Results for 'well-grounded belief'

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  1. The Many Ways of the Basing Relation.Luca Moretti & Tommaso Piazza - forthcoming - In Joseph Adam Carter & Patrick Bondy (eds.), Well Founded Belief: New Essays on the Epistemic Basing Relation. London: Routledge.
    A subject S's belief that Q is well-grounded if and only if it is based on a reason of S that gives S propositional justification for Q. Depending on the nature of S's reason, the process whereby S bases her belief that Q on it can vary. If S's reason is non-doxastic––like an experience that Q or a testimony that Q––S will need to form the belief that Q as a spontaneous and immediate response to that (...)
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  2.  94
    Well-Founded Belief and the Contingencies of Epistemic Location.Guy Axtell - forthcoming - In Patrick Bondy & J. Adam Carter (eds.), Well Founded Belief: New Essays on the Epistemic Basing Relation. London: Routledge, 2019.
    A growing number of philosophers are concerned with the epistemic status of culturally nurtured beliefs, beliefs found especially in domains of morals, politics, philosophy, and religion. Plausibly, worries about the deep impact of cultural contingencies on beliefs in these domains of controversial views is a question about well-foundedness: Does it defeat well-foundedness if the agent is rationally convinced that she would take her own reasons for belief as insufficiently well-founded, or would take her own belief as biased, had (...)
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  3.  78
    Perceptual Knowledge and Well-Founded Belief.Alan Millar - 2016 - Episteme 13 (1):43-59.
    Should a philosophical account of perceptual knowledge accord a justificatory role to sensory experiences? This discussion raises problems for an affirmative answer and sets out an alternative account on which justified belief is conceived as well-founded belief and well-foundedness is taken to depend on knowledge. A key part of the discussion draws on a conception of perceptual-recognitional abilities to account for how perception gives rise both to perceptual knowledge and to well-founded belief.
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  4. Is There a Viable Account of Well-Founded Belief?Maria Lasonen-Aarnio - 2010 - Erkenntnis 72 (2):205-231.
    My starting point is some widely accepted and intuitive ideas about justified, well-founded belief. By drawing on John Pollock’s work, I sketch a formal framework for making these ideas precise. Central to this framework is the notion of an inference graph. An inference graph represents everything that is relevant about a subject for determining which of her beliefs are justified, such as what the subject believes based on what. The strengths of the nodes of the graph represent the degrees (...)
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  5.  15
    Well-Founded Belief and Perceptual Justification.Fernando Broncano-Berrocal - 2016 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 116 (3):367-377.
    According to Alan Millar, justified beliefs are well-founded beliefs. Millar cashes out the notion of well-foundedness in terms of having an adequate reason to believe something and believing it for that reason. To make his account of justified belief compatible with perceptual justification he appeals to the notion of recognitional ability. It is argued that, due to the fact that Millar’s is a knowledge-first view, his appeal to recognitional abilities fails to offer an explanatory account of familiar cases in (...)
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  6. Well Founded Belief: New Essays on the Epistemic Basing Relation.Joseph Adam Carter & Patrick Bondy (eds.) - 2019 - Routledge.
     
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  7. A Well-Grounded Education: The Role of Perception in Science and Mathematics.Robert Goldstone, David Landy & Son & Y. Ji - 2008 - In Manuel de Vega, Arthur Glenberg & Arthur Graesser (eds.), Symbols and Embodiment: Debates on Meaning and Cognition. Oxford University Press.
  8.  2
    Logic, Mathematics or Metaphysics: And Yet, is the Leibniz’ Conception Enough Well-Grounded?Viktor Okorokov - 2013 - Sententiae 29 (2):204-218.
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    Symposium on Marshall's Tendencies: 2 Well-Grounded Theory, and Aggregation.Franklin M. Fisher - 2002 - Economics and Philosophy 18 (1):17-20.
    In Marshall's Tendencies (Sutton, 2000), John Sutton poses some fairly deep questions for economists, especially for empirical work. In particular, when (if ever) is it safe to behave as though the applies? In that paradigm, we are attempting to extract and estimate the model from the data and are only kept from doing so because, while economic analysis captures the main , there are many small influences that we cannot exactly take into account. That paradigm, which Sutton traces to an (...)
