Linked bibliography for the SEP article "Affirmative Action" by Robert Fullinwider

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If everything goes well, this page should display the bibliography of the aforementioned article as it appears in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, but with links added to PhilPapers records and Google Scholar for your convenience. Some bibliographies are not going to be represented correctly or fully up to date. In general, bibliographies of recent works are going to be much better linked than bibliographies of primary literature and older works. Entries with PhilPapers records have links on their titles. A green link indicates that the item is available online at least partially.

This experiment has been authorized by the editors of the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The original article and bibliography can be found here.

  • Allen, Anita L., 1990–1991, “On Being a Role Model,” Berkeley Journal of Gender, Law and Justice (formerly Berkeley Women's Law Journal), 6: 22–42. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2011, “Was I Entitled or Should I Apologize? Affirmative Action Going Forward,” Journal of Ethics, 15 (September): 253–263. (Scholar)
  • Alon, Sigal and Marta Tienda, 2005, “Assessing the Mismatch Hypothesis: Differences in College Graduation Rates by Institutional Selectivity,” Sociology of Education, 78 (October): 294–315. (Scholar)
  • Anderson, Elizabeth S., 2002, “Integration, Affirmative Action, and Strict Scrutiny,” New York University Law Review, 77 (November): 1195–1271. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2004, “Racial Integration as a Compelling Interest,” Constitutional Commentary, 21 (Spring): 15–40. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2010, The Imperative of Integration, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. (Scholar)
  • Appiah, Kwame Anthony, 2011, “Group Rights and Racial Affirmative Action,” Journal of Ethics, 15 (September): 265–280. (Scholar)
  • ––– and Amy Gutmann, 1996, Color Conscious: The Political Morality of Race, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. (Scholar)
  • Arcidiacono, Peter et al., 2011a, “Representation versus Assimilation: How Do Preferences in College Admissions Affect Social Interaction?” Journal of Public Economics, 95 (February): 1–15. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2011b, “Does Affirmative Action Lead to Mismatch? A New Test and Evidence,” Quantitative Economics, 2 (November): 303–333. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2012, “What Happens After Enrollment? An Analysis of the Time Path of Racial Differences in GPA and Major Choice,” IZA Journal of Labor Economics, 1 (October). (Scholar)
  • Arnold, N. Scott, 1998, “Affirmative Action and the Demands of Justice,” Social Philosophy and Policy, 15 (Summer): 133–175. (Scholar)
  • Astin, Alexander W. and Dongbin Kim, 2004, “Cross-Racial Interaction Among Undergraduates: Some Consequences, Causes, and Patterns,” Research in Higher Education, 45 (August): 529–554. (Scholar)
  • Ayers, Ian and Richard Brooks, 2005, “Does Affirmative Action Reduce the Number of Black Lawyers?” Stanford Law Review, 57 (May): 1807–1854. (Scholar)
  • Barnes, Katherine Y., 2007, “Is Affirmative Action Responsible for the Achievement Gap Between Black and White Law Students?” Northwestern University Law Review, 101 (Fall): 1759–1808. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2011, “Is Affirmative Action Responsible for the Achievement Gap Between Black and White Law Students? A Correction, a Lesson and an Update,” Northwestern University Law Review, 101 (Spring): 791–812. (Scholar)
  • Beauchamp, Tom L., 1998, “In Defense of Affirmative Action,” Journal of Ethics, 2: 143–158. (Scholar)
  • Beckwith, Francis J. and Todd E. Jones (eds.), 1997, Affirmative Action: Social Justice or Reverse Discrimination? Amherst, New York: Prometheus Books. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1999, “The ‘No One Deserves His or Her Talents’ Argument for Affirmative Action: A Critical Analysis,” Social Theory and Practice, 25 (Spring): 53–60. (Scholar)
  • Bell, Derrick, 2003, “Diversity's Distractions,” Columbia Law Review, 103 (October): 1622–1633. (Scholar)
