Results for 'wishful thinking'

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  1. How Is Wishful Seeing Like Wishful Thinking?Susanna Siegel - 2017 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 95 (2):408-435.
    This paper makes the case that when wishful thinking ill-founds belief, the belief depends on the desire in ways can be recapitulated at the level of perceptual experience. The relevant kinds of desires include motivations, hopes, preferences, and goals. I distinguish between two modes of dependence of belief on desire in wishful thinking: selective or inquiry-related, and responsive or evidence-related. I offers a theory of basing on which beliefs are badly-based on desires, due to patterns of (...)
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  2. The Best Essay Ever: The Fallacy of Wishful Thinking.Mark Maller - 2013 - Review of Contemporary Philosophy 12 (1):30-42.
    It is argued that wishful thinking is an informal logical fallacy and is distinguished from self-deception and delusion. Wishful thinking is unique in that a human desire is the starting point, which remains unfulfilled because of insufficient or no evidence or ignorance, despite the agent’s beliefs. It contrasts with self-deception, a more serious mental state in which the agent hides or denies the truth from himself, regardless of whether it is desired. Wishful thinking is (...)
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  3.  71
    Are Expressivists Guilty of Wishful Thinking?Robert Mabrito - 2013 - Philosophical Studies 165 (3):1069-1081.
    Some contemporary philosophers have argued that expressivism or non-cognitivism, if suitably developed, can solve the well-known Frege–Geach problem. Of course, whether this is true is a matter of debate. Recently, Cian Dorr has advanced an argument that, if successful, would show that this debate is unimportant. For, according to Dorr, a solution to the Frege–Geach problem will not save expressivism from a new and distinct problem, namely that an expressivist theory—even assuming a solution to the Frege–Geach problem—entails that intuitively rational (...)
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  4.  25
    Wishful Thinking in the Prediction of Competitive Outcomes.Paul C. Price - 2000 - Thinking and Reasoning 6 (2):161 – 172.
    In each of two experiments, college students were assigned to two ad hoc groups that competed in a dart-throwing contest. On each trial, one contestant from each team threw a single dart at a standard dart board, trying to come as close as possible to hitting the bull's-eye. Also on each trial, the other participants judged the likelihood that both the Team A contestant and the Team B contestant would come closer to hitting the bull's-eye. In both experiments, participants exhibited (...)
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  5.  9
    Second Thoughts About "Wishful Thinking".Mark van Roojen - 2019 - Res Philosophica 96 (2):269-288.
    Cian Dorr has argued that non-cognitivists must think of reasoning from moral premises to empirical conclusions as akin to wishful thinking. Defenders of non-cognitivism have responded that an adequate solution to the Frege-Geach problem would explain relations of entailment and implication between moral and nonmoral claims and thereby also handle Dorr’s objection. This paper offers a new, more specific, interpretation of Dorr’s objection and one that makes it distinct from worries about Frege-Geach. The paper also explains why non-cognitivists (...)
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  6.  40
    Wishful Thinking and Values in Science.Daniel Steel - 2018 - Philosophy of Science 85 (5):895-905.
    This article examines the concept of wishful thinking in philosophical literature on science and values. It suggests that this term tends to be used in an overly broad manner that fails to distinguish between separate types of bias, mechanisms that generate biases, and general theories that might explain those mechanisms. I explain how confirmation bias is distinct from wishful thinking and why it is more useful for examining the relationship between cognitive bias and beliefs about the (...)
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  7. How Not to Avoid Wishful Thinking.Mark Schroeder - 2011 - In Michael Brady (ed.), New Waves in Metaethics. Palgrave-Macmillan.
    Expressivists famously have important and difficult problems with semantics and logic. Their difficulties providing an adequate account of the semantics of material conditionals involving moral terms, and explaining why they have the right semantic and logical properties – for example, why they validate modus ponens – have received a great deal of attention. Cian Dorr [2002] points out that their problems do not stop here, but also extend to epistemology. The problem he poses for expressivists is the problem of (...) thinking. David Enoch [2003] has claimed that expressivists can avoid wishful thinking, and offered a fairly detailed account of how. In this paper I explain the details of Enoch’s account, and why his reasoning fails in several different places. (shrink)
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  8.  73
    Ideal Worlds — Wishful Thinking in Deontic Logic.Sven Ove Hansson - 2006 - Studia Logica 82 (3):329-336.
