Linked bibliography for the SEP article "18th Century German Aesthetics" by Paul Guyer

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Primary Sources

  • Cooper, Anthony Ashley (Third Earl of Shaftesbury), Characteristicks of Men, Manners, Opinions, Times, edited by Philip Ayres (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1999).
  • Baumgarten, Alexander Gottlieb, Aesthetica/Ästhetik, edited by Dagmar Mirbach, 2 vols. (Hamburg: Felix Meiner Verlag, 2007); partial translation in Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten and Hans Rudolf Schweizer, Ästhetik als Philosophie der sinnlichen Erkenntnis: Eine Interpretation der “Aesthetica” A.G. Baumgartens mit teilweiser Wiedergabe der lateinischen Textes und deutscher Übersetzung (Basel: Schwabe, 1973). (Scholar)
  • –––, Metaphysics, translated by Courtney D. Fugate and John Hymers (London: Bloomsbury, 2013).
  • –––, Metaphysik, in Alexander Gottlieb Baumgartens Metaphysik, translated by Georg Friedrich Meier, with notes by Johann August Eberhard, second edition (1783), edited by Dagmar Mirbach (Jena: Dietrich Scheglmann Reprints, 2005). (The paragraph numbers of the German translation do not correspond to those of the original Latin, since Meier sometimes combined several of the original paragraphs into one; Mirbach’s edition includes a table showing the correlation between the two versions.) (Scholar)
  • –––, Meditationes philosophicae de nonnullis ad poema pertinentibus/Philosophische Betrachtungen über einige Bedingungen des Gedichtes, edited by Heinz Paetzold (Hamburg: Felix Meiner Verlag, 1983). English translation by Karl Aschenbrenner and William B. Holther, Reflections on Poetry: Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten’s Meditationes philosophicae de nonnullis ad poema pertinentibus (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1954). (Scholar)
  • –––, Die Vorreden zur Metaphysik, edited, translated and commented upon by Ursula Niggli (Frankfurt am Main: Vittorio Klostermann, 1998).
  • Bodmer, Johann Jacob and Johann Jacob Breitinger, Die Discourse der Mahlern (Zürich, 1721), by Bodmer, cited from Henning Boetius, Dichtungstheorien der Aufklärung (Tübingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag, 1971). (Scholar)
  • Breitinger, Johann Jacob, Critische Dichtkunst (Zürich: Conrad Orell und Comp., 1740), cited from Dichtungstheorien der Aufklärung. (Scholar)
  • Gottsched, Johann Christoph, Schriften zur Literatur, edited by Horst Steinmetz (Stuttgart: Philipp Reclam jun., 1972).
  • Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich, Aesthetics: Lectures on Fine Art, translated by T.M. Knox, two volumes (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1975).
  • –––, Vorlesung über Ästhetik, edited by Helmut Schneider (Berlin and New York: Peter Lang, Main, 1995).
  • –––, Vorlesungen über die Philosophie der Kunst, edited by Annemarie Gethmann-Seifert (Hamburg: Felix Meiner Verlag, 2003).
  • –––, Philosophie der Kunst oder Ästhetik, edited by Annemarie Gethmann-Seifert and Bernadette Collenberg-Plotnikov (Munich: Wilhelm Fink Verlag, 2004).
  • Herder, Johann Gottfried, Sculpture: Some Observations on Shape and Form from Pygmalion’s Creative Dream, edited and translated by Jason Gaiger (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002). (Scholar)
  • –––, Kritische Wälder, oder Betrachtungen, die Wissenschaft und Kunst des Schönen betreffend (“Groves of Criticism, or Considerations concerning the Science and Art of the Beautiful”), in Herder, Schriften zur Ästhetik und Literatur 1767–1781, edited by Gunter E. Grimm (Frankfurt am Main: Deutscher Klassiker Verlag, 1993). (Scholar)
  • –––, Extract from a Correspondence on Ossian and the Songs of Ancient People, translated by Joyce P. Crick, in H.B. Nisbet (ed.), German Aesthetic and Literary Criticism: Winckelmann, Lessing, Hamann, Herder, Schiller, and Goethe (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985). Originally in Von Deutscher Art und Kunst: Eine fliegende Blätter (Hamburg: Bode, 1773). (Scholar)
  • –––, “Shakespeare,” translated by Joyce P. Crick in Nisbet, German Aesthetic and Literary Criticism. (Scholar)
