Results for 'working memory'

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  1.  10
    Features and Conjunctions in Visual Working Memory.Working Memory - 2012 - In Jeremy M. Wolfe & Lynn C. Robertson (eds.), From Perception to Consciousness: Searching with Anne Treisman. Oxford University Press. pp. 369.
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  2. Patricia S. Goldman-Rakic.Working Memory - 1990 - In J. McGaugh, Jerry Weinberger & G. Lynch (eds.), Brain Organization and Memory. Guilford Press. pp. 285.
     
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  3. The Centered Mind: What the Science of Working Memory Shows Us About the Nature of Human Thought.Peter Carruthers - 2015 - Oxford University Press UK.
    The Centered Mind offers a new view of the nature and causal determinants of both reflective thinking and, more generally, the stream of consciousness. Peter Carruthers argues that conscious thought is always sensory-based, relying on the resources of the working-memory system. This system enables sensory images to be sustained and manipulated through attentional signals directed at midlevel sensory areas of the brain. When abstract conceptual representations are bound into these images, we consciously experience ourselves as making judgments or (...)
     
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  4.  46
    Verbal Working Memory and Sentence Comprehension.David Caplan & Gloria S. Waters - 1999 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (1):77-94.
    This target article discusses the verbal working memory system used in sentence comprehension. We review the concept of working memory as a short-duration system in which small amounts of information are simultaneously stored and manipulated in the service of accomplishing a task. We summarize the argument that syntactic processing in sentence comprehension requires such a storage and computational system. We then ask whether the working memory system used in syntactic processing is the same as (...)
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  5.  57
    Working Memory Retention Systems: A State of Activated Long-Term Memory.Daniel S. Ruchkin, Jordan Grafman, Katherine Cameron & Rita S. Berndt - 2003 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (6):709-728.
    High temporal resolution event-related brain potential and electroencephalographic coherence studies of the neural substrate of short-term storage in working memory indicate that the sustained coactivation of both prefrontal cortex and the posterior cortical systems that participate in the initial perception and comprehension of the retained information are involved in its storage. These studies further show that short-term storage mechanisms involve an increase in neural synchrony between prefrontal cortex and posterior cortex and the enhanced activation of long-term memory (...)
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  6.  5
    Attention and Working Memory: Two Basic Mechanisms for Constructing Temporal Experiences.Giorgio Marchetti - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
    Various kinds of observations show that the ability of human beings to both consciously relive past events – episodic memory – and conceive future events, entails an active process of construction. This construction process also underpins many other important aspects of conscious human life, such as perceptions, language and conscious thinking. This article provides an explanation of what makes the constructive process possible and how it works. The process mainly relies on attentional activity, which has a discrete and periodic (...)
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  7.  25
    Reconciling Two Computational Models of Working Memory in Aging.Violette Hoareau, Benoît Lemaire, Sophie Portrat & Gaën Plancher - 2016 - Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (1):264-278.
    It is well known that working memory performance changes with age. Two recent computational models of working memory, TBRS* and SOB-CS, developed from young adults WM performances are opposed regarding the postulated causes of forgetting, namely time-based decay and interference for TBRS* and SOB-CS, respectively. In the present study, these models are applied on a set of complex span data produced by young and older adults. As expected, these models are unable to account for the older (...)
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  8.  33
    Contribution of Working Memory in the Parity and Proportional Judgments.Jakub Szymanik & Marcin Zajenkowski - 2011 - Belgian Journal of Linguistics 25:189-206.
    The paper presents an experimental evidence on differences in the sentence-picture verification under additional memory load between parity and proportional quantifiers. We asked subjects to memorize strings of 4 or 6 digits, then to decide whether a quantifier sentence is true at a given picture, and finally to recall the initially given string of numbers. The results show that: (a) proportional quantifiers are more difficult than parity quantifiers with respect to reaction time and accuracy; (b) maintaining either 4 or (...)
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  9.  33
    Working Memory in Nonsymbolic Approximate Arithmetic Processing: A Dual‐Task Study With Preschoolers.Iro Xenidou‐Dervou, Ernest C. D. M. Lieshout & Menno Schoot - 2014 - Cognitive Science 38 (1):101-127.