  • Bergmann, Barbara R., 1996, In Defense of Affirmative Action. New York: Basic Books. (Scholar)
  • Black, Virginia, 1974. “The Erosion of Legal Principles in the Creation of Legal Policies,” Ethics, 84 (January): 93–115. (Scholar)
  • Boonin, David, 2011, Should Race Matter? Unusual Answers to the Usual Questions, New York: Cambridge University Press. (Scholar)
  • Bowen, Dierdre M., 2010, “Brilliant Disguise: An Empirical Study of a Social Experiment Banning Affirmative Action,” Indiana Law Journal, 85 (Fall): 1197–1254. (Scholar)
  • Bowen, William G. and Derek Bok, 1998. The Shape of the River: Long-Term Consequences of Considering Race in College and University Admissions, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. (Scholar)
  • Boxill, Bernard, 1972, “The Morality of Reparation,” Social Theory and Practice, 2 (Spring): 113–123. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1978, “The Morality of Preferential Hiring,” Philosophy & Public Affairs, 7 (Spring): 246–268. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1984, Blacks and Social Justice, Totowa, New Jersey: Rowman and Allanheld; revised edition, Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield, 1992. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2010, “Discrimination, Affirmative Action, and Diversity in Business,” in George G. Brenkert and Tom L. Beauchamp (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Business Ethics,Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp.535–562. (Scholar)
  • ––– and Jan Boxill, 2003, “Affirmative Action” in R. G. Frey (ed), A Companion to Applied Ethics, Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishing, pp. 118–127. (Scholar)
  • Boylan, Michael, 2002, “Affirmative Action: Strategies for the Future,” Journal of Social Philosophy, 33 (Spring): 117–130. (Scholar)
  • Brown, Kevin, 2010, “Perspective and Point of View on Affirmative Action,” Indiana Law Journal, 85 (Fall): 1301–1313. (Scholar)
  • Burns, Prue and Jan Schapper, 2008, “The Ethical Case for Affirmative Action,” Journal of Business Ethics, 83 (December): 369–379. (Scholar)
  • Cahn, Steven M. (ed.), 1993, Affirmative Action and the University: A Philosophical Inquiry, Philadelphia: Temple University Press. (Scholar)
  • ––– (ed.), 1995, The Affirmative Action Debate, New York: Routledge. [Contains main articles from the 1970s.] (Scholar)
  • Capaldi, Nicholas, 1985, Out of Order: Affirmative Action and the Crisis of Doctrinaire Liberalism, Buffalo, New York: Prometheus Books. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1998, “The Liberal Paradigm in Affirmative Action Law,” Loyola Law Review, 43 (Winter): 525–568. (Scholar)
  • Card, Robert F., 2005, “Making Sense of the Diversity–Based Legal Argument for Affirmative Action,” Public Affairs Quarterly, 19 (January): 11–24. (Scholar)
  • Carnevale, Anthony P. and Stephen J. Rose, 2003, Socioeconomic Status, Race/Ethnicity, and Selective College Admissions, New York: The Century Foundation. (Scholar)
  • Carter, Stephen L., 1991, Reflections of an Affirmative Action Baby, New York: Basic Books. (Scholar)
  • Chambers, David L., Timothy T. Clydesdale, William Kidder, and Richard O. Lempert, 2005, “The Real Impact of Eliminating Affirmative Action in American Law Schools: An Empirical Critique of Richard Sander's Study,” Stanford Law Review, 57 (May): 1855–1898. (Scholar)
  • Chang, Mitchell J. et al. (eds.), 2003, Compelling Interest: Examining the Evidence on Racial Dynamics in Colleges and Universities, Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. (Scholar)
  • Clarke, Simon, 2006, “The Case for Affirmative Action,“ The Philosopher's Magazine, Issue 33 (First Quarter): 73–77. (Scholar)
  • Cohen, Carl, 1995, Naked Racial Preference, Lanham, Maryland: Madison Books. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1998, “The Corruption That is Group Preference,” Academic Questions, 11 (Summer): 14–22. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2007, “The Michigan Civil Rights Initiative and the Civil Rights Act of 1964,” Michigan Law Review First Impressions, 105: 117–122. (Scholar)
  • ––– and James Sterba, 2003. Affirmative Action and Racial Preferences: A Debate, New York: Oxford University Press. Reviewed by:
  • Cohen, Marshall et al. (eds.), 1977, Equality and Preferential Treatment, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. [Contains the early articles in Philosophy & Public Affairs.] (Scholar)
  • Cokorinos, Lee, 2003, The Assault on Diversity:An Organized Challenge to Racial and Gender Justice, Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield. (Scholar)
  • Corlett, J. Angelo, 1993, “Racism and Affirmative Action,” Journal of Social Philosophy, 24 (Spring): 163–175. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2003, Race, Racism, and Reparations, Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press. (Scholar)
  • Cowan, J. L., 1972, “Inverse Discrimination,” Analysis, 33 (October): 10–12. (Scholar)
  • Cox, Archibald, 1976, The Role of the Supreme Court in American Government, New York: Oxford University Press. (Scholar)
  • Crenshaw, Kimberle W., 2007, “Framing Affirmative Action,” Michigan Law Review First Impressions, 105: 123–133. (Scholar)
  • Curry, George E. (ed.), 1996, The Affirmative Action Debate, Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. (Scholar)
  • Davis, Michael, 1981. “Racial Quotas, Weights, and Real Possibilities,” Social Theory and Practice, 7 (Spring): 49–84. (Scholar)
  • Delgado, Richard, 2007, “Rodrigo's Riposte: The Mismatch Theory of Law School Admissions,” Syracuse Law Review, 57 (3): 637–656. (Scholar)
  • DeVille, Kenneth and Loretta M. Kopelman, 2003, “Diversity, Trust, and Patient Care: Affirmative Action in Medical Education 25 Years after Bakke,” Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, 28 (August): 489–516. (Scholar)
  • Dixon, Jeffrey C. and Michael S. Rosenbaum, 2004, “Nice to Know You? Testing Contact, Cultural, and Group Threat Theories of Anti-Black and Anti-Hispanic Stereotypes,” Social Science Quarterly, 85 (June): 257–284 (Scholar)
  • Dombrowski, Daniel, 2002, “Moral Individualism and Affirmative Action,” Professional Ethics, 10 (1): 39–60. (Scholar)
  • Dreyfuss, Joel and Charles Lawrence III, 1979, The Bakke Case: The Politics of Inequality, New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. (Scholar)
  • Durlauf, Steven N., 2008, “Affirmative Action, Meritocracy, and Efficiency,” Politics, Philosophy and Economics, 7 (May): 131–158. (Scholar)
  • Dworkin, Ronald, 1985, A Matter of Principle, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1998, “Is Affirmative Action Doomed?” New York Review of Books, 45 (November 5): 56–60. (Scholar)
  • Eastland, Terry, 1996, Ending Affirmative Action: The Case for Colorblind Justice, New York: Basic Books. (Scholar)
  • ––– and William J. Bennett, 1979, Counting By Race: Equality from the Founding Fathers to Bakke and Weber, New York: Basic Books. (Scholar)
  • Edley, Christopher, Jr., 1996, Not All Black and White: Affirmative Action and American Values, New York: Hill and Wang. (Scholar)
  • Elliott, Rogers et al., 1996, “The Role of Ethnicity in Choosing and Leaving Science in Highly Selective Institutions,” Research in Higher Education, 37 (December): 681–709. (Scholar)
  • Epstein, Richard A., 2002, “A Rational Basis for Affirmative Action: A Shaky but Classical Liberal Defense,” Michigan Law Review, 100 (August): 2036–2061. (Scholar)
  • Erler, Edward J., 1997, “The Future of Civil Rights: Affirmative Action Redivivus,” Notre Dame Journal of Law, Ethics and Public Policy, 11: 15–65. (Scholar)
  • Edwards, John, 1995, When Race Counts: The Morality of Racial Preference in Britain and America, London: Routledge. (Scholar)
  • Ezorsky, Gertrude, 1991, Racism and Justice: The Case for Affirmative Action, Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1977, “Hiring Women Faculty,” Philosophy & Public Affairs, 7 (Autumn): 82–91. (Scholar)
  • Feinberg, Walter, 1998, On Higher Ground: Education and the Case for Affirmative Action, New York: Teachers College Press. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2003, “Affirmative Action,” in Hugh LaFollette (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Practical Ethics, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 272–299. (Scholar)
  • Fiscus, Ronald J., 1992, The Constitutional Logic of Affirmative Action, Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press. (Scholar)