  • –––, Kalligone, in Johann Gottfried Herder, Werke, edited by Günter Arnold et al., volume 8: Schriften zu Literatur und Philosophie 1792–1800, edited by Hans Dietrich Irmscher (Frankfurt am Main: Deutscher Klassiker Verlag, 1998), pp. 641–964. (Scholar)
  • Herz, Marcus, Betrachtungen aus der spekulativen Weltweisheit (1771), edited with introduction, notes, and bibliography by Elfriede Conrad, Heinrich P. Delfosse, and Birgit Nehren (Hamburg: Felix Meiner Verlag, 1990). (Scholar)
  • –––, Versuch über den Geschmack und die Ursachen seiner Verschiedenheit (Leipzig and Mitau: Hinz, 1776; second, enlarged and improved edition, Berlin: Christian Friedrich Voß, 1790). (Scholar)
  • Kant, Immanuel, Critique of the Power of Judgment, edited by Paul Guyer, translated by Paul Guyer and Eric Matthews (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000). Page references are to Kant’s gesammelte Schriften, edited by the Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences, volume V, edited by Wilhelm Windelband (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1913). (Scholar)
  • –––, Critique of Pure Reason, edited and translated by Paul Guyer and Allen W. Wood (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998).
  • –––, Practical Philosophy, edited and translated by Mary J. Gregor (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996).
  • –––, Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason, in Kant, Religion and Rational Theology, edited by Allen W. Wood and George di Giovanni (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996).
  • –––, Vorlesungen über Anthropologie, Kant’s gesammelte Schriften, vol. 27, edited by Reinhard Brandt and Werner Stark for the Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1997). (Scholar)
  • König, Johann Ulrich, Untersuchung von dem guten Geschmack in der Dicht- und Redekunst (“Investigation of good Taste in the Arts of Poetry and Oratory”) (Leipzig and Berlin, 1727), cited from Henning Boetius, Dichtungstheorien der Aufklärung (Tübingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag, 1971). (Scholar)
  • Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm, “Meditations on Knowledge, Truth, and Ideas,” in Leibniz, Philosophical Papers and Letters, translated and edited by Leroy E. Loemker, second edition (Dordrecht: D. Reidel, 1969). (Scholar)
  • –––, “On Wisdom” (1690s), in Philosophical Papers and Letters. (Scholar)
  • Lessing, Gotthold Ephraim, Laocoön: An Essay on the Limits of Painting and Poetry, translated by Edward Allen McCormick (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1962; with a foreword by Michael Fried, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1984). (Scholar)
  • –––, Wie die Alten den Tod gebildet (Berlin: Christian Friedrich Voß, 1769).
  • Meier, Georg Friedrich, Frühe Schriften zur Ästhetischen Erziehung der Deutschen, edited by Hans-Joachim Kertscher and Günter Schenk, 3 vols. (Halle: Hallescher Verlag, 1999).
  • –––, Theoretische Lehre der Gemüthsbewegungen Überhaupt (Halle: Carl Hermann Hemmerde, 1744).
  • Mendelssohn, Moses, Aesthetische Schriften, edited by Anne Pollok (Hamburg: Felix Meiner Verlag, 2006).
  • –––, review of G.F. Meier, Auszug aus den Anfangsgründen aller schönen Künste und Wissenschaften, in Bibliothek der schönen Wissenschaften und der freyen Künste (1756–1759, III.1:130–8), reprinted in Mendelssohn, Gesammelte Schriften, begun by J. Elbogen, J. Guttmann, E. Mittwoch, continued by Alexander Altmann (Stuttgart-Bad Canstatt: Frommann Holzboog, 1929– ), vol. 4, edited by Eva J. Engel (1977), pp. 196–201.
  • –––, Morgenstunden, oder Vorlesungen über das Dasein Gottes, edited by Dominique Bourel (Stuttgart: Philipp Reclam Jun., 1979); translations in:
  • –––, Morning Hours: Lectures on God’s Existence, translated by Daniel O. Dahlstrom and Corey Dyck (Dordrecht: Springer, 2011), and (Scholar)
  • –––, Last Works, translated by Bruce Rosenstock (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2012).