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  10. Well-Founded Belief: New Essays on the Basing Relation.J. Adam Carter & Patrick Bondy (eds.) - forthcoming
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  11. A Well-Grounded Education: The Role of Perception in Science and Mathematics.Robert Goldstone & David Landy & Ji Y. Son - 2008 - In Manuel de Vega, Arthur Glenberg & Arthur Graesser (eds.), Symbols and Embodiment: Debates on Meaning and Cognition. Oxford University Press.
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  12. Peer Disagreement, Evidence, and Well-Groundedness.Han van Wietmarschen - 2013 - Philosophical Review 122 (3):395-425.
    The central question of the peer disagreement debate is: what should you believe about the disputed proposition if you have good reason to believe that an epistemic peer disagrees with you? This article shows that this question is ambiguous between evidential support (or propositional justification) and well-groundedness (or doxastic justification). The discussion focuses on conciliatory views, according to which peer disagreements require you to significantly revise your view or to suspend judgment. The article argues that for a wide range of (...)
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  13. Belief and Well-Being: An Exploration of Indian Psyche.Sadhan Chakraborti (ed.) - 2009 - Gangchil.
  14. Autonoesis and Belief in a Personal Past: An Evolutionary Theory of Episodic Memory Indices.Stan Klein - 2014 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 5 (3):427-447.
    In this paper I discuss philosophical and psychological treatments of the question "how do we decide that an occurrent mental state is a memory and not, say a thought or imagination?" This issue has proven notoriously difficult to resolve, with most proposed indices, criteria and heuristics failing to achieve consensus. Part of the difficulty, I argue, is that the indices and analytic solutions thus far offered seldom have been situated within a well-specified theory of memory function. As I hope to (...)
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  15.  13
    On a Belief-Relative Moral Right to Civil Disobedience.Tine Hindkjaer Madsen - forthcoming - Res Publica:1-17.
    Acts of civil disobedience are undertaken in defense of a variety of causes ranging from banning GMO crops and prohibiting abortion to fighting inequality and saving the environment. Recently, Brownlee has argued that the merit of a cause is not relevant to the establishment of a moral right to civil disobedience. Instead, it is the fact that a dissenter believes his cause for protest to be morally right that is salient. We may term her and similar such theories belief-relative (...)
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  16. In Search of Meaning: Some Thoughts on Belief, Doubt, and Well Being.A. J. Marsella - 1999 - International Journal of Transpersonal Studies 18 (1):41-52.
    The relationship between personal meaning, belief systems, and health and wellbeing is discussed. It is argued that our conceptions of health and wellbeing must incorporate a concern for spirituality. As information is processed via our senses in the course of human development, we gradually construct complex belief systems, including worldviews, life-philosophies, religions, mythologies, and spiritual paths. Though differing in content, these complex belief systems guide our behavior and provide us with a sense of personal meaning. However, meaning-making (...)
     
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  17.  41
    On Not Giving Up the World - Davidson and the Grounds of Belief.Jeff Malpas - 2008 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 16 (2):201 – 215.
    What is the relation between our beliefs, or thoughts in general, and the perceptual experience of the world that gives rise to those beliefs? Donald Davidson is usually taken to have a well-known answer to this question that runs as follows: while our beliefs are, at least in part, caused by our experience, such experience does not thereby count as providing a rational ground for those beliefs; our beliefs are thus evidentially grounded in other beliefs, but not in the experience (...)
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  18.  3
    Children’s Imagination and Belief: Prone to Flights of Fancy or Grounded in Reality?Jonathan D. Lane, Samuel Ronfard, Stéphane P. Francioli & Paul L. Harris - 2016 - Cognition 152:127-140.
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  19.  11
    An Explanatory Heuristic Gives Rise to the Belief That Words Are Well Suited for Their Referents.Shelbie L. Sutherland & Andrei Cimpian - 2015 - Cognition 143:228-240.
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  20.  12
    Inductive Influence: Objective Bayesianism has Been Criticised for Not Allowing Learning From Experience: It is Claimed That an Agent Must Give Degree of Belief Formula to the Next Raven Being Black, However Many Other Black Ravens Have Been Observed. I Argue That This Objection Can Be Overcome by Appealing to Objective Bayesian Nets, a Formalism for Representing Objective Bayesian Degrees of Belief. Under This Account, Previous Observations Exert an Inductive Influence on the Next Observation. I Show How This Approach Can Be Used to Capture the Johnson–Carnap Continuum of Inductive Methods, as Well as the Nix–Paris Continuum, and Show How Inductive Influence Can Be Measured. [REVIEW]Jon Williamson - 2007 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 58 (4):689-708.
