Linked bibliography for the SEP article "Philosophy of Biology" by Jay Odenbaugh and Paul Griffiths

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If everything goes well, this page should display the bibliography of the aforementioned article as it appears in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, but with links added to PhilPapers records and Google Scholar for your convenience. Some bibliographies are not going to be represented correctly or fully up to date. In general, bibliographies of recent works are going to be much better linked than bibliographies of primary literature and older works. Entries with PhilPapers records have links on their titles. A green link indicates that the item is available online at least partially.

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Recent textbooks include Elliott Sober’s Philosophy of Biology (Sober 1999), Kim Sterelny and Paul Griffiths’s Sex and Death: An Introduction to Philosophy of Biology (1999), Marjorie Greene and David Depew’s The Philosophy of Biology: An Episodic History (2004), Brian Gavey’s Philosophy of Biology (2007), Alexander Rosenberg and Daniel McShea’s Philosophy of Biology: A contemporary introduction (2008), and Peter Godfrey-Smith’s Philosophy of Biology (2014).Valuable edited collections designed to supplement such a text are Elliott Sober’s Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology (Sober 2006) which collects the classic papers on core debates, David Hull and Michael Ruse’s The Philosophy of Biology which aims at a comprehensive survey using recent papers (1998), and the Cambridge Companion to the Philosophy of Biology (Hull and Ruse 2007), The Handbook of Philosophy of Biology (Matthen and Stephens 2007), and Blackwell Companion to the Philosophy of Biology (Sarkar and Plutynski 2008) which all consist of essays on key topics by leading authors.

  • Amundson, R., 1994. “Two concepts of constraint: adaptationism and the challenge from developmental biology,” Philosophy of Science, 61(4): 556–578. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2005. The changing rule of the embryo in evolutionary biology: Structure and synthesis, New York: Cambridge University Press. (Scholar)
  • Ariew, A., 1999. “Innateness is Canalization”, in V. Hardcastle (ed.) Where Biology Meets Psychology, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. (Scholar)
  • Ayala, F. J., 1976. “Biology as an autonomous science,” in M. Grene, and E. Mendelsohn (eds.): Boston Studies in Philosophy of Science XXVII (Topics in Philosophy of Biology), 313–329. (Scholar)
  • Barker, G., 2015. Beyond Biofatalism: Human Nature for an Evolving World, New York: Columbia University Press. (Scholar)
  • Beatty, J., 1980. “Optimality-design and the strategy of model-building in evolutionary biology,” Philosophy of Science, 47: 532–61. (Scholar)
  • Beatty, J., & Finsen, S., 1989. “Rethinking the propensity interpretation: A peek inside Pandora’s box,” In What the Philosophy of Biology is, Dordrecht: Springer, 17–30. (Scholar)
  • Beatty, J., 1995. “The Evolutionary Contingency Thesis,” in G. Wolters and J. Lennox (eds.), Concepts, Theories, and Rationality in the Biological Sciences, University of Pittsburgh Press. (Scholar)
  • Bechtel, W., Mandik, P. et al. (eds.), 2001. Philosophy and the Neurosciences: A Reader, Oxford: Blackwell. (Scholar)
  • Bechtel, W., and Richardson, R., 1993. Discovering Complexity, Princeton: Princeton University Press. (Scholar)
  • Beckner, M., 1959. The biological way of thought, New York: Columbia University Press. (Scholar)
  • Beurton, P., Falk, R., and Rheinberger, H.-J. (eds.), 2000. The Concept of the Gene in Development and Evolution, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Scholar)
  • Birch, J., 2017. The Philosophy of Social Evolution, Oxford University Press. (Scholar)
  • Boorse, C., 1976. “Wright on functions,” Philosophical Review, 85(1): 70–86. (Scholar)
  • Boyd, R., 1999. “Homeostasis, species, and higher taxa,” in Species: New interdisciplinary essays, edited by R. Wilson, Cambridge, MA: Bradford/MIT Press. (Scholar)
