theories more holistic than quantum theory in that they are constrained only by “bilocal tomography”: the state of any composite system is determined by the statistics of measurements on pairs of components. Under a few auxiliary assumptions, (...)
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  32.  33
    The Operators of Vector Logic.Eduardo Mizraji - 1996 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 42 (1):27-40.
    Vector logic is a mathematical model of the propositional calculus in which the logical variables are represented by vectors and the logical operations by matrices. In this framework, many tautologies of classical logic are intrinsic identities between operators and, consequently, they are valid beyond the bivalued domain. The operators can be expressed as Kronecker polynomials. These polynomials allow us to show that many important tautologies of classical logic are generated from basic operators via the operations called Type I and (...)
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  33. Activation Vectors Versus Propositional Attitudes: How the Brain Represents Reality.Paul M. Churchland - 1992 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 52 (2):419-424.
  34.  17
    Groups Definable in Ordered Vector Spaces Over Ordered Division Rings.Pantelis E. Eleftheriou & Sergei Starchenko - 2007 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 72 (4):1108 - 1140.
    Let M = 〈M, +, <, 0, {λ}λ∈D〉 be an ordered vector space over an ordered division ring D, and G = 〈G, ⊕, eG〉 an n-dimensional group definable in M. We show that if G is definably compact and definably connected with respect to the t-topology, then it is definably isomorphic to a 'definable quotient group' U/L, for some convex V-definable subgroup U of 〈Mⁿ, +〉 and a lattice L of rank n. As two consequences, we derive Pillay's conjecture (...)
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  35.  16
    3D Structural-Orientation Vector Guided Autotracking for Weak Seismic Reflections: A New Tool for Shale Reservoir Visualization and Interpretation.Haibin Di, Dengliang Gao & Ghassan AlRegib - 2018 - Interpretation: SEG 6 (4):SN47-SN56.
    Recognizing and tracking weak reflections, which are characterized by low amplitude, low signal-to-noise ratio, and low degree of lateral continuity, is a long-time issue in 3D seismic interpretation and reservoir characterization. The problem is particularly acute with unconventional, fractured shale reservoirs, in which the impedance contrast is low and/or reservoir beds are below the tuning thickness. To improve the performance of interpreting weak reflections associated with shale reservoirs, we have developed a new workflow for weak-reflection tracking guided by a robust (...)
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  36. Vectors and Beyond: Geometric Algebra and its Philosophical Significance.Peter Simons - 2009 - Dialectica 63 (4):381-395.
  37. Neural Signalling of Probabilistic Vectors.Nicholas Shea - 2014 - Philosophy of Science 81 (5):902-913.
    Recent work combining cognitive neuroscience with computational modelling suggests that distributed patterns of neural firing may represent probability distributions. This paper asks: what makes it the case that distributed patterns of firing, as well as carrying information about (correlating with) probability distributions over worldly parameters, represent such distributions? In examples of probabilistic population coding, it is the way information is used in downstream processing so as to lead to successful behaviour. In these cases content depends on factors beyond bare information, (...)
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  38.  64
    The Percept and Vector Function Theories of the Brain.Jeff Foss - 1988 - Philosophy of Science 55 (December):511-537.
    Physicalism is an empirical theory of the mind and its place in nature. So the physicalist must show that current neuroscience does not falsify physicalism, but instead supports it. Current neuroscience shows that a nervous system is what I call a vector function system. I provide a brief outline of the resources that empirical research has made available within the constraints of the vector function approach. Then I argue that these resources are sufficient, indeed apt, for the physicalist enterprise, by (...)
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  39.  25
    Lambek Vs. Lambek: Functorial Vector Space Semantics and String Diagrams for Lambek Calculus.Bob Coecke, Edward Grefenstette & Mehrnoosh Sadrzadeh - 2013 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 164 (11):1079-1100.
    The Distributional Compositional Categorical model is a mathematical framework that provides compositional semantics for meanings of natural language sentences. It consists of a computational procedure for constructing meanings of sentences, given their grammatical structure in terms of compositional type-logic, and given the empirically derived meanings of their words. For the particular case that the meaning of words is modelled within a distributional vector space model, its experimental predictions, derived from real large scale data, have outperformed other empirically validated methods that (...)
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  40.  13
    Associative Judgment and Vector Space Semantics.Sudeep Bhatia - 2017 - Psychological Review 124 (1):1-20.
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  41.  17
    Burgers Vectors of Boundary Dislocations in Ordered Grain Boundaries of Cubic Metals.Y. Ishida & M. Mclean - 1973 - Philosophical Magazine 27 (5):1125-1134.
