Linked bibliography for the SEP article "al-Farabi’s Philosophy of Logic and Language" by Wilfrid Hodges and Therese-Anne Druart

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Works of Al-Fārābī

  • [Analysis] Kitāb al-taḥlīl (Analysis), in [Logic] 2: 95–129.
  • [Attainment] Kitāb taḥṣīl al-saʻāda, Jaʻfar Āl Yāsīn (ed.), Beirut: Dār al-Andalus, 1981; translated as “The Attainment of Happiness” in Mahdi 2001: 13–50. (Scholar)
  • [Canons] “Fārābī’s Canons of Poetry”, A. J. Arberry (ed./trans.), 1938, Rivista degli Studi Orientali, 17(2): 266–278. (Arabic and translation.)
  • [Catalogue] Iḥṣā al-‘ulūm (Catalogue of the sciences), ‘Uthmān Amīn (ed.), Paris: Dar Bibliyun, 2005. Latin translations (1) by Gundisalvi in Jakob Schneider, De Scientiis: secundum versionem Dominici Gundisalvi, Herder, Freiburg 2006 (includes German translation); (2) by Gerard of Cremona in Alain Galonnier, Le De Scientiis Alfarabii de Gérard de Crémone: Contribution aux problèmes de l’acculturation au XIIe siècle (édition et traduction du texte), Turnhout: Brepols, 2017 (includes English translation).
  • [Categories] Kitāb al-qāṭāghūrīyās ayy al-maqūlāt, in [Logic] 1: 89–131; translated in D. M. Dunlop, 1958/1959, in “Al-Fārābī’s paraphrase of the Categories of Aristotle”, Islamic Quarterly, 4: 168–197 and 5(1): 21–54. (Scholar)
  • [Certainty] Sharā’iṭ al-yaqīn (Conditions of certainty), in Kitāb al-burhān wa-kitāb al-sharā’iṭ al-yaqīn (Book of demonstration and book of conditions of certainty), Majid Fakhry (ed.), Beirut: Dar el-Machreq, 1986, pp. 97–104.
  • [Commentary on Categories] “Al-Fārābī’s Long Commentary on Aristotle’s Categoriae in Hebrew and Arabic: A critical edition and English translation of the newly found extant fragments”, Mauro Zonta (ed./trans.), Studies in Arabic and Islamic Culture II, Binyamin Abrahamov (ed.), Ramat-Gan: Bar-Ilan University Press, 2006, pp. 185–253. (Scholar)
  • [Commentary on De Interpretatione] Sharḥ ‘ibāra, W. Kutsch and S. Marrow (eds.), Beirut: Dar el-Machreq, 1986; translated in Zimmermann 1981: 1–219. We cite the page and line numbers in the Kutsch and Marrow edition; Zimmermann’s translation gives these too.
  • [Commentary on Prior Analytics] Kitāb sharḥ al-qiyās, surviving part in Almanṭiqīyāt lil-Fārābī (The logical works of al-Fārābī), M. T. Daneshpazhuh (ed.), Qum: Maktabat Ayat Allah, 1988, vol. 2, pp. 263–553.
  • [Debate] Kitāb al-jadal (Debate), in [Logic] 3: 13–107.
  • [Demonstration] Kitāb al-burhān (Demonstration), in Kitāb al-burhān wa-kitāb al-sharā’iṭ al-yaqīn (Book of demonstration and book of conditions of certainty), Majid Fakhry (ed.), Beirut: Dar el-Machreq, 1986, pp. 19–96.
  • [Eisagoge] Kitāb al-īsāḡūjī, in [Logic] 1: 75–87; translated in D. M. Dunlop, 1956, “AlFārābī’s Eisagoge”, Islamic Quarterly, 3(2): 117–138. (Scholar)
  • [Expressions] Kitāb al-alfāẓ al-musta‘mala fī al-manṭiq (Expressions used in logic), Muhsin Mahdi (ed.), Beirut: Dar el-Machreq, 1968.