  • –––, Philosophical Writings, translated by Daniel O. Dahlstrom (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997).
  • Moritz, Karl Philipp, Werke, edited by Horst Günther, second edition, three volumes (Frankfurt am Main: Insel Verlag, 1993).
  • Poppe, Bernhard (ed.), Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten: Seine Bedeutung und Stellung in der Leibniz-Wolffischen Philosophie und seine Beziehungen zu Kant, nebst Veröffentlichung einer bisher unbekannten Handschrift der Ästhetik Baumgartens (Borna-Leipzig: Robert Noske, 1907).
  • Riedel, Friedrich Just, Theorie der schönen Künste und Wissenschaften: Ein Auszug aus den Werken verschiedener Schriftsteller (Jena: Cuno, 1767).
  • Schelling, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph, The Philosophy of Art, translated by Douglas W. Stott (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1989).
  • Schiller, Friedrich, National Ausgabe der Werke Schillers, vol. 20, Philosophische Schriften, Teil 1, with cooperation by Helmut Koopman, edited by Benno von Wiese (Weimar: Böhlau, 1962) (“NA”).
  • –––, On the Aesthetic Education of Man: In a Series of Letters, edited and translated by Elizabeth M. Wilkinson and L.A. Willoughby (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1967).
  • –––, On Grace and Dignity, in Jane Curran and Christophe Fricker (eds.), Schiller’s “On Grace and Dignity” in Its Cultural Context: Essays and a New Translation (Rochester: Camden House, 2005).
  • –––, “On Naïve and Sentimental Poetry,” translated by Daniel O. Dahlstrom in Friedrich Schiller, Essays, edited by Walter Hinderer and Daniel O. Dahlstrom (New York: Continuum, 1993). (Scholar)
  • –––, Kallias or Concerning Beauty: Letters to Gottfried Körner, translated by Stefan Bird-Pollan, in J.M. Bernstein (ed.), Classic and Romantic German Aesthetics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003).
  • Schlegel, Friedrich, On the Study of Greek Poetry, translated by Stuart Barnett (Albany: State University of New York Press, 2001).
  • Sulzer, Johann Georg, Allgemeine Theorie der schönen Künste, expanded second edition, four volumes (Leipzig: Weidmann, 1792–94).
  • –––, “Psychological Considerations on Moral Human Beings” (Psychologische Betrachtungen über den sittlichen Menschen, 1769), in Sulzer’s Vermischte Philosophische Schriften, volumes I and II (Leipzig: Weidmanns Erben und Reich, 1773, 1781, reprinted in one volume, Hildesheim: Georg Olms Verlag, 1974), Volume I, pp. 282–306. (Scholar)
  • Winckelmann, Johann Joachim, Essays on the Philosophy and History of Art, with an introduction by Curtis Bowman, three volumes (Bristol: Thoemmes Press, 2001).
  • –––, History of the Art of Antiquity, translated by Harry Francis Mallgrave, introduction by Alex Potts (Los Angeles: Getty Research Institute, 2006).
  • Wolff, Christian, Metafisica Tedesca, con le Annotazione alla Metafisica Tedesca, edited by Raffaele Ciafardone (Milan: Bompiani, 2003). (This edition presents Wolff’s German and an Italian translation on facing pages; the Italian translation may not help many readers of the present article, but this is the only edition of Wolff’s original text that is newly set in modern type rather than photographically reproducing the eighteenth-century Fraktur in which his German works were set. Since I will only refer to the German text, however, I will cite this edition as German Metaphysics.) (Scholar)
  • –––, Philosophia Prima sive Ontologia, new edition (Frankfurt and Leipzig: Renger, 1736), reprint edited by Jean Ecole (Hildesheim: Georg Olms, 1962). (Scholar)
  • –––, Preliminary Discourse on Philosophy in General, translated by Richard J. Blackwell (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1963).
  • –––, The Principles of Architecture, in The Principles of All Mathematical Sciences, new edition (Frankfurt, Leipzig, and Halle: Renger, 1750–57, reprint Hildesheim: Georg Olms, 1999). (Scholar)
  • –––, Psycologia Empirica, edited by Jean École (Hildesheim: Georg Olms, 1968).
  • –––, Rational Thoughts on the Aims of Natural Things, second edition (Frankfurt and Leipzig, 1726; modern reprint Hildesheim: Georg Olms, 1980). (Scholar)