    Preschool children have been proven to possess nonsymbolic approximate arithmetic skills before learning how to manipulate symbolic math and thus before any formal math instruction. It has been assumed that nonsymbolic approximate math tasks necessitate the allocation of Working Memory (WM) resources. WM has been consistently shown to be an important predictor of children's math development and achievement. The aim of our study was to uncover the specific role of WM in nonsymbolic approximate math. For this purpose, we (...)
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  10.  7
    The Capacity for Ethical Decisions: The Relationship Between Working Memory and Ethical Decision Making.April Martin, Zhanna Bagdasarov & Shane Connelly - 2015 - Science and Engineering Ethics 21 (2):271-292.
    Although various models of ethical decision making have implicitly called upon constructs governed by working memory capacity , a study examining this relationship specifically has not been conducted. Using a sense making framework of EDM, we examined the relationship between WMC and various sensemaking processes contributing to EDM. Participants completed an online assessment comprised of a demographic survey, intelligence test, various EDM measures, and the Automated Operation Span task to determine WMC. Results indicated that WMC accounted for unique (...)
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  11.  3
    The Effects of Guanfacine and Phenylephrine on a Spiking Neuron Model of Working Memory.Peter Duggins, Terrence C. Stewart, Xuan Choo & Chris Eliasmith - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (1):117-134.
    We use a spiking neural network model of working memory capable of performing the spatial delayed response task to investigate two drugs that affect WM: guanfacine and phenylephrine. In this model, the loss of information over time results from changes in the spiking neural activity through recurrent connections. We reproduce the standard forgetting curve and then show that this curve changes in the presence of GFC and PHE, whose application is simulated by manipulating functional, neural, and biophysical properties (...)
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  12. Consciousness, Attention, and Working Memory: An Empirical Evaluation of Prinz's Theory of Consciousness.David Barrett - 2014 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 21 (9-10):7-29.
    A popular issue in mind is to explain why conscious mental states are conscious. Prinz (2012) defends three claims in an effort to make such an explanation: (i)mental states become conscious when and only when we attend to them; (ii)attention is a process by which mental states become available to working memory; so (iii) mental states are conscious when and only when they become available to working memory. Here I attack Prinz's theory, made explicit in (iii), (...)
     
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  13.  2
    Visual Working Memory Resources Are Best Characterized as Dynamic, Quantifiable Mnemonic Traces.Bella Z. Veksler, Rachel Boyd, Christopher W. Myers, Glenn Gunzelmann, Hansjörg Neth & Wayne D. Gray - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (1).
    Visual working memory is a construct hypothesized to store a small amount of accurate perceptual information that can be brought to bear on a task. Much research concerns the construct's capacity and the precision of the information stored. Two prominent theories of VWM representation have emerged: slot-based and continuous-resource mechanisms. Prior modeling work suggests that a continuous resource that varies over trials with variable capacity and a potential to make localization errors best accounts for the empirical data. Questions (...)
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  14.  2
    Recognition Decisions From Visual Working Memory Are Mediated by Continuous Latent Strengths.J. Ricker Timothy, E. Thiele Jonathan, R. Swagman April & N. Rouder Jeffrey - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (6):1510-1532.
    Making recognition decisions often requires us to reference the contents of working memory, the information available for ongoing cognitive processing. As such, understanding how recognition decisions are made when based on the contents of working memory is of critical importance. In this work we examine whether recognition decisions based on the contents of visual working memory follow a continuous decision process of graded information about the correct choice or a discrete decision process reflecting only (...)
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  15.  1
    Visual Working Memory Resources Are Best Characterized as Dynamic, Quantifiable Mnemonic Traces.Bella Z. Veksler, Rachel Boyd, Christopher W. Myers, Glenn Gunzelmann, Hansjörg Neth & Wayne D. Gray - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (1):83-101.
    Visual working memory is a construct hypothesized to store a small amount of accurate perceptual information that can be brought to bear on a task. Much research concerns the construct's capacity and the precision of the information stored. Two prominent theories of VWM representation have emerged: slot-based and continuous-resource mechanisms. Prior modeling work suggests that a continuous resource that varies over trials with variable capacity and a potential to make localization errors best accounts for the empirical data. Questions (...)
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  16. The Effects of Guanfacine and Phenylephrine on a Spiking Neuron Model of Working Memory.Peter Duggins, Terrence C. Stewart, Xuan Choo & Chris Eliasmith - 2016 - Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (4).