  • [Harmony] Al-Fārābī(?), L’armonia delle opinioni dei due sapienti: il divino Platone e Aristotele (Al-jam‘ bayna ra’yay al-ḥakīmayn aflaṭūn al-ilāhī wa-arisṭūṭālīs), Cecilia Martini Bonadeo (ed.), Pisa: Plus, 2009; English translation in Charles E. Butterworth, Alfārābī, The Political Writings, ‘Selected Aphorisms’ and other texts, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2001, pp. 117–167. (Scholar)
  • [Indication] Risālat al-tanbīh ‘alā sabīl al-sa‘āda (Indication of the way to happiness), S. Khālīfāt (ed.), Amman: Jami‘at al-urdunīya, 1987; translated in Jon McGinnis and David C. Reisman, Classical Arabic Philosophy: An Anthology of Sources, Indianapolis: Hackett, 2007, pp. 104–120.
  • [Interpretation] Kitāb pārī armīniyās ayy al-‘ibāra, in [Logic] 1: 133–163; translated in Zimmermann 1981: 220–247.
  • [Introductory] Al-tawṭi’a aw al-risāla ṣuddira bihā al-manṭiq (Preparation, or essay introducing logic), in [Logic] 1: 55–62; translated in D. M. Dunlop, 1957, “Al-Fārābī’s Introductory Risālah on logic”, Islamic Quarterly, 3: 224–235.
  • [Letters] Kitāb al-ḥurūf (Book of letters), Muhsin Mahdi (ed.), Beirut: Dar al-Machreq, 1990. Paragraphs (108) to (157) are translated in Khalidi 2005, pp. 1–26. A new edition with full translation by Charles E. Butterworth is near publication. We cite this work in the style (m) n.p, where m is the paragraph number, n the page number and p the line number, all as in Mahdi’s edition; Khalidi gives the paragraph numbers. (Scholar)
  • [Logic] Al-manṭiq ‘inda al-Fārābī (The Logic of al-Fārābī), Rafiq al-‘Ajam (ed.), Beirut: Dar al-Machreq, vol. 1 1985, vols. 2 and 3 1986.
  • [Music] Kitāb al-Mūsīqā al-kabīr (Great Book of Music), Ghattas ‘Abd-al-Malik Khashaba (ed.), Cairo: Dār al-Kātib al-‘arabī li-al-ṭibā‘a wa-al-nashr, 1967; French translation in Rudolphe D’Erlanger, 1930, La Musique Arabe, vols 1, 2 (of six), Paris: Librairie Orientaliste Paul Geuthner. (Scholar)
  • [Poetry] “Kitāb al-shi‘r”, M. Mahdi (ed.), Shi‘r, 1959: 90–95; French translation in Benmakhlouf et al. 2007: 112–118. (Scholar)
  • [Proportion] Qawl al-Fārābī fī al-tanāsub wa-al-ta’līf (About proportion and composition), in M. T. Daneshpazhuh (ed.), Al-manṭiqīyāt lil-Fārābī (The logical works of alFārābī), Qum: Maktabat Ayat Allah, Qum, 1988, vol. 1, pp. 504.1–506.6; French translation in Benmakhlouf et al. 2007: 107–111.
  • [Rhetoric] Kitāb al-Ḫaṭāba, in J. Langhade and M. Grignaschi (eds.), Al-Fārābī, deux ouvrages inédits sur la rhétorique, Beirut: Dar el-Machreq, 1971, pp. 30–121.
  • [Sections] Al-fuṣūl al-khamsa (The five sections), in [Logic] 1: 63–73; translated in D. M. Dunlop, 1955, “Al-Fārābī’s Introductory Sections on Logic”, Islamic Quarterly, 2: 264–282. (Scholar)
  • [Short Syllogism] Kitāb al-qiyās al-ṣaḡīr (Also known as Logic of the Theologians) in Al-manṭiq ‘inda al-Fārābī (The Logic of al-Fārābī), R. al-‘Ajam (ed.), Beirut: Dar al-Mashreq, 1986, vol 2, pp. 65–93; translated in Nicholas Rescher, “Al-Fārābī’s short commentary on Aristotle’s Prior Analytics”, Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1963.