    The ideal world semantics of standard deontic logic identifies our obligations with how we would act in an ideal world. However, to act as if one lived in an ideal world is bad moral advice, associated with wishful thinking rather than well-considered moral deliberation. Ideal world semantics gives rise to implausible logical principles, and the metaphysical arguments that have been put forward in its favour turn out to be based on a too limited view of truth-functional representation. It (...)
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  9.  13
    A Framework for Understanding Wishful Thinking.Daniel Hicks & Kevin Elliott - unknown
    While the science and values literature has seen recurrent concerns about wishful thinking, there have been few efforts to characterize this phenomenon. Based on a review of varieties of wishful thinking involved in climate skepticism, we argue that instances of wishful thinking can be fruitfully characterized in terms of the mechanisms that generate them and the problems associated with them. We highlight the array of mechanisms associated with wishful thinking, as well as (...)
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  10.  42
    How Wishful Seeing is Not Like Wishful Thinking.Robert Long - 2018 - Philosophical Studies 175 (6):1401-1421.
    On a traditional view of perceptual justification, perceptual experiences always provide prima facie justification for beliefs based on them. Against this view, Matthew McGrath and Susanna Siegel argue that if an experience is formed in an epistemically pernicious way then it is epistemically downgraded. They argue that "wishful seeing"—when a subject sees something because he wants to see it—is psychologically and normatively analogous to wishful thinking. They conclude that perception can lose its traditional justificatory power, and that (...)
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  11.  15
    Informed Consent?Wishful Thinking?David A. Buehler - 1982 - Journal of Bioethics 4 (1-2):43-57.
    This article is concerned with the concept of “informed consent” as applied both in biomedical research involving human subjects and in clinical medicine in general. The current crisis over the elaboration and interpretation of the concept will be examined, along with the broader question of whether “informed consent” is any longer meaningful or viable as a criterion for complex bioethical policy-making. Finally, I will attempt to sketch a prognosis for the concept in doctor-patient relations, even if it is only (...) thinking. (shrink)
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  12.  59
    Wishful Thinking and Social Influence in the 2008 U.S. Presidential Election.Michael K. Miller, Guanchun Wang, Sanjeev R. Kulkarni & Daniel N. Osherson - unknown
    This paper analyzes individual probabilistic predictions of state outcomes in the 2008 U.S. presidential election. Employing an original survey of more than 19,000 respondents, ours is the first study of electoral forecasting to involve multiple subnational predictions and to incorporate the influence of respondents’ home states. We relate a range of demographic, political, and cognitive variables to individual accuracy and predictions, as well as to how accuracy improved over time. We find strong support for wishful thinking bias in (...)
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  13.  27
    Wishful Thinking and the Unconscious.Andries Gouws - 2003 - South African Journal of Philosophy 22 (4):361-377.
    This paper gives a sketch for a reconstruction of the Freudian unconscious, and an argument for its existence. The strategy followed attempts to side-step the extended debates about the validity of Freud's methods and conclusions, by basing itself on the desire/belief schema for understanding and explaining human behaviour – a schema neither folk psychology nor scientific psychology can do without. People are argued to have, as ideal types, two fundamental modes of fulfilling their desires: engaging with reality, and wishful (...)
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  14. Wishful Thinking and Other Philosophical Reflections.Nicholas Rescher - 2009 - Ontos Verlag.
    Wishful thinking -- Agency and the future -- Mind matter partnership -- On morality and ethics -- Quasi-objects -- Legislated quantities -- Totalization and its problems -- Philosophical counterargumentation -- Oriental pluralism -- Analyticity reconsidered -- On issues of exponential growth.
     
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  15.  32
    The Elusive Wishful Thinking Effect.Maya Bar-Hillel & David Budescu - 1995 - Thinking and Reasoning 1 (1):71 – 103.
  16.  60
    Wishful Thinking and the Unconscious: A Reply to Gouws.Elisa Galgut - 2005 - South African Journal of Philosophy 24 (1):14-21.