  21.  4
    A Psychological Perspective on God-Belief as a Source of Well-Being and Meaning.E. Karen Van der Merwe, Chrizanne Van Eeden & Hans J. M. Van Deventer - 2010 - Hts Theological Studies 66 (1).
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  22. Troubles with Bayesianism: An Introduction to the Psychological Immune System.Eric Mandelbaum - 2019 - Mind and Language 34 (2):141-157.
    A Bayesian mind is, at its core, a rational mind. Bayesianism is thus well-suited to predict and explain mental processes that best exemplify our ability to be rational. However, evidence from belief acquisition and change appears to show that we do not acquire and update information in a Bayesian way. Instead, the principles of belief acquisition and updating seem grounded in maintaining a psychological immune system rather than in approximating a Bayesian processor.
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  23. The Architecture of the Mind: Massive Modularity and the Flexibility of Thought.Peter Carruthers - 2006 - Oxford University Press UK.
    This book is a comprehensive development and defense of one of the guiding assumptions of evolutionary psychology: that the human mind is composed of a large number of semi-independent modules. The Architecture of the Mind has three main goals. One is to argue for massive mental modularity. Another is to answer a 'How possibly?' challenge to any such approach. The first part of the book lays out the positive case supporting massive modularity. It also outlines how the thesis should best (...)
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  24.  37
    Wittgenstein and Religious Dogma.Christopher Hoyt - 2007 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 61 (1):39 - 49.
    It is well understood that Wittgenstein defends religious faith against positivistic criticisms on the grounds of its logical independence. But exactly how are we to understand the nature of that independence? Most scholars take Wittgenstein to equate language-games with belief-systems, and thus to assert that religions are logical schemes founded on their own basic beliefs and principles of inference. By contrast, I argue that on Wittgenstein’s view, to have religious faith is to hold fast to a certain picture of (...)
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  25.  7
    Delusions and Misbeliefs.Max Coltheart - 2009 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (6):517-517.
    Beliefs may be true or false, and grounded or ungrounded. McKay & Dennett (M&D) treat these properties of belief as independent. What, then, do they mean by misbelief? They state that misbeliefs are So would they consider a very well-grounded belief that is false a misbelief? And why can't beliefs that are very poorly grounded be considered delusions, even when they are true?
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  26.  32
    Faith Through the Dark of Night.Daniel J. McKaughan - 2018 - Faith and Philosophy 35 (2):195-218.
    Faith plays a valuable role in sustaining relationships through various kinds of challenges, including through evidentially unfavorable circumstances and periods of significant doubt. But if, as is widely assumed, both faith in God and faith that God exists require belief that God exists, and if one’s beliefs are properly responsive to one’s evidence, the capacity for faith to persevere amidst significant and well-grounded doubt will be fairly limited. Taking Mother Teresa as an exemplar of Christian faith and exploring (...)
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  27. Wittgenstein and the Real Numbers.Daesuk Han - 2010 - History and Philosophy of Logic 31 (3):219-245.
    When it comes to Wittgenstein's philosophy of mathematics, even sympathetic admirers are cowed into submission by the many criticisms of influential authors in that field. They say something to the effect that Wittgenstein does not know enough about or have enough respect for mathematics, to take him as a serious philosopher of mathematics. They claim to catch Wittgenstein pooh-poohing the modern set-theoretic extensional conception of a real number. This article, however, will show that Wittgenstein's criticism is well grounded. A real (...)
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  28.  69
    The Authority of Memory.David J. Owens - 1999 - European Journal of Philosophy 7 (3):312-29.
    [FIRST PARAGRAPHS] Nothing is more common than for us to continue to believe without rehearsing the reasons which led us to believe in the first place. It is hard to see how it could be otherwise. Were we obliged constantly to re-trace our cognitive steps, to reassure ourselves that we are entitled to our convictions, how could we ever move forward? We have probably forgotten why we adopted many of our current beliefs and even if we could dredge the evidence (...)