  • Fiss, Owen, 1976, “Groups and the Equal Protection Clause,” Philosophy & Public Affairs, 5 (Winter): 107–177. (Scholar)
  • Forde-Mazrui, Kim, 2004, “Taking Conservatives Seriously: A Moral Justification for Affirmative Action and Reparations,” California Law Review, 92 (May): 683–753. (Scholar)
  • Fullinwider, Robert K., 1975, “Preferential Hiring and Compensation,” Social Theory and Practice, (Spring): 307–320. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1980, The Reverse Discrimination Controversy: A Moral and Legal Analysis, Totowa, New Jersey: Rowman and Littlefield. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1986a, “Reverse Discrimination and Equal Opportunity,” in Joseph P. DeMarco and Richard M. Fox (eds), New Directions in Ethics: The Challenge of Applied Ethics, New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul, pp. 173–189. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1986b, “Achieving Equal Opportunity,” in Fullinwider and Mills (eds.), 99–114. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1994, “Indefensible Defenses of Affirmative Action,” in M. N. S. Sellers (ed.), An Ethical Education: Community and Morality in the Multicultural University, Oxford: Berg Publishers, pp. 233–242. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1997, “The Life and Death of Racial Preferences,” Philosophical Studies, 85 (March): 163–180. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2002, “Diversity and Affirmative Action,” in Verna V. Gehring and William A. Galston (eds.), Philosophical Dimensions of Public Policy, New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers, pp. 115–124. (Scholar)
  • ––– and Claudia Mills, eds.), 1986, The Moral Foundations of Civil Rights, Totowa, New Jersey: Rowman & Littlefield. (Scholar)
  • ––– and Judith Lichtenberg, 2004, Leveling the Playing Field: Justice, Politics, and College Admissions, Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield. (Scholar)
  • Gahringer, Robert E., 1979, “Race and Class: The Basic Issue of the Bakke Case,” Ethics, 90 (October): 97–114. (Scholar)
  • Ghassemian, Andrew J. III, 2003, “Compensatory Justice in Affirmative Action,” Current Surgery, 60 (November): 596–597. (Scholar)
  • Gitlin, Adam, 2007, “What the MCRI Can Teach White Litigants about White Dominance,” Michigan Law Review First Impressions, 105: 134–138. (Scholar)
  • Glazer, Nathan, 1975, Affirmative Discrimination: Ethnic Inequality and Public Policy, New York: Basic Books. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1998, “For Racial Dispensation in Admissions,” Academic Questions, 11 (Summer): 22–32. (Scholar)
  • Goldman, Alan, 1975, “Reparations to Individuals or Groups?Analysis, 35 (April): 168–170. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1976, “Affirmative Action,” Philosophy & Public Affairs, 5 (Winter): 178–195. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1979, Justice and Reverse Discrimination, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. (Scholar)
  • Graham, Hugh Davis, 1990, The Civil Rights Era: Origins and Development of National Policy 1960–1972, New York: Oxford University Press. (Scholar)
  • Greenawalt, Kent, 1983, Discrimination and Reverse Discrimination, New York: Alfred A. Knopf. (Scholar)
  • Gross, Barry R., 1978, Discrimination in Reverse: Is Turnabout Fair Play? New York: New York University Press. (Scholar)
  • –––, (ed.), 1977a. Reverse Discrimination, Buffalo, New York: Prometheus Books. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1977b, “Is Turn About Fair Play?” in Gross (ed.), 379–408. (Scholar)
  • Guenin, Louis M., 1997, “Affirmative Action in Higher Education as Redistribution,” Public Affairs Quarterly, 11 (April): 117–140. (Scholar)
  • Guinier, Lani and Susan Sturm, 2001, Who's Qualified? Boston: Beacon Press. (Scholar)
  • Gurin, Patricia, Eric L. Day, Sylvia Hurtado, and Gerald Gurin, 2002, “Diversity and Higher Education: Theory and Impact on Educational Outcomes,” Harvard Educational Review, 72 (Fall): 330–337. (Scholar)
  • –––, Brian A. Nagda, and Gretchin E. Lopez, (2004), “The Benefits of Diversity in Education for Democratic Citizenship,” Journal of Social Issues, 60 (March): 17–34. (Scholar)