    This paper argues against the view that the Freudian unconscious can be understood as an extension of ordinary belief-desire psychology. The paper argues that Freud’s picture of the mind challenges the paradigm of folk psychology, as it is understood by much contemporary philosophy of psychology and cognitive science. The dynamic unconscious postulated by psychoanalysis operates according to rules and principles which are distinct in kind from those rules that organise rational and conscious thought. Psychoanalysis offers us a radical reconception of (...)
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  17. Intention, Belief, and Wishful Thinking: Setiya on “Practical Knowledge”.Sarah K. Paul - 2009 - Ethics 119 (3):546-557.
  18. Non‐Cognitivism and Wishful Thinking.Cian Dorr - 2002 - Noûs 36 (1):97–103.
    Even if non-cognitivists about some subject-matter can meet Geach’s challenge to explain how there can be valid implications involving sentences which express non-cognitive attitudes, they face a further problem. I argue that a non-cognitivist cannot explain how, given a valid argument whose conclusion expresses a belief and at least one of whose premises expresses a non-cognitive attitude, it could be reasonable to infer the conclusion from the premises.
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  19. In Defense of Wishful Thinking: James, Quine, Emotions, and the Web of Belief.Alexander Klein - 2018 - In Maria Baghramian & Sarin Marchetti (eds.), Pragmatism and the European Traditions: Encounters with Analytic Philosophy and Phenomenology Before the Great Divide. London: Routledge. pp. 228-250.
    What is W. V. O. Quine’s relationship to classical pragmatism? Although he resists the comparison to William James in particular, commentators have seen an affinity between his “web of belief” model of theory confirmation and James’s claim that our beliefs form a “stock” that faces new experience as a corporate body. I argue that the similarity is only superficial. James thinks our web of beliefs should be responsive not just to perceptual but also to emotional experiences in some cases; Quine (...)
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  20. Wishful Thinking in Moral Theorizing: Comment on Enoch.Rob van Someren Greve - 2011 - Utilitas 23 (4):447-450.
    David Enoch recently defended the idea that there are valid inferences of the form ‘it would be good if p, therefore, p’. I argue that Enoch's proposal allows us to infer the absurd conclusion that ours is the best of all possible worlds.
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  21.  10
    How Prevalent is Wishful Thinking? Misattribution of Arousal Causes Optimism and Pessimism in Subjective Probabilities.Joachim Vosgerau - 2010 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 139 (1):32-48.
  22.  13
    Science, Truth and Dictatorship: Wishful Thinking or Wishful Speaking?Stephen John - forthcoming - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A.
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  23. Wishful Thinking and Self-Deception.Bela Szabados - 1973 - Analysis 33 (June):201-205.
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  24.  5
    The Infrastructure Effect: Scientific Conjecture or Wishful Thinking?Stuart Rennie - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics 16 (6):12-13.
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  25.  44
    Imagination, Fantasy, Wishful Thinking and Truth.Joanne B. Ciulla - 1998 - The Ruffin Series of the Society for Business Ethics 1998:99-107.
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  26.  81
    How Noncognitivists Can Avoid Wishful Thinking.David Enoch - 2003 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 41 (4):527-545.
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  27. Evidence Gained From Torture: Wishful Thinking, Checkability, and Extreme Circumstances.James Franklin - 2009 - Cardozo Journal of International and Comparative Law 17:281-290.
    "Does torture work?" is a factual rather than ethical or legal question. But legal and ethical discussions of torture should be informed by knowledge of the answer to the factual question of the reliability of torture as an interrogation technique. The question as to whether torture works should be asked before that of its legal admissibility—if it is not useful to interrogators, there is no point considering its legality in court.
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  28. The Good and Green Society : Ecology, Democracy and Autonomy : A Problem of Wishful Thinking.Mathew Humphrey - 2004 - In M. L. J. Wissenburg & Yoram Levy (eds.), Liberal Democracy and Environmentalism: The End of Environmentalism? Routledge.
  29.  12
    Holm Tetens on the Moral-Existential Argument for Theism: Reasonable Hope and Wishful Thinking.Georg Gasser - 2017 - Neue Zeitschrift für Systematicsche Theologie Und Religionsphilosophie 59 (4):495-513.