  • Brandon, R. N. (ed.), 1996. Concepts and Methods in Evolutionary Biology, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1997. “Does biology have laws? The experimental evidence”, PSA 1996 (Volume 2), 444–457. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2005. “The Difference between Selection and Drift: A Reply to Millstein,” Biology & Philosophy, 20(1): 153–170. (Scholar)
  • Brandon, R. N. and Burian, R. M. (eds.), 1984. Genes, Organisms, and Populations, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. (Scholar)
  • Brandon, R., and M. D. Rausher, 1996. “Testing adaptationism: A comment on Orzack and Sober,” The American Naturalist, 148: 189–201. (Scholar)
  • Brandon, R. N. and Sansom, R. (eds.), 2007. Integrating Evolution and Development, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Scholar)
  • Brennan, A., 2014. Thinking about Nature (Routledge Revivals): An Investigation of Nature, Value and Ecology, London: Routledge. (Scholar)
  • Buller, D. J., 2006. Adapting Minds: Evolutionary Psychology and the Persistent Quest for Human Nature, Cambridge, MA: MIT press. (Scholar)
  • Callebaut, W., 1993. Taking the Naturalistic Turn, or How Real Philosophy of Science is Done, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. (Scholar)
  • Colyvan, M., Linquist, S., Grey, W., Griffiths, P. E., Odenbaugh, J., & Possingham, H. P., 2009. “Philosophical Issues in Ecology: Recent Trends and Future Directions,” Ecology and Society, 14(2): 22; online publication. (Scholar)
  • Cooper, G., 2003. The Science of the Struggle for Existence: On the foundations of ecology, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Scholar)
  • Coyne, J. A. and Orr, H. A., 2004. Speciation, Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, Inc. (Scholar)
  • Craver, C. F., 2007. Explaining the Brain: Mechanisms and the Mosaic Unity of Neuroscience, Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Scholar)
  • Craver, C. F., & Darden, L., 2013. In Search of Mechanisms: Discoveries Across the Life Sciences, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. (Scholar)
  • Currie, A., 2018. Rock, bone, and ruin: An optimist’s guide to the historical sciences, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. (Scholar)
  • Darden, L. and Maull, N., 1977. “Interfield theories,” Philosophy of Science, 44(1): 43–64. (Scholar)
  • Dawkins, R., 1976. The Selfish Gene, Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Scholar)
  • Dretske, F., 1991. Explaining Behavior: Reasons in a World of Causes, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1997. Naturalizing the Mind, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. (Scholar)
  • Dupré, J. (ed.), 1987. The Latest on the Best: Essays on Optimality and Evolution, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1993. The Disorder of Things: Metaphysical Foundations of the Disunity of Science, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2002. “Is ‘Natural Kind’ a Natural Kind Term?“ Monist, 85(1): 29–49. (Scholar)
  • Dussault, A. C. and F. Bouchard, 2017. {special-character:ldquo]A persistence enhancing propensity account of ecological function to explain ecosystem evolution,” Synthese, 194(4): 1115–1145.
  • Ehrlich, P. and Raven, P., 1969. “Differentiation of Populations,” Science, 165(3899): 1228–1232. (Scholar)
  • Eliot, C., 2011a. “The Legend of Order and Chaos: Communities and Early Community Ecology,” in Handbook of the Philosophy of Ecology, K. de Laplante, B. Brown, and K. Peacocke (eds.), Haarlem: Elsevier, 49–108. (Scholar)
  • Eliot, C., 2011b. “Competition Theory and Channeling Explanation,” Philosophy and Theory in Biology, 3: 1–16. (Scholar)
  • Ereshefsky, M., 1992a. “Eliminative pluralism,” Philosophy of Science, 59(4): 671–690. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1992b. The Units of Evolution: Essays on the Nature of Species, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. (Scholar)
  • Fodor, J. A., 1974. “Special sciences. ” Synthese, 28: 77–115. (Scholar)
  • Forber, P., 2009. “Spandrels and a Pervasive Problem of Evidence,” Biology and Philosophy, 24: 247–266. (Scholar)
  • Garson, J., 2019. What Biological Functions Are and Why They Matter, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Scholar)
  • Garvey, B., 2007. Philosophy of Biology, Stocksfield: Acumen. (Scholar)
  • Ghiselin, M. T., 1974. “A radical solution to the species problem,” Systematic Zoology, 23: 536–44.
