Linked bibliography for the SEP article "Joseph Butler’s Moral Philosophy" by Aaron Garrett

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Primary Literature

There is currently no up to date, complete, critical edition of Butler’s works. The relevant editions of Butler’s works discussed in this article are:

  • Butler, J. and Clarke, S., 1716, Several Letters from a Gentleman in Glocestershire, London, J. Knapton, 1716. (Scholar)
  • Butler, J., 1726, Fifteen Sermons Preached at the Rolls Chapel, London: J. and J. Knapton. (Scholar)
  • Butler, J., 1729, Fifteen Sermons Preached at Rolls Chapel, London: J. and J. Knapton, 2nd ed. [Revised and with the edition of a “Preface”.] (Scholar)
  • Butler, J., 1736, The Analogy of Religion, Natural and Revealed, to the Constitution and Course of Nature, London: J. and P. Knapton, 2nd corrected edition. [This was the corrected edition that appeared in the same year as the initial imprint. The two dissertations — “Of Personal Identity” and “Of the Nature of Virtue” were appended to it.] (Scholar)
  • Butler, J., 1749, Fifteen Sermons Preached at the Rolls Chapel… To which are added Six Sermons, Preached on Publick Occasions, London: J. and P. Knapton, 4th ed. [This edition marked the appearance of the Six Sermons.] (Scholar)

I have cited these works from the most complete current edition, although the citations should allow for passages to be easily identified in other editions:

  • White, D. (ed.), 2006, The Works of Bishop Butler, Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press. (Scholar)

I have cited the “Preface” to the 2nd edition of the Sermons as “Preface”, the Sermons by number (i.e. “Sermon VI”), the “Introduction” to the Analogy of Religion as “Introduction”, the main contents of the work by “Analogy” and chapter, the Dissertation of Virtue as “Dissertation”, the Six Sermons as “Six Sermons” and the Clarke/Butler correspondence as “Clarke/Butler”. All references are by paragraph, corresponding to the paragraphs in the White edition above.

There is now an excellent and extremely informative reader’s edition of Butler’s Sermons and Dissertation on Virtue with the addition of A Sermon Preached Before the House of Lords and a selection from Butler’s correspondence with Clarke:

  • McNaughton, D. (ed.), 2017, Joseph Butler: Fifteen Sermons & other writings on ethics, Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Scholar)

Secondary Literature

  • Broad, C. D, 1930, Five Types of Ethical Theory, London: Kegan Paul. (Scholar)
  • Clarke, S., 1706, A Discourse Concerning the Unchangeable Obligations of Natural Religion, and the Truth and Certainty of Christian Revelation, London: J. Knapton. (Scholar)
  • Cunliffe, C., (ed.), 1992, Joseph Butler’s Moral and Religious Thought: Tercentenary Essays, Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2008, “Butler, Joseph (1692–1752)”, in theOxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. (Scholar)
  • Darwall, S., 1992, “Conscience as Self-Authorizing in Butler’s Ethics,” in C. Cunliffe (ed.) 1992, pp. 209–241. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1995, The British Moralists and the Internal ‘Ought’: 1640–1740, Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Scholar)
  • Frey, R. G., 1992, “Butler on Self-Love and Benevolence,” in C. Cunliffe (ed.), 1992, pp. 243–68. (Scholar)
  • Garcia, Ernesto V., 2011, “Bishop Butler on Forgiveness and Resentment,” Philosophers’ Imprint, 11(10): 1–19. (Scholar)
  • Garrett, A., 2012, “Reasoning about morals from Butler to Hume,” in Ruth Savage, (ed.), Philosophy and Religion in Enlightenment Britain, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 169–186. (Scholar)
  • Griswold, C., 2007, Forgiveness, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, I.ii. (Scholar)
  • Henson, R., 1988, “Butler on Selfishness and Self-Love,” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 49 (1): 31–57. (Scholar)
  • Irwin, T. H., 2008, The Development of Ethics: Volume II: From Suarez to Rousseau, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 476–557. (Scholar)
  • Louden, R., 1995, “Butler’s Divine Utilitarianism,” History of Philosophy Quarterly, 12 (3):265–280. (Scholar)
  • McNaughton, D., 1992, “Butler on Benevolence,” in C. Cunliffe (ed.), 1992, pp. 269–291. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2013, “Butler’s Ethics” in Crisp, Roger, (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of the History of Ethics, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 377–392. (Scholar)
  • McPherson, T. H., 1948, “The Development of Bishop Butler’s Ethics — Part I,” Philosophy, 23 (87): 317–331. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1949, “The Development of Bishop Butler’s Ethics – Part II,” Philosophy, 24 (88): 3–22. (Scholar)
  • Penelhum, T., 1986, Butler, Boston: Routledge and Kegan Paul. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1992, “Butler and Human Ignorance,” in C. Cunliffe (ed.), 1992, pp. 117–40. (Scholar)
  • Radzik, L., 2014, “Joseph Butler on Forgiveness,” in Johannes Brachtendorf and Stephan Herzberg (eds.), Vergebung: Philosophische Perspektiven auf ein Problemfeld der Ethik, Munster: Mentis, pp. 139–147. (Scholar)
  • Rorty, A., 1978, “Butler on Benevolence and Conscience,” Philosophy, 53 (204): 171–184. (Scholar)
  • Russell, P., 2008, The Riddle of Hume’s Treatise: Skepticism, Naturalism, and Irreligion, Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Scholar)
  • Shaftesbury, Lord (Anthony Ashley Cooper), 1711, Characteristicks, in Den Uyl, D., (ed.), Anthony, Third Earl of Shaftesbury: Characteristicks of Men, Manners, Opinions, Times, Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2001, 3 volumes. (Scholar)
  • Sidgwick, H., 1901, Methods of Ethics, London: Macmillan, 6th ed. (Scholar)
  • Sober, E., 1992, “Hedonism and Butler’s Stone,” Ethics, 103 (1): 97–103. (Scholar)
  • Tennant, B., 2011, Conscience, Consciousness, and Ethics in Joseph Butler’s Philosophy and Ministry, Suffolk: Boydell & Brewer. (Scholar)
  • Wedgwood, R., 2008, “Butler on Virtue, Self-Interest and Human Nature” in Paul Bloomfield, (ed.),Morality and Self-Interest, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 177-204. (Scholar)

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