    SummaryHolm Tetens develops in his book „Gott denken. Ein Versuch über rationale Theologie“ theoretical and practical arguments against a naturalistic and in favour of a theistic understanding of reality. In my paper I focus on Teten’s claim that we are rationally justified to hope for the truth of classical theism. I distinguish between rationally justified and unjustified forms of hope and argue that we are rationally justified to hope for the redemption of reality as promised by classical theism. However, this (...)
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  30.  45
    Wishful Thinking and "The Will to Believe".Stephen T. Davis - 1972 - Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 8 (4):231 - 245.
  31.  14
    Irrationality and the Dynamic Unconscious: The Case for Wishful Thinking.P. G. Sturdee - 1995 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 2 (2):163-174.
  32.  22
    Formalizing No Wishful Thinking.Jan Broersen, Mehdi Dastani & Leendert van der Torre - 2001 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 11 (3-4).
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  33.  24
    Wishful Thinking.Daniel C. Dennett - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (4):556.
  34.  6
    Ethics Experts, Pedagogical Responsibilities, and Wishful Thinking: Revising the DSM.Nancy Nyquist Potter - 2017 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 24 (3):203-206.
    Tamara Browne argues that many of the controversies that emerge in the process of revising DSMs could be solved by the creation of an Ethics Review Panel, similar to that of a research ethics committee. Members of such a panel would, in Browne's words, "help inform psychiatric classification". Browne's proposal is important on a number of levels, the most significant one being that it affirms the status of ethics as equal to that of science. An Ethics Review Panel would do (...)
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  35.  9
    Beyond Wishful Thinking: Facing the Harm That Psychotherapists Can Do by Writing About Their Patients.J. Halpern - 2002 - Journal of Clinical Ethics 14 (1-2):118-136.
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  36.  9
    Imagination, Fantasy, Wishful Thinking and Truth: Life is Translation and We Are All Lost in It.(Clifford Geertz).Joanne B. Ciulla - 1998 - Business Ethics Quarterly:99-107.
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  37.  8
    Deniocratie als waarborg voor vrede: wishful thinking?R. Weart van Spencer - forthcoming - Idee.
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  38.  6
    Wishful Thinking and the Budget Deficit.Daniel Paul Franklin - 1989 - Public Affairs Quarterly 3 (4):1-14.
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  39.  6
    Wishful Thinking Impairs Belief-Desire Reasoning: A Case of Decoupling Failure in Adults?Nigel Harvey - 1992 - Cognition 45 (2):141-162.
  40.  67
    Noncognitivism and Wishfulness.James Lenman - 2003 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 6 (3):265-274.
    It has recently been argued by Cian Dorr that if noncognitivism is true, inferences to factual conclusions from premises at least one of which is moral must be condemned as irrational. For, given a noncognitivist understanding of what it is to accept such premises, such reasoning would be wishful thinking: irrationally revising our views about the world to make them cohere with our desires and feelings. This he takes to be a reductio of noncognitivism. I argue that no (...)
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  41.  44
    Wishful Hope.Roland Bluhm - 2010 - In Janet Horrigan & Ed Wiltse (eds.), Hope Against Hope: Philosophies, Cultures and Politics of Possibility and Doubt. Rodopi. pp. 35-53.
    The paper aims at characterising self-deceptive hope, a certain kind of ir-rational hoping. The focus is on ordinary, intentional hope exclusively, i. e. on acts of hoping with a definite object (in contrast to dispositional forms of hope such as hopefulness). If a person S hopes in this way that p, she desires that p, she has a belief about the probability of p, and she affec-tively evaluates this probability in one of two ways: We can distinguish between anxious and (...)
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  42.  97
    Irrationality and “Gut” Reasoning: Two Kinds of Truthiness.Amber L. Griffioen - 2013 - In Jason Holt (ed.), The Ultimate Daily Show and Philosophy: More Moments of Zen, More Indecision Theory. Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 309-325.
    There are at least three basic phenomena that philosophers traditionally classify as paradigm cases of irrationality. In the first two cases, wishful thinking and self-deception, a person wants something to be true and therefore ignores certain relevant facts about the situation, making it appear to herself that it is, in fact, true. The third case, weakness of will, involves a person undertaking a certain action, despite taking herself to have an all-things-considered better reason not to do so. While (...)
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  43. If Dogmatists Have a Problem with Cognitive Penetration, You Do Too.Chris Tucker - 2014 - Dialectica 68 (1):35-62.