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  29. The Folk Psychology of Souls.Jesse M. Bering - 2006 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (5):453-+.
    The present article examines how people’s belief in an afterlife, as well as closely related supernatural beliefs, may open an empirical backdoor to our understanding of the evolution of human social cognition. Recent findings and logic from the cognitive sciences contribute to a novel theory of existential psychology, one that is grounded in the tenets of Darwinian natural selection. Many of the predominant questions of existential psychology strike at the heart of cognitive science. They involve: causal attribution (why is (...)
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  30.  61
    On Blanket Statements About the Epistemic Effects of Religious Diversity.Andrew Koehl - 2005 - Religious Studies 41 (4):395-414.
    Religious diversity poses a challenge to the view that exclusive religious beliefs can be justified and warranted. Equally upright and thoughtful people who appear to possess similarly well-grounded and coherent systems of belief, come up with irreconcilable religious views. The content of religious beliefs also seems unduly dependent upon culture, and no one religion has been shown to be more transformative than the others. Philosophers have recently made at least three kinds of claims about the effects of diversity (...)
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  31.  41
    Kant's Theory of Propositional Attitudes.G. J. Mattey - 1986 - Kant-Studien 77 (1-4):423-440.
    Kant was among the first philosophers to recognize that modalities come in many varieties, and that there are systematic connections among them--an insight which has since been confirmed by the multitude of applications of the basic techniques of formalized modal logic. In particular, He recognized an affinity among what are now called doxastic and epistemic logics, As well as with a logic of judging which has not exact counterpart in contemporary thought. This paper will be concerned with the explication of (...)
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  32.  36
    Global Human Rights, Peace and Cultural Difference: Huntington and the Political Philosophy of International Relations.W. Kersting - 2002 - Kantian Review 6:5-34.
    In 1989, the age of power political realism ended. The conditions were set to replace the prevailing Hobbesian model of peace by deterrence with the considerably more challenging Kantian model of peace by right. If, however, Huntington's paradigm of fighting civilizations were right, we would have to forget Kant and remember Hobbes. Sober rationality, healthy distrust, striving for power accumulation and all the other instruments from the realist's toolbox of political prudence are very well suited to facilitate political self-assertion in (...)
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  33.  13
    Comments on Intelligent Virtue: Rightness and Exemplars of Virtue.Christine Swanton - 2015 - Journal of Value Inquiry 49 (1-2):307-314.
    IntroductionIntelligent Virtue is a great book on virtue: an eminently sensible book, and I agree with virtually all of it. For me describing a philosophy book as sensible and indeed commonsensical is real praise, for much philosophy exemplifies a vice to which Martha Nussbaum has drawn our attention in ‘Saving Aristotle’s Appearances.’See Language and Logos Studies in Ancient Greek Philosophy, ed. Malcolm Schofield and Nussbaum , pp. 267–293, 277. This is the intellectual vice of philosophers who got ‘fascinated with the (...)
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  34.  20
    Rejoinder to Mawson.Brian Zamulinski - 2004 - Religious Studies 40 (3):365-366.
    In reply to Mawson, I accept that each and every religion includes the self-referential belief that it is true. I seek to show that this admission does not entail that the rest of the beliefs of religions track the truth or that they are not better explained through the religion-as-fiction hypothesis. If that hypothesis is well-grounded, it gives us good reason not to take arguments for religions' non-self-referential beliefs seriously. (Published Online August 11 2004).
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  35.  43
    Religious Faith and Intellectual Virtue.Laura Frances Callahan & Timothy O'Connor (eds.) - 2014 - Oxford University Press.
    Is religious faith consistent with being an intellectually virtuous thinker? In seeking to answer this question, one quickly finds others, each of which has been the focus of recent renewed attention by epistemologists: What is it to be an intellectually virtuous thinker? Must all reasonable belief be grounded in public evidence? Under what circumstances is a person rationally justified in believing something on trust, on the testimony of another, or because of the conclusions drawn by an intellectual authority? Can (...)
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  36. Explaining (Away) the Epistemic Condition on Moral Responsibility.Gunnar Björnsson - 2017 - In Philip Robichaud & Jan Willem Wieland (eds.), Responsibility - The Epistemic Condition. Oxford University Press. pp. 146–162.
