Linked bibliography for the SEP article "Einstein’s Philosophy of Science" by Don A. Howard and Marco Giovanelli

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Einstein’s Work

Einstein’s letters and manuscripts, if unpublished, are cited by their numbers in the Einstein Archive (EA) control index and, if published, by volume, document number, and, if necessary, page number in:

[CPAE] The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein, John Stachel, et al. (eds.), Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1987–present.

Works by year

1905a “Über einen die Erzeugung und Verwandlung des Lichtes betreffenden heuristischen Gesichtspunkt.” Annalen der Physik 17:132–148. Repr. in CPAE, Vol. 2, Doc. 14.
1905b “Über die von der molekularkinetischen Theorie der Wärme geforderte Bewegung von in ruhenden Flüssigkeiten suspendierten Teilchen.” Annalen der Physik 17: 549–560. Repr. in CPAE, Vol. 2, Doc. 16.
1905c “Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Körper.” Annalen der Physik 17: 891–921. Repr. in CPAE, Vol. 2, Doc. 23.
1907 “Bemerkungen zu der Notiz von Hrn Paul Ehrenfest: ‘Die Translation deformierbarer Elektronen und der Flächensatz’” Annalen der Physik 22: 206–208. Repr. in CPAE, Vol. 2, Doc. 44.
1914 “Antrittsrede des Hrn.Einstein” Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Halbband 1: 739–742. Repr. in CPAE, Vol. 3, Doc. 18.
1915 “Theoretische Atomistik.” In Die Kultur der Gegenwart. Ihre Entwicklung und ihre Ziele. Paul Hinneberg, ed. Part 3, Mathematik, Naturwissenschaften, Medizin. Section 3, Anorganischen Naturwissenschaften. E. Lecher, ed. Vol. 1, Die Physik. Emil Warburg, ed. Leipzig and Berlin: B. G. Teubner, 251–263. Repr. in CPAE, Vol. 4, Doc. 20.
1916 “Ernst Mach.” Physikalische Zeitschrift 17: 101–104. Repr. in CPAE, Vol. 6, Doc. 29.
1918 “Motive des Forschens.” In Zu Max Plancks sechzigstem Geburtstag. Ansprachen, gehalten am 26. April 1918 in der Deutschen Physikalischen Gesellschaft. Karlsruhe: C. F. Müller, pp. 29–32. English translation: “Principles of Research.” In Einstein 1954, 224–227. Repr. in CPAE Vol. 7, Doc. 7.
1919 “Time, Space, and Gravitation.” Times (London). 28 November 1919, 13–14. Reprinted as “What is the Theory of Relativity?” In Einstein 1954, 227–232. Repr. in CPAE, Vol. 7, Doc. 29.
1921 Geometrie und Erfahrung. Erweiterte Fassung des Festvortrages gehalten an der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Belin am 27. Januar 1921. Berlin: Julius Springer. English translation: “Geometry and Experience.” In Einstein 1954, 232–246. Repr. in CPAE, Vol. 7, Doc. 52.
1923 “Grundgedanken und Probleme der Relativitätstheorie.” In Les Prix Nobel en 1921–1922. Carl Gustaf Santesson, ed., Stockholm: Nobel Foundation. Repr. in CPAE, Vol. 14, Doc. 75.
1924 Review of Elsbach 1924. Deutsche Literaturzeitung 45, 1688–1689. Repr. in CPAE, Vol. 14, Doc. 321.
1925 “Nichteuklidische Geometrie und Physik.” Neue Rundschau 36, no. 1: 16–20. Repr. in CPAE, Vol. 14, Doc. 220.
1926 Space–Time Encyclopædia Britannica, 13th ed., edited by James Louis Garvin, Supplementary Vol. 3, London and New York: The Encyclopædia Britannica Co., Ltd., 1926, pp. 608–611. Repr. in CPAE, Vol. 15, Doc. 148.
1928 A propos de “La Déduction Relativiste” de M. Émile Meyerson [Meyerson 1925] Revue philosophique de la France et de l’étranger 45, 161–166. English translation: Meyerson 1985, 252–256.
1933 On the Method of Theoretical Physics. The Herbert Spencer Lecture, delivered at Oxford, 10 June 1933. Oxford: Clarendon Press. New translation by Sonja Bargmann in Einstein 1954, 270–276.
1930 “Das Raum-, Äther- und Feld-Problem der Physik.” English translation: In Einstein 1954, 276–285.
1935 with Boris Podolsky and Nathan Rosen, “Can Quantum-Mechanical Description of Physical Reality Be Considered Complete?” Physical Review 47: 777–780.