    We use a spiking neural network model of working memory capable of performing the spatial delayed response task to investigate two drugs that affect WM: guanfacine and phenylephrine. In this model, the loss of information over time results from changes in the spiking neural activity through recurrent connections. We reproduce the standard forgetting curve and then show that this curve changes in the presence of GFC and PHE, whose application is simulated by manipulating functional, neural, and biophysical properties (...)
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  17.  61
    Quantifiers and Working Memory.Jakub Szymanik & Marcin Zajenkowski - 2010 - In Maria Aloni & Katrin Schulz (eds.), Amsterdam Colloquium 2009, LNAI 6042. Springer.
    The paper presents a study examining the role of working<br>memory in quantifier verification. We created situations similar to the<br>span task to compare numerical quantifiers of low and high rank, parity<br>quantifiers and proportional quantifiers. The results enrich and support<br>the data obtained previously in and predictions drawn from a computational<br>model.
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  18.  7
    Working Memory in Wayfinding—A Dual Task Experiment in a Virtual City.Tobias Meilinger, Markus Knauff & Heinrich H. Bülthoff - 2008 - Cognitive Science 32 (4):755-770.
  19.  3
    The Role of Working Memory in the Comprehension of Unfamiliar and Familiar Metaphors.Nira Mashal - 2013 - Language and Cognition 5 (4):409-436.
    Name der Zeitschrift: Language and Cognition - An Interdisciplinary Journal of Language and Cognitive Science Jahrgang: 5 Heft: 4 Seiten: 409-436.
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  20.  14
    High Regularities in Eye‐Movement Patterns Reveal the Dynamics of the Visual Working Memory Allocation Mechanism.Xiaohui Kong, Christian D. Schunn & Garrick L. Wallstrom - 2010 - Cognitive Science 34 (2):322-337.
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  21.  1
    A Computational Model of Frontal Lobe Dysfunction: Working Memory and the Tower of Hanoi Task.Vinod Goela, David Pullara & Jordan Grafman - 2001 - Cognitive Science 25 (2):287-313.
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  22. Pre-Frontal Executive Committee for Perception, Working Memory, Attention, Long-Term Memory, Motor Control, and Thinking: A Tutorial Review.Bill Faw - 2003 - Consciousness and Cognition 12 (1):83-139.
    As an explicit organizing metaphor, memory aid, and conceptual framework, the prefrontal cortex may be viewed as a five-member ‘Executive Committee,’ as the prefrontal-control extensions of five sub-and-posterior-cortical systems: the ‘Perceiver’ is the frontal extension of the ventral perceptual stream which represents the world and self in object coordinates; the ‘Verbalizer’ is the frontal extension of the language stream which represents the world and self in language coordinates; the ‘Motivator’ is the frontal cortical extension of a subcortical extended-amygdala stream (...)
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  23. Working Memory, Thought, and Action.Alan Baddeley - 2007 - Oxford University Press.
    'Working Memory, Thought, and Action' is the magnum opus of one of the most influential cognitive psychologists of the past 50 years. This new volume on the model he created discusses the developments that have occurred within the model in the past twenty years, and places it within a broader context.
     
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  24. The Contribution of Working Memory to Conscious Experience.Jackie Andrade - 2001 - In Working Memory in Perspective. Psychology Press. pp. 60-78.
  25. What Do Estimates of Working Memory Capacity Tell Us.Nelson Cowan, Candice C. Morey, Zhijian Chen & Michael Bunting - 2007 - In Naoyuki Osaka, Robert H. Logie & Mark D'Esposito (eds.), The Cognitive Neuroscience of Working Memory. Oxford University Press.
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  26.  8
    Cross‐Linguistic Differences in Processing Double‐Embedded Relative Clauses: WorkingMemory Constraints or Language Statistics?Stefan L. Frank, Thijs Trompenaars & Shravan Vasishth - 2016 - Cognitive Science 40 (3):554-578.
    An English double-embedded relative clause from which the middle verb is omitted can often be processed more easily than its grammatical counterpart, a phenomenon known as the grammaticality illusion. This effect has been found to be reversed in German, suggesting that the illusion is language specific rather than a consequence of universal working memory constraints. We present results from three self-paced reading experiments which show that Dutch native speakers also do not show the grammaticality illusion in Dutch, whereas (...)
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  27.  2
    How Automatic is “Automatic Vigilance”? The Role of Working Memory in Attentional Interference of Negative Information.Lotte F. Van Dillen & Sander L. Koole - 2009 - Cognition and Emotion 23 (6):1106-1117.