    It is clear that lack of awareness of the consequences of an action can undermine moral responsibility and blame for these consequences. But when and how it does so is controversial. Sometimes an agent believing that the outcome might occur is excused because it seemed unlikely to her, and sometimes an agent having no idea that it would occur is nevertheless to blame. A low or zero degree of belief might seem to excuse unless the agent “should have known (...)
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  37.  12
    When to Teach for Belief: A Tempered Defense of the Epistemic Criterion.John Tillson - 2017 - Educational Theory 67 (2):173-191.
    Michael Hand has defended the “epistemic criterion” for “directive and nondirective teaching” in his 2008 Educational Theory article, “What Should We Teach as Controversial? A Defense of the Epistemic Criterion,” as well as subsequent pieces. Here, John Tillson defends use of the epistemic criterion in the case of what he calls “momentous propositions,” but he rejects two of Hand's key arguments in support of the criterion. This rethinking comes in light of important contributions to the debate made by Bryan Warnick (...)
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  38. The Non-Epistemology of Intelligent Design: Its Implications for Public Policy.Barbara Forrest - 2011 - Synthese 178 (2):331 - 379.
    Intelligent design creationism (ID) is a religious belief requiring a supernatural creator's interventions in the natural order. ID thus brings with it, as does supernatural theism by its nature, intractable epistemological difficulties. Despite these difficulties and despite ID's defeat in Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District (2005), ID creationists' continuing efforts to promote the teaching of ID in public school science classrooms threaten both science education and the separation of church and state guaranteed by the U. S. Constitution. I (...)
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  39.  35
    Normativity and Instrumentalism in David Lewis' Convention.S. M. Amadae - 2011 - History of European Ideas 37 (3):325-335.
    David Lewis presented Convention as an alternative to the conventionalism characteristic of early-twentieth-century analytic philosophy. Rudolf Carnap is well known for suggesting the arbitrariness of any particular linguistic convention for engaging in scientific inquiry. Analytic truths are self-consistent, and are not checked against empirical facts to ascertain their veracity. In keeping with the logical positivists before him, Lewis concludes that linguistic communication is conventional. However, despite his firm allegiance to conventions underlying not just languages but also social customs, he pioneered (...)
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  40. Is Patriotism an Associative Duty?Margaret Moore - 2009 - Journal of Ethics 13 (4):383-399.
    Associative duties—duties inherent to some of our relationships—are most commonly discussed in terms of intimate associations such as of families, friends, or lovers. In this essay I ask whether impersonal associations such as state or nation can also give rise to genuinely associative duties, i.e., duties of patriotism or nationalism. I distinguish between the two in terms of their objects: the object of patriotism is an institutionalized political community, whereas the object of nationalism is a group of people who share (...)
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  41.  76
    Mad Speculation and Absolute Inhumanism: Lovecraft, Ligotti, and the Weirding of Philosophy.Ben Woodard - 2011 - Continent 1 (1):3-13.
    continent. 1.1 : 3-13. / 0/ – Introduction I want to propose, as a trajectory into the philosophically weird, an absurd theoretical claim and pursue it, or perhaps more accurately, construct it as I point to it, collecting the ground work behind me like the Perpetual Train from China Mieville's Iron Council which puts down track as it moves reclaiming it along the way. The strange trajectory is the following: Kant's critical philosophy and much of continental philosophy which has followed, (...)
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  42.  33
    Self-Knowledge in a Natural World.Jeremy Cushing - unknown
    In this dissertation, I reconcile our knowledge of our own minds with philosophical naturalism. Philosophers traditionally hold that our knowledge of our own minds is especially direct and authoritative in comparison with other domains of knowledge. I introduce the subject in the first chapter. In the second and third chapters, I address the idea that we know our own minds directly. If self-knowledge is direct, it must not be grounded on anything more epistemically basic. This creates a puzzle for all (...)
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  43.  22
    A New Understanding of the Technological Progress in the Modern Philosophy of Technology.Vitaly G. Gorokhov - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 48:25-31.
    In the 17th-19th centuries human society formed the understanding of scientific and technological progress as continuous improvement of society and nature on the basis of the growing capacity of scientific knowledge of the world. This belief in continuous scientific and technological progress, absolutisation of a value-free scientific research, illusion of actual «creatability» of the world on the basis of the obtained knowledge resulted in emergence of a scientific religion, based mostly on the belief in the power of scientific (...)