1936 “Physik und Realität.” Journal of The Franklin Institute 221: 313–347. English translation: “Physics and Reality.” Jean Piccard, trans. Journal of the Franklin Institute 221: 348–382. Reprinted in Einstein 1954, 290–323.
1946 “Autobiographical Notes.” In Schilpp 1949, 1–94. Quotations are taken from the corrected English translation in: Autobiographical Notes: A Centennial Edition. Paul Arthur Schilpp, trans. and ed. La Salle, Illinois: Open Court, 1979.
1948 “Quanten-Mechanik und Wirklichkeit.” Dialectica 2: 320–24.
1949 “Remarks Concerning the Essays Brought together in this Co-operative Volume.” In Schilpp 1949, 665–688.
1950 “On the Generalized Theory of Gravitation.” Scientific American 182, April, 13–17. Reprinted in Einstein 1954, 341–356.
1954 Ideas and Opinions. New York: Bonanza Books.

Related Literature

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  • Canales, Jimena, 2015. Einstein, Bergson and the Debate That Changed Our Understanding of Time, Princeton: Princeton University Press. (Scholar)
  • Carnap, Rudolf, 1928. Der logische Aufbau der Welt, Berlin-Schlachtensee: Weltkreis-Verlag; English translation: The Logical Structure of the World & Psuedoproblems in Philosophy, Rolf A. George (trans.), Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1969. (Scholar)
  • Darrigol, Olivier, 1995. “Henri Poincaré’s Criticism of fin de siécle Electrodynamics”, Studies in History and Philosophy of Science (Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics), 26 (1): 1–44. (Scholar)
  • Duhem, Pierre, 1906. La Théorie physique: son objet et sa structure, Paris: Chevalier & Rivière. English translation of the 2nd. ed. (1914): The Aim and Structure of Physical Theory, P. P. Wiener (trans.), Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1954; reprinted, New York: Athaneum, 1962. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1908. Ziel und Struktur der physikalischen Theorien, Friedrich Adler (trans.), foreword by Ernst Mach, Leipzig: Johann Ambrosius Barth. (Scholar)
  • Elsbach, Alfred, 1924. Kant und Einstein. Untersuchungen über das Verhältnis der modernen Erkenntnistheorie zur Relativitätstheorie, Berlin and Leipzig: Walter de Gruyter. (Scholar)
  • Engler, Fynn Ole and Jürgen Renn, 2013. “Hume, Einstein und Schlick über die Objektivität der Wissenschaft”, in Moritz Schlick–Die Rostocker Jahre und ihr Einfluss auf die Wiener Zeit, Fynn Ole Engler and Mathias Iven (eds.), Leipzig: Leipziger Universitätsverlag, 123–156. (Scholar)
  • Fine, Arthur, 1986. “Einstein’s Realism”, in The Shaky Game: Einstein, Realism, and the Quantum Theory, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 86–111. (Scholar)
  • Frank, Philipp, 1909. “Die Stellung Des Relativitätsprinzips Im System Der Mechanik Und Der Elektrodynamik” Sitzungsberichte der Akademie der Wissenschaften 118 (IIa), 373–446. (Scholar)
  • Friedman, Michael, 1983. Foundations of Space-Time Theories: Relativistic Physics and Philosophy of Science, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. (Scholar)
  • Frisch, Mathias, 2005. “Mechanisms, Principles, and Lorentz’s Cautious Realism”, Studies in History and Philosophy of Science (Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics), 36: 659–679. (Scholar)
  • Giedymin, Jerzy, 1982. “The Physics of the Principles and Its Philosophy: Hamilton, Poincaré and Ramsey”, in Science and Convention: Essays on Henri Poincaré’s Philosophy of Science and the Conventionalist Tradition, Oxford: Pergamon, 42–89. (Scholar)
  • Giovanelli, Marco, 2013. “Erich Kretschmann as a Proto-Logical-Empiricist. Adventures and Misadventures of the Point-Coincidence Argument”, Studies in History and Philosophy of Science. Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, 44 (2), 115–134. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2013. “Talking at Cross-Purposes. How Einstein and the Logical Empiricists never Agreed on what they were Disagreeing About”, Synthese 190 (17): 3819–3863. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2014. “‘But One Must Not Legalize the Mentioned Sin’. Phenomenological vs. Dynamical Treatments of Rods and Clocks in Einstein’s Thought”, Studies in History and Philosophy of Science (Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics), 48: 20–44. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2016. “‘…But I StillCan’t Get Rid of a Sense of Artificiality’: The Einstein-Reichenbach Debate on the Geometrization of the Electromagnetic Field”, Studies in History and Philosophy of Science. Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, 54, 35–51. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2018. “Physics Is a Kind of Metaphysics”, Émile Meyerson and Einstein’s late Rationalistic Realism”, European Journal for Philosophy of Science, 8: 783–829 (Scholar)