    (2009). How automatic is “automatic vigilance”? The role of working memory in attentional interference of negative information. Cognition & Emotion: Vol. 23, No. 6, pp. 1106-1117.
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  28.  27
    Implicit Working Memory.Ran R. Hassin, John A. Bargh, Andrew D. Engell & Kathleen C. McCulloch - 2009 - Consciousness and Cognition 18 (3):665-678.
    Working Memory plays a crucial role in many high-level cognitive processes . The prevalent view holds that active components of WM are predominantly intentional and conscious. This conception is oftentimes expressed explicitly, but it is best reflected in the nature of major WM tasks: All of them are blatantly explicit. We developed two new WM paradigms that allow for an examination of the role of conscious awareness in WM. Results from five studies show that WM can operate unintentionally (...)
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  29.  10
    Episodic Future Thought: Contributions From Working Memory.Paul F. Hill & Lisa J. Emery - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (3):677-683.
    The ability to imagine hypothetical events in one’s personal future is thought to involve a number of constituent cognitive processes. We investigated the extent to which individual differences in working memory capacity contribute to facets of episodic future thought. College students completed simple and complex measures of working memory and were cued to recall autobiographical memories and imagine future autobiographical events consisting of varying levels of specificity . Consistent with previous findings, future thought was related to (...)
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  30.  87
    Attention to the Speaker. The Conscious Assessment of Utterance Interpretations in Working Memory.Marco Mazzone - 2013 - Language and Communication 33:106-114.
    The role of conscious attention in language processing has been scarcely considered, despite the wide-spread assumption that verbal utterances manage to attract and manipulate the addressee’s attention. Here I claim that this assumption is to be understood not as a figure of speech but instead in terms of attentional processes proper. This hypothesis can explain a fact that has been noticed by supporters of Relevance Theory in pragmatics: the special role played by speaker-related information in utterance interpretation. I argue that (...)
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  31. Phase Locking of Single Neuron Activity to Theta Oscillations During Working Memory in Monkey Extrastriate Visual Cortex.Han Lee & Gregory V. Simpson - 2005 - Neuron 45:147-156.
    activity” has been considered to play a major role in the short-term maintenance of memories. Many studies since then have provided support for this view and greatly advanced our knowledge of the effects of stimulus type and modality on delay activity and its temporal dynamics. In humans, working memory has also been a subject of intense investigation using scalp and intracranial electroencephalography as well as magnetoencephalography, which provide estimates of local population activity. The published findings include reports of (...)
     
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  32.  23
    Subjective Aspects of Working Memory Performance: Memoranda-Related Imagery.Tiffany K. Jantz, Jessica J. Tomory, Christina Merrick, Shanna Cooper, Adam Gazzaley & Ezequiel Morsella - 2014 - Consciousness and Cognition 25:88-100.
    Although it is well accepted that working memory is intimately related to consciousness, little research has illuminated the liaison between the two phenomena. To investigate this under-explored nexus, we used an imagery monitoring task to investigate the subjective aspects of WM performance. Specifically, in two experiments, we examined the effects on consciousness of holding in mind information having a low versus high memory load, and holding memoranda in mind during the presentation of distractors . Higher rates of (...)
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  33.  2
    Subliminal Food Images Compromise Superior Working Memory Performance in Women with Restricting Anorexia Nervosa.Samantha J. Brooks, Owen G. O'Daly, Rudolf Uher, Helgi B. Schiöth, Janet Treasure & Iain C. Campbell - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (2):751-763.
    Prefrontal cortex is dysregulated in women with restricting anorexia nervosa . It is not known whether appetitive non-conscious stimuli bias cognitive responses in those with RAN. Thirteen women with RAN and 20 healthy controls completed a dorsolateral PFC working memory task and an anterior cingulate cortex conflict task, while masked subliminal food, aversive and neutral images were presented. During the DLPFC task, accuracy was higher in the RAN compared to the HC group, but superior performance was compromised when (...)
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  34. Binding Across Time: The Selective Gating of Frontal and Hippocampal Systems Modulating Working Memory and Attentional States.J. B. Newman & A. A. Grace - 1999 - Consciousness and Cognition 8 (2):196-212.