  • [Sophistry] Kitāb al-amkinati al-muḡliṭa (Situations of sophistry), in [Logic] 2: 131–164.
  • [Syllogism] Kitāb al-qiyās (Syllogism), in [Logic] 2: 11–64; tranlated in Saloua Chatti and Wilfrid Hodges, Al-Fārābī, Syllogism, (Ancient Commentators on Aristotle), London: Bloomsbury, in preparation.

Works of Other Authors

  • Abed, Shukri B., 1991, Aristotelian Logic and the Arabic Language in Alfārābī, Albany: State University of New York Press. (Scholar)
  • Adamson, Peter, 2006, “The Arabic Sea Battle: Al-Fārābī on the Problem of Future Contingents”, Archiv Für Geschichte Der Philosophie, 88(2): 163–188. doi:10.1515/agph.2006.007 (Scholar)
  • Alon, Ilai and Shukri Abed, 2007, Al-Fārābī’s Philosophical Lexicon, two volumes, Cambridge: E. J. W. Gibb Memorial Trust. (Scholar)
  • Aouad, Maroun, 1992, “Les Fondements de la Rhétorique d’Aristote Reconsidérés Par Fārābi, Ou Le Concept de Point de Vue Immédiat et Commun”, Arabic Sciences and Philosophy, 2(1): 133–180. doi:10.1017/s0957423900001582 (Scholar)
  • Aouad, Maroun and Gregor Schoeler, 2002, “The Poetic Syllogism According to Al-Farabi: An Incorrect Syllogism of the Second Figure”, Arabic Sciences and Philosophy, 12(2): 185–196. doi:10.1017/s0957423902002096 (Scholar)
  • Benmakhlouf, Ali, Stéphane Diebler, and Pauline Koetscher (eds.), 2007, Al-Fārābī, Philosopher à Bagdad au Xe siècle, Paris: Seuil. (Scholar)
  • Black, Deborah L., 1989, “The ‘Imaginative Syllogism’ in Arabic Philosophy: A Medieval Contribution to the Philosophical Study of Metaphor”, Mediaeval Studies, 51: 242–267. doi:10.1484/j.ms.2.306851 (Scholar)
  • –––, 1990, Logic and Aristotle’s Rhetoric and Poetics in Medieval Arabic Philosophy, (Islamic philosophy and theology, 7), Leiden: Brill. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2006, “Knowledge (‘Ilm) and Certitude (yaqin) in al-Farabi’s Epistemology”, Arabic Sciences and Philosophy, 16(1): 11–45. doi:10.1017/s0957423906000221 (Scholar)
  • Boethius [c. 477–524 CE], 1969, De Hypotheticis Syllogismis, Luca Obertello (ed.), Brescia: Paideia. (Scholar)
  • Chase, Michael, 2007, “Did Porphyry Write a Commentary on Aristotle’s Posterior Analytics? Albertus Magnus, al-Fārābī, and Porphyry on per se predication”, in Classical Arabic Philosophy: Sources and Reception, Peter Adamson (ed.), London: Warburg Institute, pp. 21–38. (Scholar)
  • Cross, Charles and Floris Roelofsen, 2018, “Questions”, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2018 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = <https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2018/entries/questions/>. (Scholar)
  • D’Ancona, Cristina, 2017, “Greek Sources in Arabic and Islamic Philosophy”, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2017 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = <https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2017/entries/arabic-islamic-greek/>. (Scholar)
  • D’Arcy, Guillaume de Vaulx, 2010, “La Naqla, Étude du Concept de Transfert dans L’œuvre d’al-Fārābī”, Arabic Sciences and Philosophy, 20(1): 125–176. doi:10.1017/s0957423909990129 (Scholar)
  • Diebler, Stéphane, 2005, “Catégories, conversation et philosophie chez al-Fārābī”, in Les Catégories et leur Histoire, Ole Bruun and Lorenzo Corti (eds.), Paris: Vrin, pp. 275–305. (Scholar)