  • Gutmann, Amy and Dennis Thompson, 1996, Democracy and Disagreement, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. (Scholar)
  • Hajdin, Mane, 2002, “Affirmative Action, Old and New,” Journal of Social Philosophy, 33 (Spring): 83–96. (Scholar)
  • Hansson, Sven Ove, 2004, “What are Opportunities and Why Should They Be Equal?” Social Choice & Welfare, 22 (April): 305–317. (Scholar)
  • Harris, Luke C., 2003, “Contesting the Ambivalence and Hostility to Affirmative Action within the Black Community,” in Tommy L. Lott (ed.), A Companion to African-American Philosophy, Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishing, pp. 324–332. (Scholar)
  • ––– and Uma Narayan, 1994, “Affirmative Action and the Myth of Preferential: A Transformative Critique of the Terms of the Affirmative Action Debate,” Harvard Journal of Ethnic and Racial Justice (formerly Harvard Blackletter Law Journal), 11: 1–35. (Scholar)
  • Haslett, D. W., 2002, “Workplace Discrimination, Good Cause, and Color Blindness,” Journal of Value Inquiry, 36: 73–88. (Scholar)
  • Hasnas, John, 2002, “Equal Opportunity, Affirmative Action, and the Anti-Discrimination Principle: The Philosophical Basis for the Legal Prohibition of Discrimination,” Fordham Law Review, 71 (November): 423–542. (Scholar)
  • Heilman, Madeline E., 1997, “Sex Discrimination and the Affirmative Action Remedy: The Role of Sex Stereotypes,” Journal of Business Ethics, 16 (June): 877–889. (Scholar)
  • Hess, Ryan C., 2007, “A Sheep in Wolf's Clothing: The Michigan Civil Rights Initiative as the Savior of Affirmative Action,” Michigan Law Review Firsts Impressions, 105: 139–143. (Scholar)
  • Hill, Thomas E., 1991, “The Message of Affirmative Action,” Social Philosophy and Policy, 8 (Spring): 108–129. (Scholar)
  • Himma, Kenneth Einar, 2001, “Discrimination and Disidentification: The Fair-Start Defense of Affirmative Action,” Journal of Business Ethics, 30 (April): 277–289. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2002, “Desert, Entitlement, and Affirmative Action: A Response to Francis Beckwith,” Social Theory and Practice, 28 (January): 157–166. (Scholar)
  • Ho, Daniel E., 2005, “Why Affirmative Action Does Not Cause Black Students to Fail the Bar: A Reply to Sander,” Yale Law Journal, 114 (June): 1997–2004. (Scholar)
  • Ibarra, Robert A., 2001, Beyond Affirmative Action: Reframing the Context of Higher Education, Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press. (Scholar)
  • Jacobs, Lesley A., 2004, Pursuing Equal Opportunities: The Theory and Practice of Egalitarian Justice, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Scholar)
  • Jaggar, Alison, 1997, “Gender, Race, and Difference: Individual Consideration versus Group-Based Affirmative Action in Admission to Higher Education,” Southern Journal of Philosophy, 35 (Spring): 21–51. (Scholar)
  • Johnson, Kevin R.and Angela Onwuachi–Willig, 2005, “Cry Me a River: The Limits of A Systemic Analysis of Affirmative Action in American Law Schools,” African-American Law and Policy Report, 7 (1): 1–29. (Scholar)
  • Johnson, Susan M. and Xia Li Lollar, 2002, “Diversity Policy in Higher Education: The Impact of College Students' Exposure to Diversity on Cultural Awareness and Political Participation,” Journal of Education Policy, 17 (June): 305–321. (Scholar)
  • Kahlenberg, Richard D., 1996, The Remedy: Class, Race, and Affirmative Action, New York: Basic Books. (Scholar)
  • –––,(ed.) 2010, Rewarding Strivers: Helping Low–Income Students Succeed in College, New York: Century Foundation. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2012, A Better Affirmative Action: State Universities That Created Alternatives to Racial Preferences, New York: The Century Foundation. (Scholar)
  • Kershnar, Stephen, 1997, “Strong Affirmative Action at State Institutions Cannot Be Justified Via Compensatory Justice,” Public Affairs Quarterly, 11 (October): 345–363. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1999, “Uncertain Damages to Racial Minorities and Strong Affirmative Action,” Public Affairs Quarterly, 13 (January): 83–98. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1999, “Strong Affirmative Action Programs and Disproportionate Burdens,” Journal of Value Inquiry, 33 (June): 201–209. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2004, “Why Equal Opportunity is Not a Valuable Goal,” Journal of Applied Philosophy, 21 (August): 159–173. (Scholar)