    Temporal binding via 40-Hz synchronization of neuronal discharges in sensory cortices has been hypothesized to be a necessary condition for the rapid selection of perceptually relevant information for further processing in working memory. Binocular rivalry experiments have shown that late stage visual processing associated with the recognition of a stimulus object is highly correlated with discharge rates in inferotemporal cortex. The hippocampus is the primary recipient of inferotemporal outputs and is known to be the substrate for the consolidation (...)
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  35.  23
    The Role of Working Memory in Motor Learning and Performance.J. P. Maxwell, R. S. W. Masters & F. F. Eves - 2003 - Consciousness and Cognition 12 (3):376-402.
    Three experiments explore the role of working memory in motor skill acquisition and performance. Traditional theories postulate that skill acquisition proceeds through stages of knowing, which are initially declarative but later procedural. The reported experiments challenge that view and support an independent, parallel processing model, which predicts that procedural and declarative knowledge can be acquired separately and that the former does not depend on the availability of working memory, whereas, the latter does. The behaviour of these (...)
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  36. A Hierarchical Biased-Competition Model of Domain-Dependent Working Memory Mainatenance and Executive Control.Susan M. Courtney, Jennifer K. Roth & Sala & B. Joseph - 2007 - In Naoyuki Osaka, Robert H. Logie & Mark D'Esposito (eds.), The Cognitive Neuroscience of Working Memory. Oxford University Press.
     
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  37.  69
    Mental Models in Conditional Reasoning and Working Memory.Pierre Barrouillet & Jean-Francois Lecas - 1999 - Thinking and Reasoning 5 (4):289 – 302.
    Johnson-Laird's mental models theory claims that reasoning is a semantic process of construction and manipulation of models in working memory of limited capacity. Accordingly, both a deduction and a given interpretation of a premise would be all the harder the higher the number of models they require. The purpose of the present experiment was twofold. First, it aimed to demonstrate that the interpretation of if...then conditional sentences in children (third, sixth, and ninth graders) evolves as a function of (...)
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  38.  8
    Dissociative Style and Individual Differences in Verbal Working Memory Span.M. Deruiter, R. Phaf, B. Elzinga & R. Dyck - 2004 - Consciousness and Cognition 13 (4):821-828.
    Dissociative style is mostly studied as a risk factor for dissociative pathology, but it may also reflect a fundamental characteristic of healthy information processing. Due to the close link between attention and working memory and the previous finding of enhanced attentional abilities with a high dissociative style, a positive relationship was also expected between dissociative style and verbal working memory span. In a sample of 119 psychology students, it was found that the verbal span of the (...)
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  39.  33
    The Epic of Personal Development and the Mystery of Small Working Memory.Robert B. Glassman - 2005 - Zygon 40 (1):107-130.
    . A partial analogy exists between the lifespan neuropsychological development of individuals and the biological evolution of species: In both of these major categories of growth, progressive emergence of wholes transcends inherently limited part‐processes. The remarkably small purview of each moment of consciousness experienced by an individual may be a crucial aspect of maintaining organization in that individual's cognitive development, protecting it from combinatorial chaos. In this essay I summarize experimental psychology research showing that working memory capacity comprises (...)
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  40.  2
    Can Emotional Content Reduce the Age Gap in Visual Working Memory? Evidence From Two Tasks.Bermudez Tania & S. Souza Alessandra - 2016 - Cognition and Emotion 31 (8):1676-1683.
    Ageing is associated with declines in several cognitive abilities including working memory. The goal of the present study was to assess whether emotional information could reduce the age gap in the quantity and quality of representations in visual WM. Young and older adults completed a serial image recognition task and a colour-image binding task. Results of the SIR task showed worse performance for negative than neutral and positive images within the older group, hence enlarging the age gap in (...)
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  41.  34
    Working Memory Involvement in Propositional and Spatial Reasoning.Karl Christoph Klauer - 1997 - Thinking and Reasoning 3 (1):9 – 47.
    Four experiments assessed the relative involvement of different working memory components in two types of reasoning tasks: propositional and spatial reasoning. Using the secondary-task methodology, visual, central-executive, and phonological loads were realised. Although the involvement of visuospatial resources in propositional reasoning has traditionally been considered to be small, an overall analysis of the present data suggests an alternative account. A theoretical analysis of the pattern of results in terms of Evans' (1984, 1989) twostage theory of reasoning is proposed (...)
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  42.  55
    Working Memory as a Mental Workspace: Why Activated Long-Term Memory is Not Enough.H. Logie Robert & Della Sala Sergio - 2003 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (6):745-746.