  • Ginzburg, L., and Colyvan, M., 2004. Ecological Orbits: How planets Move and Populations Grow, Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. (Scholar)
  • Godfrey-Smith, P., 2001a. “Three kinds of adaptationism,” in Adaptationism and Optimality, S. H. Orzack, and E. Sober (eds.), New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 335–357. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2001b. “On the Theoretical Role of ‘Genetic Coding’” Philosophy of Science, 67: 26–44. (Scholar)
  • Godfrey-Smith, Peter & R.C. Lewontin, 1993. “The Dimensions of Selection,” Philosophy of Science, 60(3): 373–395. (Scholar)
  • Godfrey-Smith, Peter & Benjamin Kerr, 2002. “Group Fitness and Multi-Level Selection: Replies to Commentaries,” Biology and Philosophy, 17(4): 539–549. (Scholar)
  • Gould, S. J., and R. C. Lewontin, 1979. “The spandrels of San Marco and the Panglossian paradigm: a critique of the adaptationist programme“, Proceedings of the Royal Society London, Series B, 205: 581–598. (Scholar)
  • Gray, R., 1992. “Death of the Gene: Developmental Systems Strike Back” in P. Griffiths (ed.), Trees of Life: Essays in the Philosophy of Biology, Dordrecht: Kluwer. (Scholar)
  • Grene, Marjorie G., and David Depew, 2004. The Philosophy of Biology: An Episodic History, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Scholar)
  • Griffiths, Paul E., 1999. “Squaring the circle: Natural kinds with historical essences,” in Species, New interdisciplinary essays, edited by R. A. Wilson, Cambridge, MA: Bradford/MIT Press:209–228. (Scholar)
  • Griffiths, P. E., 2001. “Genetic Information: A Metaphor in Search of a Theory,” Philosophy of Science, 68(3): 394–412. (Scholar)
  • Griffiths, P., 2002. “What is Innateness?,” Monist, 85: 70–85. (Scholar)
  • Griffiths, P. and R. Gray, 1994. “Developmental Systems and Evolutionary ExplanationJournal of Philosophy, 91: 277–304. (Scholar)
  • Griffiths, P. E. and Stotz, K., 2007. “Gene,” in M. Ruse and D. Hull, (eds.): Cambridge Companion to Philosophy of Biology, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 85–102. (Scholar)
  • Haber, M.H., 2008. “Phylogenetic Inference,” in A. Tucker (ed.), A Companion to Philosophy of History and Historiography, Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. (Scholar)
  • Havstad, J. C., 2011. “Problems for natural selection as a mechanism,” Philosophy of Science, 78(3): 512–523. (Scholar)
  • Hempel, Carl, 1965. Aspects of Scientific Explanation and Other Essays in the Philosophy of Science, New York: The Free Press. (Scholar)
  • Hennig, W., 1966. Phylogenetic Systematics, Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press. (Scholar)
  • Hull, D. L., 1965. “The Effects of Essentialism on Taxonomy: 2,000 Years of Stasis,” British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 15: 314–326 and 16: 1–18. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1970. “Contemporary systematic philosophies,” Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 1: 19–54. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1974. Philosophy of Biological Science, Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1975. “Informal Aspects of Theory Reduction,” in Cohen, R. S. and Michalos, A. (eds.): Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosopy of Science Association, 1974, Dordrecht: D. Reidel, 653–670. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1976. “Are species really individuals?Systematic zoology, 25(2): 174–191. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1978. “A matter of individuality.“ Philosophy of science, 45(3): 335–360.
  • –––, 1980. “Individuality and Selection,” Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 11: 311–332. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1986. “On human nature,” In PSA 1986 (Volume 2), Proceedings of the biennial meeting of the philosophy of science association, Philosophy of Science Association, pp. 3–13. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1988. Science as a Process: An Evolutionary Account of the Social and Conceptual Development of Science, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1999. “On the plurality of species: questioning the party line,” in Species: New Interdisciplinary Essays, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 307–315. (Scholar)
  • Hull, D. L. and Ruse, M. (eds.), 1998. The Philosophy of Biology, Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Scholar)
  • Hull, D. L. and Ruse, M., 2007. The Cambridge Companion to the Philosophy of Biology, New York, Cambridge University Press. (Scholar)
  • Jablonka, E., 2002. “Information Interpretation, Inheritance, and Sharing,” Philosophy of Science, 69(4): 578–605. (Scholar)
  • Jax, K., 2005. “Function and ‘functioning’ in ecology: what does it mean?” Oikos, 111(3): 641–648. (Scholar)
  • Justus, J., 2008. “Ecological and Lyapunov stability,” Philosophy of Science, 75: 421–436. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2012. “The elusive basis of inferential robustness.“ Philosophy of Science, 79(5): 795–807. (Scholar)
  • Kitcher, P., 1982. Abusing science: The case against creationism, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1984. “1953 and all that: a tale of two sciences,” Philosophical Review, 93: 335–373.