  • Druart, Thérèse-Anne, 2007, “Al-Fārābī, the categories, metaphysics, and the Book of Letters”, Medioevo, Rivista di storia della filosofia medievale, 32: 15–37. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2011, “Al-Fārābī: an Arabic account of the Origin of Language and of Philosophical Vocabulary”, Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association, 84: 1–17. doi:10.5840/acpaproc2010841 (Scholar)
  • –––, 2015/6, “Why music matters for language and interpretation: al-Fārābī”, Mélanges de l’Université Saint-Joseph, 66: 167–179. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2016, “Al-Fārābī”, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2016 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = <https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2016/entries/al-farabi/> (Scholar)
  • Elamrani-Jamal, Abdelali, 1983, Logique Aristotélicienne et Grammaire Arabe, (Études musulmanes, 26 ), Paris: Vrin. (Scholar)
  • Elias [attr., 6th century CE], 1890, In Categorias Prooemium, in Adolph Busse (ed.), Eliae in Porphyrii Isagogen et Aristotelis Categorias Commentaria, (Commentaria in Aristotelem Graeca 18.1), Berlin: Reimer, pp. 107–134. [In Categorias Prooemium available online] See also entry on Elias. (Scholar)
  • Eskenasy, Pauline E., 1988, “Al-Fārābī’s Classification of the Parts of Speech”, Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam, 11: 55–82. (Scholar)
  • Fakhry, Majid, 2002, Al-Fārābī: Founder of Islamic Neoplatonism, His Life, Works and Influence, London: Oneworld. (Scholar)
  • Farmer, Henry George, 1957, “The Music of Islam”, in Egon Wellesz (ed.), Ancient and Oriental Music, London: Oxford University Press, 421–477. (Scholar)
  • Fortenbaugh, William W., Pamela M. Huby, Robert W. Sharples and Dimitri Gutas (eds.), 1992, Theophrastus of Eresus: Sources for his Life, Writings, Thought and Influence, Leiden: Brill. (Scholar)
  • Galen [c. 129–c. 216 CE], 1896, Institutio Logica, Carolus Kalbfleisch (ed.), Leipzig: Teubner. (Scholar)
  • Galston, Miriam S., 1981, “Al-Fārābī on Aristotle’s Theory of Demonstration”, in Parviz Morewedge (ed.), Islamic Philosophy and Mysticism, Delmar, NY: Caravan Books, pp. 23–34. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1988, “Al-Fārābī et la logique Aristotélicienne dans la philosophie islamique”, in M. A. Sinaceur (ed.), Aristote Aujourd’hui, Paris: Érès, Unesco, pp. 192–217. (Scholar)
  • García Cuadrado, José Angel, 2003, “La distinción nombre-verbo en los comentarios al Perihermeneias de Al-Fārābī y Averroes”, Revista Española de Filosofía Medieval 10: 157–169. (Scholar)
  • Germann, Nadja, 2015, “Logic as the Path to Happiness: Al-Fārābī and the Divisions of the Sciences”, Quaestio, 15(January): 15–30. doi:10.1484/j.quaestio.5.108587 (Scholar)
  • –––, 2015/6, “Imitation—ambiguity—discourse: some remarks on al-Fārābī’s philosophy of language”, Mélanges de l’Université Saint-Joseph, 66: 135–166. (Scholar)
  • Giolfo, Manuela E. B. and Wilfrid Hodges, 2018, “Syntax, Semantics, and Pragmatics in al-Sīrãfī and Ibn Sīnã”, in Georgine Ayoub and Kees Versteegh (eds.), Foundations of Arabic Linguistics III, Leiden: Brill. doi:10.1163/9789004365216_007 (Scholar)
  • Gottschalk, Hans B., 1990, “The Earliest Aristotelian Commentators”, in Richard Sorabji (ed.), Aristotle Transformed: The Ancient Commentators and their Influence, London: Duckworth, pp. 55–81. (Scholar)