  • Ketchum, Sara Ann and Christine Pierce, 1976, “Implicit Racism,” Analysis, 36 (January): 91–95. (Scholar)
  • Klor de Alva, Jorge, 1996, “Is Affirmative Action a Christian Heresy?” Representations, 55 (Summer): 59–73. (Scholar)
  • Kocis, Robert A., 2010, “Discriminatory Privileges, Compensatory Privileges, and Affirmative Action,” in Christi Favor et al.(eds.), Essays in Philosophy, Politics, and Economics, Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 139–156. (Scholar)
  • Koppelman, Andrew and Donald Rebstock, 2007, “On Affirmative Action and Truly Individualized Consideration,” Northwestern University Law Review, 101 (Spring): 1469–1481. (Scholar)
  • Kull, Andrew, 1992, The Color Blind Constitution, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. (Scholar)
  • Landau, Iddo, 1997, “Are You Entitled to Affirmative Action?International Journal of Applied Philosophy, 11 (Winter-Spring): 17–22. (Scholar)
  • Lawrence, Charles R. III, 2001, “Two Views of the River: A Critique of the Liberal Defense of Affirmative Action,” Columbia Law Review, 101 (May): 928–976. (Scholar)
  • ––– and Mari J. Matsuda, 1997, We Won't Go Back: Making the Case for Affirmative Action, Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. (Scholar)
  • Leach, Bryan W., 2004, “Race as Mission Critical: The Occupational Need Rationale in Military Affirmative Action and Beyond,” Yale Law Journal, 113 (March): 1093–1143. (Scholar)
  • LeFevre, Joseph, 2003, “The Value of Diversity: A Justification of Affirmative Action,” Journal of Social Philosophy, 34 (March): 125–133. (Scholar)
  • Libertella, Anthony F., Sebastian A. Sora, and Samuel M. Natale, 2007, “Affirmative Action Policy and Changing Views,” Journal of Business Ethics, 74 (August): 65–71. (Scholar)
  • Lichtenberg, Judith and David Luban, 2002, “The Merits of Merit,” in Verna V. Gehring and William A. Galston (eds). Philosophical Dimensions of Public Policy, New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers, pp. 101–113. (Scholar)
  • Lindgren, J. Ralph, 1981, “The Irrelevance of Philosophical Treatments of Affirmative Action,” Social Theory and Practice, 7 (Spring): 1–19. (Scholar)
  • Lippert–Rasmussen, Kasper, 2008, “Discrimination and the Aim of Proportional Representation,” Philosophy, Politics and Economics, 7 (May): 159–182. (Scholar)
  • Lukes, Timothy J., and Bonnie G. Campodonico, 1996, “Merit Badgering: Dissecting a Slippery Concept in the Affirmative Action Debate,” Public Affairs Quarterly, 10 (July): 219–227. (Scholar)
  • Malamud, Deborah C., 1997, “Assessing Class–Based Affirmative Action,” Journal of Legal Education, 47 (4): 452–471. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2011, “Class Privilege in Legal Education: A Response to Sander,” Denver University Law Review, 88 (4): 729–750. (Scholar)
  • Massey, Stephen J., 1981, “Rethinking Affirmative Action,” Social Theory and Practice, 7 (Spring): 21–47. (Scholar)
  • McHugh, Peter, 2005, “Shared Being, Old Promises, and the Just Necessity of Affirmative Action,” Human Studies, 28 (2): 129–156. (Scholar)
  • Mills, Nicolaus (ed.), 1994, Debating Affirmative Action: Race, Gender, Ethnicity, and the Politics of Inclusion, New York: Dell Publishing. (Scholar)
  • Mosley, Albert G., 1998, “Policies of Straw or Policies of Inclusion? A Review of Pojman's ‘Case against Affirmative Action’,” International Journal of Applied Philosophy, 12 (Fall): 161–168. (Scholar)
  • ––– and Nicholas Capaldi, 1996, Affirmative Action: Social Justice or Unfair Preference? Lanham, Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield. (Scholar)
  • Murray, Dale, 2005, “The Affirmative Action Debate,” Teaching Philosophy, 28 (June): 284–287. (Scholar)
  • Nagel, Thomas, 1973, “Equal Treatment and Compensatory Discrimination,” Philosophy & Public Affairs, 2 (Summer): 348–363. (Scholar)
  • Newton, Lisa, 1973, “Reverse Discrimination as Unjustified,” Ethics, 83 (July): 308–312. (Scholar)
  • Nickel, James W., 1972, “Discrimination and Morally Relevant Characteristics,” Analysis, 32 (March): 113–114. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1974, “Should Reparations Be to Individuals or Groups?Analysis, 34 (April): 154–160. (Scholar)