  • –––, 1984. “Species,” Philosophy of Science, 51(2): 308–333. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1985. Vaulting Ambition: Sociobiology and the Question for Human Nature, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1989. “Some puzzles about species,” in Michael Ruse (ed.), What the Philosophy of Biology Is: Essays Dedicated to David Hull, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 183–208. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1999. “The hegemony of molecular biology,” Biology and Philosophy, 14(2): 195–210. (Scholar)
  • Kronfeldner, M., 2018. What’s left of human nature?: A post-essentialist, pluralist, and interactive account of a contested concept, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. (Scholar)
  • Levy, A., 2011. “Information in biology: A fictionalist account,” Noûs, 45(4): 640–657. (Scholar)
  • Lewens, T., 2015. Cultural evolution: conceptual challenges, Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Scholar)
  • Linquist, S., 2008. “But is it progress? On the alleged advances of conservation biology over ecology,” Biology and Philosophy, 23: 529–544. (Scholar)
  • Linquist, S., Gregory, T. R., Elliott, T. A., Saylor, B., Kremer, S. C., & Cottenie, K., 2016. “Yes! There are resilient generalizations (or ‘laws’) in ecology,” The Quarterly Review of Biology, 91(2): 119–131. (Scholar)
  • Lloyd, E. A., 1988. The Structure and Confirmation of Evolutionary Theory, Westport: Greenwood Press. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2005. “Why the Gene Will Not Return,” Philosophy of Science, 72(2): 287–310. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2015. “Adaptationism and the logic of research questions: how to think clearly about evolutionary causes.“ Biological Theory, 10(4): 343–362. (Scholar)
  • Machamer, P., Darden, L. et al., 2000. “Thinking about Mechanisms,” Philosophy of Science, 67(1): 1–25. (Scholar)
  • Machery, E., 2008. “A plea for human nature,” Philosophical Psychology, 21(3): 321–329.
  • MacLaurin, J. and Sterelny, K., 2008. What is Biodiversity? Chicago: University of Chicago Press. (Scholar)
  • Maienschein, J. and Laubichler, M. L., 2004. From Embryology to Evo-Devo, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Scholar)
  • Mameli, M. and Bateson, P., 2006. “Innateness and the Sciences,” Biology and Philosophy, 21: 155–188. (Scholar)
  • Matthen, M., & Ariew, A., 2002. “Two ways of thinking about fitness and natural selection,” The Journal of Philosophy, 99(2): 55–83. (Scholar)
  • Maynard Smith, J., 2000. “The concept of information in biology,” Philosophy of Science, 67(2): 177–194. (Scholar)
  • Maynard Smith, J., Burian, R. et al., 1985. “Developmental Constraints and Evolution,” Quarterly Review of Biology, 60(3): 265–287. (Scholar)
  • Mayr, E., 1963. Animal species and evolution, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1969. “Footnotes on the Philosophy of Biology,” Philosophy of Science, 36(2): 197–202. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1982. The Growth of Biological Thought, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. (Scholar)
  • Millikan, R. G., 1984. Language, Thought and Other Biological Categories, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1995. White queen psychology and other essays for Alice, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2004. Varieties of meaning: the 2002 Jean Nicod lectures, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2005. Language: A biological model, Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Scholar)
  • Mills, S. and Beatty, J., 1979. “The propensity interpretation of fitness,” Philosophy of Science, 46: 263–286. (Scholar)
  • Millstein, Roberta L., 2002. “Are Random Drift and Natural Selection Conceptually Distinct?Biology & Philosophy, 17(1): 33–53. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2005. “Selection Vs. Drift: A Response to Brandon’s Reply,” Biology & Philosophy, 20(1): 171–175. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2007. “Distinguishing drift and selection empirically: ‘The Great Snail Debate’ of the 1950s,” Journal of the History of Biology, 41: 339–367. (Scholar)
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  • Mitchell, S. D., 1997. “Pragmatic laws,” Philosophy of Science, 64: S468–S479. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2000. “Dimensions of scientific laws,” Philosophy of Science, 67: 242–265. (Scholar)
  • Nagel, Ernest, 1961. The Structure of Science: Problems in the Logic of Scientific Explanation, New York: Harcourt, Brace & World. (Scholar)
  • Neander, K., 1991. “Functions as selected effects: the conceptual analyst’s defense,” Philosophy of Science, 58: 168–184. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2017. A mark of the mental: In defense of informational teleosemantics, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. (Scholar)
  • Nunes-Neto, N., A. Moreno, and C. N. El-Hani, 2014. “Function in ecology: an organizational approach,” Biology & Philosophy, 29(1): 123–141. (Scholar)
  • O’Connor, C., 2019. The Origins of Unfairness: Social Categories and Cultural Evolution, Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Scholar)
  • O’Malley, M., 2014. Philosophy of microbiology, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Scholar)