  • Grinaschi, Mario, 1972, “Les traductions latines des ouvrages de la logique arabe et l’abrégé d’Al-Fārābī”, Archives d’Histoire doctrinale et littéraire du Moyen Age, 47: 41–107. (Scholar)
  • Günther, Sebastian, 2010, “The principles of instruction are the grounds of our knowledge; Al-Fārābī’s philosophical and al-Ghazālī’s spiritual approaches to learning”, in Osama Abi-Mershed (ed.), Trajectories of Education in the Arab World: Legacies and Challenges, London: Routledge, pp. 15–35. (Scholar)
  • Gutas, Dimitri, 1983, “Paul the Persian on the classification of the parts of Aristotle’s philosophy: a milestone between Alexandria and Baġdâd”, Der Islam: Zeitschrift für Geschichte und Kultur des Islamischen Orients, 60(2): 231–267. Reprinted in Dimitri Gutas, Greek Philosophers in the Arabic Tradition, Aldershot: Ashgate 2000. doi:10.1515/islm.1983.60.2.231 (Scholar)
  • Gyekye, Kwame, 1972, “The Term Istithnā’ in Arabic Logic”, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 92(1): 88–92. doi:10.2307/599652 (Scholar)
  • –––, 1989, “Al-Fārābī on the Logic of the Arguments of the Muslim Philosophical Theologians”, Journal of the History of Philosophy, 27(1): 135–143. doi:10.1353/hph.1989.0001 (Scholar)
  • Haddad, Fuad S., 1969, “Alfārābī’s Views on Logic and Its Relation to Grammar”, Islamic Quarterly, 13: 192–207. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1989, Alfarabi’s Theory of Communication, Beirut, Lebanon: American University of Beirut. (Scholar)
  • Hasnawi, Ahmad, 1985, “Fārābī et la pratique de l’exégèse philosophique (remarques sur son Commentaire au De Interpretatione d’Aristote)”, Revue de Synthèse (Paris), 106(117): 27–59.
  • –––, 1992, “Fārābī al-”, in Encyclopédie Philosophique Universelle, vol. 3, Les oeuvres philosophiques: dictionnaire dir. par Jean-François Nattei sous la direction de André Jacob, Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
  • –––, 2009, “Topique et syllogistique: la tradition arabe (Al-Fārābī et Averroès)”, in Les lieux de l’argumentation: Histoire du syllogisme topique d’Aristote à Leibniz (Studia Aristarum, 22), Joël Biard and Fosca Mariani Zini (eds.), Turnhout: Brepols Publishers: 191–226. doi:10.1484/m.sa-eb.4.00075 (Scholar)
  • –––, 2012, “L’objet du De Interpretatione d’Aristote Selon Al-Fārābī”, in Ad Notitiam Ignoti: L’ “Organon” Dans La “Translatio Studiorum” à l’époque d’Albert Le Grand (Studia Artistarum, 37), Julie Brumberg-Chaumont (ed.), Turnhout: Brepols Publishers, 259–283. doi:10.1484/M.SA-EB.5.101361
  • Hasnawi, Ahmad and Wilfrid Hodges, 2016, “Arabic Logic up to Avicenna”, in The Cambridge Companion to Medieval Logic, Catarina Dutilh Novaes and Stephen Read (eds.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 45–66. doi:10.1017/cbo9781107449862.003 (Scholar)
  • Hitchcock, David, 2017, On Reasoning and Argument: Essays in Informal Logic and on Critical Thinking (Argumentation Library, 30), Cham: Springer International Publishing. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-53562-3 (Scholar)
  • Hodges, Wilfrid, 2012, “Formalizing the Relationship Between Meaning and Syntax”, in Markus Werning, Wolfram Hinzen, and Edouard Machery (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Compositionality, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 245–261. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2018, “Proofs as Cognitive or Computational: Ibn Sı̄nā’s Innovations”, Philosophy & Technology, 31(1): 131–153. doi:10.1007/s13347-016-0242-2 (Scholar)