  • Harman, P. M., 1998. The Natural Philosophy of James Clerk Maxwell, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Scholar)
  • Hecht, Hartmut and Hoffmann, Dieter, 1982. “Die Berufung Hans Reichenbachs an die Berliner Universität”, Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 30: 651–662. (Scholar)
  • Holton, Gerald, 1968. “Mach, Einstein, and the Search for Reality”, Daedalus 97: 636–673. Reprinted in Thematic Origins of Scientific Thought: Kepler to Einstein, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1973, 219–259. (Scholar)
  • Howard, Don, 1984. “Realism and Conventionalism in Einstein’s Philosophy of Science: The Einstein-Schlick Correspondence”, Philosophia Naturalis 21: 618–629. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1985. “Einstein on Locality and Separability”, Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 16: 171–201. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1989. “Holism, Separability, and the Metaphysical Implications of the Bell Experiments”, in Philosophical Consequences of Quantum Theory: Reflections on Bell’s Theorem, James T. Cushing and Ernan McMullin (eds.), Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 224–253. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1990a. “Einstein and Duhem”, Synthese 83: 363–384. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1990b. “’Nicht sein kann was nicht sein darf,’ or the Prehistory of EPR, 1909–1935: Einstein’s Early Worries about the Quantum Mechanics of Composite Systems”, in Sixty-Two Years of Uncertainty: Historical, Philosophical, and Physical Inquiries into the Foundations of Quantum Mechanics, Proceedings of the 1989 Conference, “Ettore Majorana” Centre for Scientific Culture, International School of History of Science, Erice, Italy, 5–14 August. Arthur Miller, ed. New York: Plenum, 61–111. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1992. “Einstein and Eindeutigkeit: A Neglected Theme in the Philosophical Background to General Relativity”, in Jean Eisenstaedt and A. J. Kox (eds.), Studies in the History of General Relativity (Einstein Studies: Volume 3), Boston: Birkhäuser, 154–243. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1993. “Was Einstein Really a Realist?Perspectives on Science: Historical, Philosophical, Social 1: 204–251. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1994a. “Einstein, Kant, and the Origins of Logical Empiricism”, in Language, Logic, and the Structure of Scientific Theories (Proceedings of the Carnap-Reichenbach Centennial, University of Konstanz, 21–24 May 1991), Wesley Salmon and Gereon Wolters (eds.), Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press; Konstanz: Universitätsverlag, 45–105. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1994b. “’A kind of vessel in which the struggle for eternal truth is played out’-Albert Einstein and the Role of Personality in Science”, in The Natural History of Paradigms: Science and the Process of Intellectual Evolution, John H. Langdon and Mary E. McGann (eds.), Indianapolis: University of Indianapolis Press, 1994, 111–138.
  • –––, 1996. “Relativity, Eindeutigkeit, and Monomorphism: Rudolf Carnap and the Development of the Categoricity Concept in Formal Semantics”, in Origins of Logical Empiricism (Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science, Volume 16), Ronald N. Giere and Alan Richardson (eds.), Minneapolis and London: University of Minnesota Press, 115–164. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1997. “A Peek behind the Veil of Maya: Einstein, Schopenhauer, and the Historical Background of the Conception of Space as a Ground for the Individuation of Physical Systems”, in The Cosmos of Science: Essays of Exploration (Pittsburgh-Konstanz Series in the Philosophy and History of Science, Volume 6), John Earman and John D. Norton, (eds.), Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press; Konstanz: Universitätsverlag, 87–150. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1998. “Astride the Divided Line: Platonism, Empiricism, and Einstein’s Epistemological Opportunism”, in Idealization in Contemporary Physics (Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities: Volume 63), Niall Shanks (ed.), Amsterdam and Atlanta: Rodopi, 143–163. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1999. “Point Coincidences and Pointer Coincidences: Einstein on Invariant Structure in Spacetime Theories”, in History of General Relativity IV: The Expanding Worlds of General Relativity (Based upon the Fourth International Conference, Berlin, Germany 31 July-3 August 1995), Hubert Goenner, Jürgen Renn, Jim Ritter, and Tilman Sauer (eds.), Boston: Birkhäuser, 463–500. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2014. “Einstein and the Development of Twentieth-century Philosophy of Science”, in The Cambridge Companion to Einstein, Michel Janssen and Christoph Lehner (eds.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 354–376. (Scholar)