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  42.  5
    Activation Vectors Versus Propositional Attitudes: How the Brain Represents Reality.Paul M. Churchland - 1992 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 52 (2):419-424.
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  43.  30
    Vector Subtraction Implemented Neurally: A Neurocomputational Model of Some Sequential Cognitive and Conscious Processes.John Bickle, Cindy Worley & Marica Bernstein - 2000 - Consciousness and Cognition 9 (1):117-144.
    Although great progress in neuroanatomy and physiology has occurred lately, we still cannot go directly to those levels to discover the neural mechanisms of higher cognition and consciousness. But we can use neurocomputational methods based on these details to push this project forward. Here we describe vector subtraction as an operation that computes sequential paths through high-dimensional vector spaces. Vector-space interpretations of network activity patterns are a fruitful resource in recent computational neuroscience. Vector subtraction also appears to be implemented neurally (...)
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  44.  30
    Vector Potential and Quadratic Action.C. Lanczos - 1972 - Foundations of Physics 2 (4):271-285.
    Einstein's linear Lagrangian is replaced by a Lagrangian which is quadratic in the curvature quantities (gauge invariance). The hypothesis is made that the basic metrical field is highly agitated (due to periodic boundary conditions) thus establishing a submicroscopic basic lattice structure of the space-time world which, however, is macroscopically isotropic. All consequences follow from these assumptions. The “free vector” of Einstein's theory (void of physical significance and used for the normalization of the reference system) is no longer free but of (...)
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  45.  29
    Vector Potential and Riemannian Space.C. Lanczos - 1974 - Foundations of Physics 4 (1):137-147.
    This paper uncovers the basic reason for the mysterious change of sign from plus to minus in the fourth coordinate of nature's Pythagorean law, usually accepted on empirical grounds, although it destroys the rational basis of a Riemannian geometry. Here we assume a genuine, positive-definite Riemannian space and an action principle which is quadratic in the curvature quantities (and thus scale invariant). The constant σ between the two basic invariants is equated to1/2. Then the matter tensor has the trace zero. (...)
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  46.  24
    The Vector Space Kinna-Wagner Principle is Equivalent to the Axiom of Choice.Kyriakos Keremedis - 2001 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 47 (2):205-210.
    We show that the axiom of choice AC is equivalent to the Vector Space Kinna-Wagner Principle, i.e., the assertion: “For every family [MATHEMATICAL SCRIPT CAPITAL V]= {Vi : i ∈ k} of non trivial vector spaces there is a family ℱ = {Fi : i ∈ k} such that for each i ∈ k, Fiis a non empty independent subset of Vi”. We also show that the statement “every vector space over ℚ has a basis” implies that every infinite well (...)
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  47.  72
    A Tale of Two Vectors.Marc Lange - 2009 - Dialectica 63 (4):397-431.
    Why do forces compose according to the parallelogram of forces? This question has been controversial; it is one episode in a longstanding, fundamental dispute regarding which facts are not to be explained dynamically. If the parallelogram law is explained statically, then the laws of statics are separate from and “transcend” the laws of dynamics. Alternatively, if the parallelogram law is explained dynamically, then statical laws become mere corollaries to the dynamical laws. I shall attempt to trace the history of this (...)
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  48.  53
    Word vector embeddings hold social ontological relations capable of reflecting meaningful fairness assessments.Ahmed Izzidien - 2021 - AI and Society (March 2021):1-20.
    Programming artificial intelligence to make fairness assessments of texts through top-down rules, bottom-up training, or hybrid approaches, has presented the challenge of defining cross-cultural fairness. In this paper a simple method is presented which uses vectors to discover if a verb is unfair or fair. It uses already existing relational social ontologies inherent in Word Embeddings and thus requires no training. The plausibility of the approach rests on two premises. That individuals consider fair acts those that they would be (...)
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  49.  43
    Gravity and State Vector Reduction.Roger Penrose - 1986 - In Roger Penrose & C. J. Isham (eds.), Quantum Concepts in Space and Time. New York ;Oxford University Press. pp. 1--129.
  50.  15
    Distinguishing Initial State-Vectors From Each Other in Histories Formulations and the PBR Argument.Petros Wallden - 2013 - Foundations of Physics 43 (12):1502-1525.
    Following the argument of Pusey et al. (in Nature Phys. 8:476, 2012), new interest has been raised on whether one can interpret state-vectors (pure states) in a statistical way (ψ-epistemic theories), or if each one of them corresponds to a different ontological entity. Each interpretation of quantum theory assumes different ontology and one could ask if the PBR argument carries over. Here we examine this question for histories formulations in general with particular attention to the co-event formulation. State-vectors (...)
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