  • Ibn Abī Uṣaybi‘a, Aḥmad ibn al-Qāsim [d. 1270 CE], 1965, Uyūn al-anbāʼ fī ṭabaqāt al-aṭibbāʼ, Nizār Riḍā (ed.), Beirut: Dar Maktabat al-Hayah. (Scholar)
  • Ibn al-Muqaffa‘ [8th century CE], 1978, Al-manṭiq (Logic), M. T. Dāneshpazhūh (ed.), Tehran: Iranian Institute of Philosophy. (Scholar)
  • Ibn Miskawayh, Aḥmad bin Muḥammad [932–1030 CE], 1987, Tartīb al-sa‘ādah (Ranking of Happiness), Hungarian translation by Miklós Maróth as A boldogságról: a boldogság könyve, Budapest: Európa Könyvkiadó. (Scholar)
  • Ibn Rushd [= Averroes, 1126–1198 CE], 1983, Maqālāt fī al-manṭiq wa-al-‘ilm al-ṭabī‘ī (Essays on Logic and Natural Science), Jamāl al-Dīn al-‘Alawī (ed.), Casablanca. (Scholar)
  • Ibn Sīnā [= Avicenna, ca. 980–1037 CE], 1951, Al-madkhal (Introduction), M. El-Khodeiri, G. C. Anawati and F. El-Ahwani (eds.), Cairo: Nashr Wizāra al-Ma‘ārif al-‘Umũmiyya. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1964, Al-qiyās (Syllogism), S. Zayed (ed.), Cairo. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2013, Al-ta‘līqāt (Annotations), Seyyed Hossein Mousavian (ed.), Tehran: Iranian Institute of Philosophy. (Scholar)
  • Karimullah, Kamran, 2014, “Alfarabi on Conditionals”, Arabic Sciences and Philosophy, 24(2): 211–267. doi:10.1017/s0957423914000022 (Scholar)
  • –––, 2017, “Influence of Late-Antique (ca. 200–800 A.D.) Prolegomena to Aristotle’s Categories on Arabic Doctrines of the Subject Matter of Logic: Alfārābī (d. ca. 950 A.D.), Baghdad Peripatetics, Avicenna (d. 1037 A.D.)”, Archiv Für Geschichte Der Philosophie, 99(3): 237–299. doi:10.1515/agph-2017-0013 (Scholar)
  • Kemal, Salim, 2003, The Philosophical Poetics of Alfarabi, Avicenna and Averroës: The Aristotelian Reception, Abingdon: Routledge. (Scholar)
  • Khalidi, Muhammad Ali (ed.), 2005, Medieval Islamic Philosophical Writings, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/cbo9780511811050 (Scholar)
  • Kleven, Terence J., 2013, “Alfārābī’s Commentary on Porphyry’s Isagoge (Kitāb īsāgūjī)”, Schede Medievali, 51: 41–52. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2013/4, “Al-Fārābī’s introduction to the five rational arts with reference to The Five Aphorisms (al-Fusūl al-Khamsa) and Ibn Bājja’s Comments (Ta‘ālīq)”, Mélanges de l’Université Saint-Joseph, 65: 165–194. (Scholar)
  • Knuuttila, Simo, 2015, “Medieval Theories of Future Contingents”, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2015 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = <https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2015/entries/medieval-futcont/> (Scholar)
  • Kolman, Oren, 2004, “Transfer principles for generalized interval systems”, Perspectives of New Music, 42(1): 150–190. (Scholar)
  • Lameer, Joep, 1994, Al-Fārābī and Aristotelian Syllogistics, Leiden: Brill. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1997, “From Alexandria to Baghdad: reflections on the genesis of a problematical tradition”, in The Ancient Tradition in Christian and Islamic Hellenism. Studies on the transmission of Greek philosophy and sciences dedicated to HJ Drossaart Lulofs on his ninetieth birthday, Leiden: CNWS Publications 50, pp. 181–191. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2006, Conception and Belief in Sadr al-Din Shirazi (ca. 1571–1635), Tehran: Iranian Institute of Philosophy. (Scholar)