General Studies and Specialized Histories

Secondary Literature: Individual Authors

[See also works listed in the previous section. Where a work listed here covers several authors, it is usually listed under the first author it covers.]



  • Dahlstrom, Daniel O., 1986, “Die Aufklärung der Poesie.” Zeitschrift für Ästhetik und allgemeine Kunstwissenschaft 31: 139–68. (Scholar)
  • Möller, Uwe, 1983, Rhetorische Überlieferung und Dichtungstheorie im frühen 18. Jahrhundert: Studien zu Gottsched, Breitinger und G.Fr. Meier, Munich: Wilhelm Fink Verlag. (Scholar)
  • Rieck, Werner, 1972, Johann Christoph Gottsched, eine kritische Würdigung seines Werkes, Berlin: Akademie-Verlag. (Scholar)

Baumgarten and Meier

  • Dumouchel, Daniel, 1991, “A.G. Baumgarten et la naissance du discour esthétique.” Dialogue 30: 473–501. (Scholar)
  • Franke, Ursula, 1972, Kunst als Erkenntnis: Die Rolle der Sinnlichkeit in der Ästhetik Alexander Gottlieb Baumgartens, Studia Leibnitiana, volume 9. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag. (Scholar)
  • Gregor, Mary J., 1983, “Baumgarten’s Aesthetica,” Review of Metaphysics 37: 357–85. (Scholar)
  • Gross, Steffen W., 2001, Felix aestheticus: Die Ästhetik als Lehre vom Menschen: zum 250. Jahrestag des Erscheinens von Alexander Gottlieb Baumgartens “Aesthetica.” Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann. (Scholar)
  • Jäger, Michael, 1980, Kommentierende Einführung in Baumgartens “Aesthetica”: Zur entstehenden wissenschaftlichen Ästhetik des 18. Jahrhunderts in Deutschland, Hildesheim: Georg Olms Verlag. (Scholar)
  • McQuillan, J. Colin, 2018, “Baumgarten, Meier, and Kant on Aesthetic Perfection,” in Daniel O. Dahlstrom (ed.), Kant and His German Contemporaries: Volume II, Aesthetics, History, Politics, and Religion, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 13–27. (Scholar)
  • Parret, Herman, 1992, “De Baumgarten à Kant: sur la beauté.” Revue philosophique de Louvain 90: 317–43. (Scholar)
  • Schenk, Günter, 1994, Leben und Werk des halleschen Aufklärers Georg Friedrich Meier, Halle an der Saale: Hallescher Verlag. (Scholar)
  • Solms, Friedhelm, 1990, Disciplina aesthetica: Zur Frühgeschichte der ästhetischen Theorie bei Baumgarten und Herder, Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta. (Scholar)
  • Witte, Egbert, 2000, Logik ohne Dornen: Die Rezeption von A.G. Baumgartens Ästhetil im Spannungsfeld von logischem Begriff und ästhetischer Anschauung, Hildesheim: Georg Olms Verlag. (Scholar)


  • Altmann, Alexander, 1969, Moses Mendelssohns Frühschriften zur Metaphysik, Tübingen: J.C.B. Mohr (Paul Siebeck). (Scholar)
  • –––, 1973, Moses Mendelssohn: A Biographical Study, University, AL: University of Alabama Press. (Scholar)
  • Guyer, Paul, 1993, “The Perfections of Art: Mendelssohn, Moritz, and Kant.” In Paul Guyer, Kant and the Experience of Freedom, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Chapter IV. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2018, “Mendelssohn, Kant, and the Aims of Art,” in Daniel O. Dahlstrom (ed.), Kant and His German Contemporaries, Volume II: Aesthetics, History, Politics, and Religion, Camnbridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 28–49. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2020, Reason and Experience in Mendelssohn and Kant, Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Scholar)
  • Hochman, Leah, 2014, The Ugliness of Moses Mendelssohn: Aesthetics, Religion, and Morality in the Eighteenth Century, London: Routledge. (Scholar)
  • Meier, Jean-Paul, 1977, L’esthétique de Moses Mendelssohn (1729–1786), Dissertation. Paris.
  • Munk, Reinier (ed.), 2011, Moses Mendessohn’s Metaphysics and Aesthetics, Dordrecht: Springer. (Scholar)
  • Pollok, Anne, 2010, Facetten des Menschen: Zur Anthropologie Moses Mendelssohns, Hamburg: Felix Meiner Verlag. (Scholar)
  • Will, Frederick, Jr., 1955, “Cognition through Beauty: Moses Mendelssohn’s Early Aesthetics.” Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 14: 97–105. (Scholar)