  • Nieli, Russell (ed.), 1991, Racial Preference and Racial Justice: The New Affirmative Action Controversy, Washington, D.C.: Ethics and Public Policy Center. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2012, Wounds That Will Not Heal: Affirmative Action and Our Continuing Racial Divide, New York: Encounter Books. (Scholar)
  • Nunn, William A., 1974, “Reverse Discrimination,” Analysis, 34 (April): 151–154. (Scholar)
  • O'Neil, Robert M., 1975, Discriminating Against Discrimination: Preferential Admissions and the DeFunisCase, Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press. (Scholar)
  • Orfield, Gary with Michael Kurlaender (eds.), 2001. Diversity Challenged: Evidence on the Impact of Affirmative Action, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard Education Publishing Group. (Scholar)
  • Orlans, Harold June O'Neill (eds.), 1992, Affirmative Action Revisited, Newbury Park, California: Sage. (Scholar)
  • Owen, Matthew S. and Danielle S. Barbour, 2007, “Disparate Impact and the Use of Racial Proxies in Post–MCRI Admissions,” Michigan Law Review First Impressions, 105: 144–148. (Scholar)
  • Paul, Ellen Frankel et al. (eds.), 1991, Reassessing Civil Rights, Oxford: Blackwell Publishers. (Scholar)
  • Pell, Terence J., 2003, “What's the Big Deal about Racial Preferences?Journal of Social Philosophy, 34 (Summer): 326–329. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2004, “The Nature of Claims about Race and the Debate over Racial PreferencesInternational Journal of Applied Philosophy, 18 (1): 13–26. (Scholar)
  • Pidot, Justin, 2006, “Intuition or Proof: The Social Science Justification for the Diversity Rationale in Grutter v. Bollinger and Gratz v. Bollinger,” Stanford Law Review, 59 (December): 761–808. (Scholar)
  • Pojman, Louis, 1992, “The Moral Status of Affirmative Action,” Public Affairs Quarterly, 6 (April): 181–206. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1998, “The Case against Affirmative Action,” International Journal of Applied Philosophy, 12 (Spring): 97–115. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1998, “Straw Man or Straw Theory? A Reply to Albert Mosley,” International Journal of Applied Philosophy, 12 (Fall): 169–180. (Scholar)
  • Purdy, Laura, 1994. “Why Do We Need Affirmative Action?Journal of Social Philosophy, 25 (Spring): 133–143. (Scholar)
  • Rachels, James, 1978, “What People Deserve,” in John Arthur and William Shaw (eds.), Justice and Economic Distribution, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 150–163. (Scholar)
  • Radin, Margaret Jane, 1991, “Affirmative Action Rhetoric,” Social Philosophy and Policy, 8 (Spring): 130–149. (Scholar)
  • Rawls, John, 1971, A Theory of Justice, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2001, Justice as Fairness: A Restatement, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. (Scholar)
  • Reynolds, William Bradford, 1984, “Individualism vs. Group Rights: The Legacy of Brown,” Yale Law Journal, 93 (May): 995–1005. (Scholar)
  • Rosenfeld, Michel, 1991, Affirmative Action and Justice: A Philosophical and Constitutional Inquiry, New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press. (Scholar)
  • Rothman, Stanley, S. M. Lipset, and Neil Nevitte, 2002, “Diversity and Affirmative Action: The State of Campus Opinion,” Academic Questions, 15 (Fall): 52–67. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2003, “Racial Diversity Reconsidered,” Public Interest, 151 (Spring): 25–38. (Scholar)
  • Rothstein, Jesse and Albert H. Yoon, 2008, “Affirmative Action in Law School Admissions: What Do Racial Preferences Do?” University of Chicago Law Review, 75 (Spring): 649–714. (Scholar)
  • Rush, Sharon, 1994, “Understanding Affirmative Action: One Feminist's Perspective,” in M. N. S. Sellers (ed.). An Ethical Education: Community and Morality in the Multicultural University, Oxford: Berg Publishers, pp. 195–132. (Scholar)
  • Sabbagh, Daniel, 2007, Equality and Transparency: A Strategic Perspective on Affirmative Action in American Law, New York: Palgrave Macmillan. (Scholar)
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