    Perceptual dogmatism holds that if it perceptually seems to S that P, then S thereby has prima facie perceptual justification for P. But suppose Wishful Willy's desire for gold cognitively penetrates his perceptual experience and makes it seem to him that the yellow object is a gold nugget. Intuitively, his desire-penetrated seeming can't provide him with prima facie justification for thinking that the object is gold. If this intuitive response is correct, dogmatists have a problem. But if dogmatists (...)
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  44.  7
    Critical Thinking Instruction.Donald Hatcher - 2015 - Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines 30 (3):4-19.
    Since the 80s, educators have supported instruction in critical thinking as “an Educational Ideal.” This should not be a surprise given some of the more common conceptions, e.g., Ennis’s “reasonable reflective thinking on what to believe or do,” or Siegel’s “being appropriately moved by reasons,” as opposed to bias, emotion or wishful thinking. Who would want a doctor, lawyer, or mechanic who could not skillfully evaluate arguments, causes, and cures? So, educators endorsed the dream that, through (...)
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  45. Real Self-Deception.Alfred R. Mele - 1997 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (1):91-102.
    Self-deception poses tantalizing conceptual conundrums and provides fertile ground for empirical research. Recent interdisciplinary volumes on the topic feature essays by biologists, philosophers, psychiatrists, and psychologists (Lockard & Paulhus 1988, Martin 1985). Self-deception's location at the intersection of these disciplines is explained by its significance for questions of abiding interdisciplinary interest. To what extent is our mental life present--or even accessible--to consciousness? How rational are we? How is motivated irrationality to be explained? To what extent are our beliefs subject to (...)
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  46.  20
    What Does Emotion Teach Us About Self-Deception? Affective Neuroscience in Support of Non-Intentionalism.Federico Lauria & Delphine Preissmann - 2018 - Les Ateliers de l'Éthique / the Ethics Forum 13 (2):70-94.
    Intuitively, affect plays an indispensable role in self-deception’s dynamic. Call this view “affectivism.” Investigating affectivism matters, as affectivists argue that this conception favours the non-intentionalist approach to self-deception and offers a unified account of straight and twisted self-deception. However, this line of argument has not been scrutinized in detail, and there are reasons to doubt it. Does affectivism fulfill its promises of non-intentionalism and unity? We argue that it does, as long as affect’s role in self-deception lies in affective filters—that (...)
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  47.  71
    Practical Arguments for Theoretical Theses.Christoph Lumer - 1997 - Argumentation 11 (3):329-340.
    Pascal‘s wager is expounded as a paradigm case of a practical,decision-theoretical argument for acting as if a proposition is true when wehave no theoretical reasons to accept or reject it (1.1.–1.2.). Thoughthe paradigm is fallacious in various respects there are valid and adequatearguments for acting as if certain propositions are true: that theoreticalentities exist, that there are material perceptual objects, that the worldis uniform across time (1.3). After this analysis of examples the author‘sgeneral approach for developing criteria for the validity (...)
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  48.  70
    We Need Statistical Thinking, Not Statistical Rituals.Gerd Gigerenzer - 1998 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (2):199-200.
    What Chow calls NHSTP is an inconsistent hybrid of Fisherian and Neyman-Pearsonian ideas. In psychology it has been practiced like ritualistic handwashing and sustained by wishful thinking about its utility. Chow argues that NHSTP is an important tool for ruling out chance as an explanation for data. I disagree. This ritual discourages theory development by providing researchers with no incentive to specify hypotheses.
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  49.  55
    Can Religious Beliefs Be Justified Pragmatically?C. Behan McCullagh - 2007 - Sophia 46 (1):21-34.
    One cannot prove the truth of theological statement, but perhaps one can justify believing them because of the good consequences of doing so. It is irrational to believe statements of which there are good reasons to think false, but those of which there is some, albeit inconclusive, evidence can be believed for pragmatic reasons. However, in the interest of simplicity, it must not be possible to achieve those good consequences without such faith. John Bishop and others have argued that one (...)
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  50.  2
    „Remembering the 60s“. Für Eine Medienwissenschaftsgeschichte des Wunschdenkens.Bernhard J. Dotzler - 2018 - Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte 41 (4):337-340.
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