  • Langhade, Jacques, 1994, Du Coran à la philosophie: La langue arabe et la formation du vocabulaire philosophique de Fārābī, Damascus: Institut Français de Damas. (Scholar)
  • Lee, Tae-Soo, 1984, Die Griechische Tradition der Aristotelischen Syllogistik in der Spätantike, Göttingen: Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht. (Scholar)
  • López-Farjeat, Luis Xavier, 2018, “Al-Farabi’s Psychology and Epistemology”, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2018 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = <https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2018/entries/al-farabi-psych/> (Scholar)
  • MacFarlane, John, 2017, “Logical Constants”, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2017 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = <https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2017/entries/logical-constants/> (Scholar)
  • Mahdi, Muhsin, 2001, Alfarabi, Philosophy of Plato and Aristotle, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. (Scholar)
  • Mallet, Dominique, 1994, “Le kitāb al-taḥlīl d’Alfarabi”, Arabic Sciences and Philosophy, 4(2): 317–335. doi:10.1017/s0957423900001260 (Scholar)
  • Mallet, Dominique, 1996, “Kalām et dialectique dans le commentaire des Topiques d’Alfārābī”, Bulletin d’études orientales, 48: 165–182. (Scholar)
  • Menn, Stephen, 2008, “Al-Fārābī’s Kitāb Al-Ḥurūf and His Analysis of the Senses of Being”, Arabic Sciences and Philosophy, 18(1): 59–97. doi:10.1017/s0957423908000477 (Scholar)
  • Netton, Ian Richard, 1992, Al-Fārābī and his School, Richmond: Curzon Press. (Scholar)
  • Paul the Persian [6th century CE], 1875, Logica, in Jan Pieter Nicolaas Land (ed.), Anecdota Syriaca Vol. 4, Brill, Lugdunum Batavorum (Katwijk), pp. 1–30. (Scholar)
  • Philoponus, John [6th century CE], 1905, In Aristotelis Analytica Priora Commentaria, Maximilianus Wallies (ed.), Berlin: Reimer. (Scholar)
  • Porphyry [c. 234–c. 305 CE], 1887, Porphyrii Isagoge et In Aristotelis Categorias Commentarium, Adolfus Busse (ed.), Berlin: Reimer. (Scholar)
  • Pourjavady, Reza and Sabine Schmidtke, 2015, “An Eastern Renaissance? Greek Philosophy under the Safavids (16th–18th Centuries AD)”, Intellectual History of the Islamicate World, 3(1–2): 248–290. doi:10.1163/2212943x-00301010 (Scholar)
  • Rashed, Marwan, 2009, “On the Authorship of the Treatise on the Harmonization of the Opinions of the Two Sages Attributed to Al-Fārābī”, Arabic Sciences and Philosophy, 19(1): 43–82. doi:10.1017/s0957423909000587 (Scholar)
  • Rauf, Muhammad, Mushtaq Ahmad, and Zafar Iqbal, 2013, “Al-Fārābī’s Philosophy of Education”, Educational Research International, 1(2): 85–94. [Rauf, Ahmad, and Iqbal 2013 available online] (Scholar)
  • Rescher, Nicholas, 1966, Galen and the Syllogism, Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1968, Studies in Arabic Philosophy, Pittsburgh PA: University of Pittsburg Press. (Scholar)
  • Schacht, Joseph and Max Meyerhof, 1937, “Maimonides against Galen, on Philosophy and Cosmogony”, Bulletin of the Faculty of Arts of the University of Egypt (Majallat Kulliyat alĀdāb bi-al-Jāmi‘a al-Miṣriyya), 5: 53–88. (Scholar)
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