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  44.  20
    Totality and Infinity, Alterity, and Relation: From Levinas to Glissant.Bernadette Cailler - 2011 - Journal of French and Francophone Philosophy 19 (1):135-151.
    Totality and Infinity , the title of a well-known work by Emmanuel Levinas, takes up a word which readers of Poetic Intention and of many other texts of Édouard Glissant’s will easily recognize: a term sometimes used in a sense that is clearly positive, sometimes in a sense that is not quite as positive, such as when, for instance, he compares “totalizing Reason” to the “Montaigne’s tolerant relativism.” In his final collection of essays, Traité du tout-monde, Poétique IV , Glissant (...)
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  45.  19
    Maduabuchi Dukor and the Legacies of Ontological Practices in African Thought System.Adebayo Aina - 2013 - Open Journal of Philosophy 3 (1):168.
    A challenge human existence is confronted in contemporary society is the justification of a coherent social order. Most of these justifications have been grounded, over time, on natural approach to the neglect of the African ontological practice. This natural reference fails to account for the ontological practice premised on African belief system which reconciles the natural and spiritual aspects of human existence. The study adopts the analytic approach in philosophy which evolves a clarification of the ontological concept within the (...)
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  46.  2
    On Biblical Logicism.Alexander Brungs & Frédéric Goubier - 2009 - Recherches de Theologie Et Philosophie Medievales 76 (1):199-244.
    For John Wyclif, the fundamental belief that Scripture is true de virtute sermonis is grounded in the fact that the meanings of the words therein are equivocal. A word can have several different meanings depending on whether it is outside or inside Scripture as well as on its location in Scripture. This principle allows each and every word in Scripture to be endowed with its own meaning — however figurative, i.e., metaphorical, allegorical etc. it may be —, tailored for (...)
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  47. A Defense of Dignity: Creating Life, Destroying Life, and Protecting the Rights of Conscience.Christopher Kaczor - 2013 - University of Notre Dame Press.
    Questions about the dignity of the human person give rise to many of the most central and hotly disputed topics in bioethics. In _A Defense of Dignity: Creating Life, Destroying Life, and Protecting the Rights of Conscience_, Christopher Kaczor investigates whether each human being has intrinsic dignity and whether the very concept of "dignity" has a useful place in contemporary ethical debates. Kaczor explores a broad range of issues addressed in contemporary bioethics, including whether there is a duty of "procreative (...)
     
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  48. The Allure of Determinacy: Truth and Cartesian Certainty.Charlotte Carroll Smith Thomas - 1996 - Dissertation, Emory University
    This study is an in-depth examination of the allure of Cartesianism. Its central focus is to uncover the grounds of Cartesianism in the will, and to show how such a grounding accounts for Descartes' immediate popularity and expansive influence. Cartesianism is generally taken to be a species of rationalism or foundationalism. However, it is essential to understanding Cartesianism to see that it has its foundations in an act of pure will. ;This rarely discussed aspect of the grounds of Descartes' method (...)
     
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  49. Simple Hyperintensional Belief Revision.F. Berto - 2018 - Erkenntnis (3):1-17.
    I present a possible worlds semantics for a hyperintensional belief revision operator, which reduces the logical idealization of cognitive agents affecting similar operators in doxastic and epistemic logics, as well as in standard AGM belief revision theory. belief states are not closed under classical logical consequence; revising by inconsistent information does not perforce lead to trivialization; and revision can be subject to ‘framing effects’: logically or necessarily equivalent contents can lead to different revisions. Such results are obtained (...)
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  50. A Phenomenal, Dispositional Account of Belief.Eric Schwitzgebel - 2002 - Noûs 36 (2):249-275.
    This paper describes and defends in detail a novel account of belief, an account inspired by Ryle's dispositional characterization of belief, but emphasizing irreducibly phenomenal and cognitive dispositions as well as behavioral dispositions. Potential externalist and functionalist objections are considered, as well as concerns motivated by the inevitably ceteris paribus nature of the relevant dispositional attributions. It is argued that a dispositional account of belief is particularly well-suited to handle what might be called "in-between" cases of believing (...)
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