  • Howard, Don and Norton, John, 1993. “Out of the Labyrinth? Einstein, Hertz, and the Göttingen Answer to the Hole Argument”, in The Attraction of Gravitation. New Studies in the History of General Relativity (Einstein Studies: Volume 5), John Earman, Michel Jannsen, and John Norton (eds.),Boston: Birkhäuser, 30–62. (Scholar)
  • Howard, Don and Stachel, John (eds.), 1989. Einstein and the History of General Relativity (Einstein Studies: Volume 1), Boston: Birkhäuser. (Scholar)
  • Janssen, Michel, 2009. “Drawing the Line between Kinematics and Dynamics in Special Relativity”, Studies in History and Philosophy of Science. Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, 40 (1), 26–52. (Scholar)
  • Janssen, Michel and Jürgen Renn, 2007. “Untying the Knot. How Einstein Found His Way Back to Field Equations Discarded in the Zurich Notebook”, in: The Genesis of General Relativity Jürgen Renn et al. (eds.), 4 volumes, Dordrecht: Springer 839–925. (Scholar)
  • Lange, Marc, 2014. “Did Einstein Really Believe That Principle Theories Are Explanatorily Powerless?”, Perspectives on Science 22 (4), 449–63. (Scholar)
  • Lehmkuhl, Dennis, 2014. “Why Einstein Did Not Believe That General Relativity Geometrizes Gravity”, Studies in History and Philosophy of Science. Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics,, 46: 316–326. (Scholar)
  • Le Roy, Édouard, 1901. “Un positivisme nouveau”, Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale 9: 138–153. (Scholar)
  • Lorentz, Hendrik Antoon, 1900. “Electromagnetische theorieën van natuurkundige verschijnselen” Jaarboek der Rijksuniversiteit te Leiden, Bijlagen; repr. in Leiden: Brill 1900; German translation in Physikalische Zeitschrift, 1 (1900): 498–501, 514–519. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1905. “La thermodynamique et les théories cinétiques.“ Bulletin des séances de la Société française de physique, 35–63. (Scholar)
  • Mach, Ernst, 1886. Beiträge zur Analyse der Empfindungen, Jena: Gustav Fischer. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1897. Die Mechanik in ihrer Entwickelung historisch-kritisch dargestellt, 3rd impr. and enl. ed. Leipzig: Brockhaus. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1900. Die Analyse der Empfindungen und das Verhältniss des Physischen zum Psychischen, 2nd edition of Mach 1886, Jena: Gustav Fischer; English translation of the 5th edition of 1906, The Analysis of Sensations and the Relation of the Physical to the Psychical, Cora May Williams and Sydney Waterlow, trans. Chicago and London: Open Court, 1914. Reprint: New York: Dover, 1959. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1906. Erkenntnis und Irrtum. Skizzen zur Psychologie der Forschung, 2nd ed. Leipzig: Johann Ambrosius Barth; English translation, Knowledge and Error: Sketches on the Psychology of Enquiry, Thomas J. McCormack and Paul Foulkes, (trans.), Dordrecht and Boston: D. Reidel, 1976. (Scholar)
  • Meyerson, Émile, Meyerson, 1925. La déduction relativiste, Paris: Payot; Eng. tr. Meyerson 1985. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1985. The Relativistic Deduction.Epistemological Implications of the Theory of Relativity, Eng. tr. by David A. and Mary-Alice Sipfle, Dordrecht: Reidel. (Scholar)
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  • –––, 2000. “’Nature is the Realisation of the Simplest Conceivable Mathematical Ideas’: Einstein and the Canon of Mathematical Simplicity”, Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 31B: 135–170. (Scholar)
  • Petzoldt, Joseph, 1895. “Das Gesetz der Eindeutigkeit”, Vierteljahrsschrift für wissenschaftliche Philosophie und Soziologie 19: 146–203. (Scholar)
  • Poincaré, Henri, 1901. “Sur les Principes de la Mecanique”, Bibliotheque du Congrès Internationale de Philosophie, Sec. 3, Logique et Histoire des Sciences, Paris: A. Colin. Reprinted as: “La Mécanique classique”, in La Science et l’Hypothese, Paris: Flammarion, 1902, 110–134; English translation: “The Classical Mechanics”, n Science and Hypothesis, W. J. Greenstreet (trans.), London and New York: Walter Scott, 1905, 89–110. Reprint: New York: Dover, 1952. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1904. “The Principles of Mathematical Physics”, in Congress of Arts and Science, Universal Exposition, St. Louis, 1904 (Philosophy and Mathematics: Volume 1), Howard J. Rogers, (ed.), Boston and New York: Houghton, Mifflin and Company, 1905, 604–622. (Scholar)