    Working-memory retention as activated long-term memory fails to capture orchestrated processing and storage, the hallmark of the concept of working memory. The event-related potential (ERP) data are compatible with working memory as a mental workspace that holds and manipulates information on line, which is distinct from long-term memory, and deals with the products of activated traces from stored knowledge.
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  43. The Overflowing Brain: Information Overload and the Limits of Working Memory.Torkel Klingberg - 2008 - Oxford University Press USA.
    As the pace of technological change accelerates, we are increasingly experiencing a state of information overload. Statistics show that we are interrupted every three minutes during the course of the work day. Multitasking between email, cell-phone, text messages, and four or five websites while listening to an iPod forces the brain to process more and more informaton at greater and greater speeds. And yet the human brain has hardly changed in the last 40,000 years. Are all these high-tech advances overtaxing (...)
     
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  44.  16
    Working Memory, Inhibitory Control and the Development of Children's Reasoning.Dr Simon J. Handley, A. Capon, M. Beveridge, I. Dennis & J. St BT Evans - 2004 - Thinking and Reasoning 10 (2):175 – 195.
    The ability to reason independently from one's own goals or beliefs has long been recognised as a key characteristic of the development of formal operational thought. In this article we present the results of a study that examined the correlates of this ability in a group of 10-year-old children ( N = 61). Participants were presented with conditional and relational reasoning items, where the content was manipulated such that the conclusion to the arguments were either congruent, neutral, or incongruent with (...)
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  45.  25
    The Cognitive Neuroscience of Working Memory.Osaka Naoyuki, H. Logie Robert & D'Esposito Mark (eds.) - 2007 - Oxford University Press.
    Working memory has been one of the most intensively studied systems in cognitive psychology. The Cognitive Neuroscience of Working Memory brings together world class researchers from around the world to summarise our current knowledge of this field, and directions for future research.
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  46.  32
    The Missing Link: Dynamic, Modifiable Representations in Working Memory.Graeme S. Halford, Steven Phillips & William H. Wilson - 2008 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (2):137-138.
    We propose that the missing link from nonhuman to human cognition lies with our ability to form, modify, and re-form dynamic bindings between internal representations of world-states. This capacity goes beyond dynamic feature binding in perception and involves a new conception of working memory. We propose two tests for structured knowledge that might alleviate the impasse in empirical research in nonhuman animal cognition.
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  47. Attention and Working Memory in Mindfulness-Meditation Practices.Heather Buttle - 2011 - Journal of Mind and Behavior 32 (2):123-134.
    The construct of “mindfulness” has increasingly become a focus of research related to meditation practices and techniques. There is a growing body of research indicating clinical efficacy from therapeutic use, while cognitive neuroscience has provided an insight into the brain regions and mechanisms involved. Significantly, these approaches converge to suggest that attention is an important mechanism with trainable sub-components. This article discusses the role of attention and argues that memory has been neglected as a potential key mechanism in mindfulness–meditation (...)
     
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  48.  31
    Working Memory and Reasoning: An Individual Differences Perspective.Alison Capon, Simon Handley & Ian Dennis - 2003 - Thinking and Reasoning 9 (3):203 – 244.
    This article reports three experiments that investigated the relationship between working memory capacity and syllogistic and five-term series spatial inference. A series of complex and simple verbal and spatial working memory measures were employed. Correlational analyses showed that verbal and spatial working memory span tasks consistently predicted syllogistic and spatial reasoning performance. A confirmatory factor analysis showed that three factors best accounted for the data--a verbal, a spatial, and a general factor. Syllogistic reasoning performance (...)
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  49.  7
    Fractionated Working Memory: Even in Pebbles, It's Still a Soup Stone.Morten H. Christiansen & Maryellen C. MacDonald - 1999 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (1):97-98.
    We agree with Caplan & Waters that there are problems with the single-resource theory of sentence comprehension. However, we challenge their dual-resource alternative on theoretical and empirical grounds and point to a more coherent solution that abandons the notion of working memory resources.
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  50.  6
    What Do Working Memory Span Tasks Like Reading Span Really Measure.Meredyth Daneman & Brenda Hannon - 2007 - In Naoyuki Osaka, Robert H. Logie & Mark D'Esposito (eds.), The Cognitive Neuroscience of Working Memory. Oxford University Press. pp. 21--42.
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