  • Odenbaugh, J., 2001. “Ecology, stability, model building and environmental policy: a reply to some of the pessimism,” Philosophy of Science, 68: S493–S505. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2003. “Complex systems, trade-offs, and theoretical population biology: Richard Levin’s ‘strategy of model building in population biology’ revisited,” Philosophy of Science, 70(5): 1496–1507. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2005. “Idealized, inaccurate but successful: A pragmatic approach to evaluating models in theoretical ecology,” Biology and Philosophy, 20(2-3): 231–255. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2007. “Seeing the forest and the trees,” Philosophy of Science, 74: 628–641. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2010. “On the very idea of an ecosystem,” in New waves in metaphysics, A. Hazlett (ed.), London: Palgrave, pp. 240–258. (Scholar)
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  • –––, 2007. Evolution and the Levels of Selection, New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Scholar)
  • Orzack, S. H., and E. Sober, 1994. “Optimality models and the test of adaptationism,” The American Naturalist, 143: 361–380. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2001. Optimality and Adaptation, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Scholar)
  • Oyama, S., 2000. The Ontogeny of Information, 2nd Edition, Duke University Press. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2000. Evolution’s Eye, Duke University Press. (Scholar)
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  • –––, 1993. Philosophical naturalism, Blackwell. (Scholar)
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  • Pigliucci, M. and Kaplan, J. M., 2006. Making Sense of Evolution: The Conceptual Foundations of Evolutionary Theory, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. (Scholar)
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  • –––, 1983. “Fitness,” Journal of Philosophy, 80: 457–473. (Scholar)
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  • –––, 1996. “Biological information: A sceptical look at some central dogmas of molecular biology,” in Sarkar, S. (ed.), The Philosophy and History of Molecular Biology: New Perspectives (Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science 183), Dordrecht and Boston: Kluwer Academic, 187–232. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1998. Genetics and Reductionism, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2005. Biodiversity and Environmental Philosophy: An Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2007. Doubting Darwin?: Creationist designs on evolution, Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. (Scholar)
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  • Sarkar, S. and Plutynski, A., 2008. A Companion to the Philosophy of Biology, Oxford: Blackwell. (Scholar)
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  • –––, 1967b. “Approaches to Reduction,” Philosophy of Science, 34: 137–47. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1969. “The Watson-Crick model and reductionism,” British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 20: 325–48. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1993. Discovery and Explanation in Biology and Medicine, Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press. (Scholar)
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  • Shea, N., 2007. “Representation in the genome and in other inheritance systems”, Biology and Philosophy, 22(3): 313–331. (Scholar)
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  • –––, 1984b. The Nature of Selection: Evolutionary Theory in Philosophical Focus, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1988. Reconstructing the Past: Parsimony, Evolution and Inference, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1997. “Two Outbreaks of Lawlessness in Recent Philosophy of Science,” Philosophy of Science 2: 458–467. (Scholar)
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  • –––, 2001. “The Two Faces of Fitness,” in R. Singh, D. Paul, C. Krimbas, and J. Beatty (eds.), Thinking about Evolution: Historical, Philosophical, and Political Perspectives (Volume 2), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 309–321. (Scholar)
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  • Sober, E., (ed.), 2006. Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. (Scholar)
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  • Sterelny, K., 2006. “Local ecological communities,” Philosophy of Science, 73: 215–231. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2012. The evolved apprentice, MIT Press. (Scholar)
  • Sterelny, K. and Griffiths, P. E., 1999. Sex and Death: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Biology, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. (Scholar)
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  • Stotz, K. and Griffiths, P. E., 2008. “Biohumanities: Rethinking the relationship between biosciences, philosophy and history of science, and society,” Quarterly Review of Biology, 83(1): 37–45. (Scholar)
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  • Walsh, D. M., Lewens, T., & Ariew, A., 2002. “The trials of life: Natural selection and random drift,” Philosophy of Science, 69(3): 429–446. (Scholar)
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