  • Quine, Willard van Orman, 1951. “Two Dogmas of Empiricism”, Philosophical Review, 60: 20–43; reprinted in From a Logical Point of View, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1953, 20–46. (Scholar)
  • Reichenbach, Hans, 1920. Relativitätstheorie und Erkenntnis Apriori, Berlin: Julius Springer; English translation: The Theory of Relativity and A Priori Knowledge, Maria Reichenbach (trans. and ed.), Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1965. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1924. Axiomatik der relativistischen Raum-Zeit-Lehre (Die Wissenschaft: Volume 72), Braunschweig: Friedrich Vieweg und Sohn; English translation: Axiomatization of the Theory of Relativity, Maria Reichenbach (trans.), Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1969. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1928. Philosophie der Raum-Zeit-Lehre, Berlin: Julius Springer; English translation, The Philosophy of Space & Time, Maria Reichenbach and John Freund (trans.), New York: Dover, 1957. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1949. “The Philosophical Significance of the Theory of Relativity”, in Schilpp 1949, 289–311. (Scholar)
  • Rey, Abel, 1907. La théorie de la physique chez les physiciens contemporains, Paris: Alcan. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1908. Die Theorie der Physik bei den modernen Physikern, Ger. tr. of Rey 1907, by Rudolf Eisler. Leipzig: Klinkhardt. (Scholar)
  • Ryckman, Thomas, 2005. The Reign of Relativity. Philosophy in Physics 1915–1925, Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2017. Einstein, New York: Routledge. (Scholar)
  • Sauer,Tilman, 2014. “Einstein’s Unified field Theory Program” in The Cambridge Companion to Einstein, Michel Janssen and Christoph Lehner (eds.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014 281;–305. (Scholar)
  • Schilpp, Paul Arthur (ed.), 1949. Albert Einstein: Philosopher-Scientist (The Library of Living Philosophers: Volume 7), Evanston, IL: The Library of Living Philosophers. (Scholar)
  • Schlick, Moritz, 1910. “Das Wesen der Wahrheit nach der modernen Logik”, Vierteljahrsschrift für wissenschaftliche Philosophie und Soziologie 34: 386–477; English translation, “The Nature of Truth in Modern Logic”, in Schlick 1979, vol. 1, 41–103. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1915. “Die philosophische Bedeutung des Relativitätsprinzips”, Zeitschrift für Philosophie und philosophische Kritik 159: 129–175. English translation: “The Philosophical Significance of the Principle of Relativity”, in Schlick 1979, vol. 1, 153–189. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1917. Raum und Zeit in den gegenwärtigen Physik. Zur Einführung in das Verständnis der allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie, Berlin: Julius Springer; English translation of the 3rd edition, Space and Time in Contemporary Physics: An Introduction to the Theory of Relativity and Gravitation, Henry L. Brose (trans.), London and New York: Oxford University Press, 1920; reprinted in Schlick 1979, vol. 1, 207–269. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1921. “Kritizistische oder empiristische Deutung der neuen Physik”, Kant-Studien 26: 96–111. English translation: “Critical or Empiricist Interpretation of Modern Physics”, in Schlick 1979, vol. 1, 322–334. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1979. Philosophical Papers, 2 volumes, Henk L. Mulder and Barbara F. B. van de Velde-Schlick (eds.), Peter Heath (trans.), Dordrecht and Boston: D. Reidel. (Scholar)
  • Seth, Suman, 2010. Crafting the Quantum, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. (Scholar)
  • Stachel, John, 1980. “Einstein’s Search for General Covariance, 1912–1915” (paper delivered at the Ninth International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation, Jena, Germany (DDR), 17 July 1980), in Howard and Stachel 1989, 63–100. (Scholar)
  • Study, Eduard, 1914. Die realistische Weltansicht und die Lehre vom Raume. Geometrie, Anschauung und Erfahrung (Die Wissenschaft: Volume 54), Braunschweig: Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn. (Scholar)
  • van Dongen, Jeroen, 2002. Einstein’s Unification: General Relativity and the Quest for Mathematical Naturalness, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Amsterdam. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2010. Einstein’s Unification, Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press (Scholar)

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