  • Baur, Michael, 2018, “Winckelmann’s Greek Ideal and Kant’s Critical Philosophy,” in Daniel O. Dahlstrom (ed.), Kant and Hist Contemporaries, Volume II: Aesthetics, History, Politics, and Religion, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 50–68. (Scholar)
  • Décultot, Élisabeth, 2000, Johann Joachim Winckelmann: Enquête sur la genèse de l’histoire de l’art, Paris: Presses Universitaires de France. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2018, “Eighteenth-Century Anthropological Studies of Ancient Greece: Winckelmann, Herder, Caylus, and Kant,” in Daniel O. Dahlstrom (ed.), Kant and His Contemporaries, Volume II: Aesthetics, History, Politics, and Religion, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 71–90. (Scholar)
  • Fried, Michael, 1986, “Antiquity Now: Reading Winckelmann on Imitation.” October 37: 87–97. (Scholar)
  • Hatfield, Henry C., 1943, Winckelmann and His German Critics 1755–1781: A Prelude to the Classical Age, New York: King’s Crown Press. (Scholar)
  • Morrison, Jeffrey, 1996, Winckelmann and the Notion of Aesthetic Education, Oxford: Clarendon Press. (Scholar)
  • Potts, Alex, 1994, Flesh and the Ideal: Winckelmann and the Origins of Art History, New Haven and London: Yale University Press. (Scholar)


  • Richter, Simon, 1992, Laocoon’s Body and the Aesthetics of Pain: Winckelmann, Lessing, Herder, Moritz, Goethe, Detroit: Wayne State University Press. (Scholar)
  • Wellbery, David E., 1984, Lessing’s Laocoon: Semiotics and Aesthetics in the Age of Reason, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Scholar)
  • Wessel, Leonard, 1983, “Lessing as an Aesthetic Thinker.” Lessing Yearbook 15: 177–211. (Scholar)







  • Beiser, Frederick, 2005, Schiller as Philosopher: A Re-Examination, Oxford: Clarendon Press. (Scholar)
  • Chytry, Josef, 1989, The Aesthetic State: A Quest in Modern German Thought, Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. (Scholar)
  • Ehrenspeck, Yvonne, 1998, Versprechungen des Ästhetischen: Die Entstehung eines modernen Bildungsprojeckts, Opladen: Leske & Budrich. (Scholar)
  • Ellis, John M., 1969, Schiller’s Kalliasbriefe and the Study of His Aesthetic Theory, The Hague: Mouton. (Scholar)
  • Henrich, Dieter, 1982, “Beauty and Freedom: Schiller’s Struggle with Kant’s Aesthetics.” In Ted Cohen and Paul Guyer (eds), Essays in Kant’s Aesthetics, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 237–57. (Scholar)
  • Hinderer, Walter, 1998, Von der Idee des Menschen: Über Friedrich Schiller, Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann. (Scholar)
  • Hinder, Walter (ed.), 2006, Friedrich Schiller auf dem Weg in die Moderne, Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann. (Scholar)
  • Kerry, S.S., 1961, Schiller’s Writings on Aesthetics, Manchester: Manchester University Press. (Scholar)
  • Miller, R.D., 1970, Schiller and the Ideal of Freedom, Oxford: Clarendon Press. (Scholar)
  • Moland, Lydia L., 2018, “Conjectural Truths: Kant and Schiller on Educating Humanity,” in Daniel O. Dahlstrom (ed.), Kant and His German Contemporaries, Volume II: Aesthetics, History, Politics, and Religion, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 91–108. (Scholar)
  • Norton, Robert E., 1995, The Beautiful Soul: Aesthetic Morality in the Eighteenth Century, Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press. (Scholar)
  • Pugh, David, 1996, Dialectic of Love: Platonism in Schiller’s Aesthetics, Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press. (Scholar)
  • Reed, T.J., 1991, Schiller, Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Scholar)
  • Sharpe, Leslie, 1991, Friedrich Schiller: Drama, Thought and Politics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Scholar)
  • ––– (ed.), 1995, Schiller’s Aesthetic Essays: Two Centuries of Criticism, Columbia, SC: Camden House. (Scholar)
  • Sychrava, Juliet, 1989, Schiller to Derrida: Idealism in Aesthetics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Scholar)
  • Wessel, Leonard, 1982, The Philosophical Background to Friedrich Schiller’s Aesthetics of Living Form, Bern, New York, etc.: Peter Lang. (Scholar)

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