Linked bibliography for the SEP article "Pregnancy, Birth, and Medicine" by Rebecca Kukla and Katherine Wayne

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If everything goes well, this page should display the bibliography of the aforementioned article as it appears in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, but with links added to PhilPapers records and Google Scholar for your convenience. Some bibliographies are not going to be represented correctly or fully up to date. In general, bibliographies of recent works are going to be much better linked than bibliographies of primary literature and older works. Entries with PhilPapers records have links on their titles. A green link indicates that the item is available online at least partially.

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  • Amundson,Ron, 2005, “Disability, ideology, and quality of life: a bias in biomedical ethics”, in Wasserman, Bickenbach, and Wachbroit (eds.), Quality of Life and Human Difference: Genetic Testing, Health Care and Disability, New York: Cambridge University Press, 101–120. (Scholar)
  • Anstötz, C., 1993, “Should a brain-dead pregnant woman carry her child to full term? The case of the ‘Erlanger baby’”, Bioethics, 7(4): 340–50. (Scholar)
  • Armstrong, Elizabeth M., 2003, Conceiving Risk, Bearing Responsibility: Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and the Diagnosis of Moral Disorder, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. (Scholar)
  • Asch, Adrienne, 2000, “Why I have not changed my mind about prenatal diagnosis: reflections and refinements”, in Parens and Asch (eds.), Prenatal Testing and Disability Rights, Washington: Georgetown University Press, 234-258. (Scholar)
  • Asch, Adrienne, and Wasserman, David, 2014, “Reproductive testing for disability”, in Arras, Fenton, and Kukla (eds.), The Routledge Companion to Bioethics, New York and Oxon: Routledge, 417–432. (Scholar)
  • Ballantyne, Angela, Gavaghan, Colin, McMillan, John, and Pullon, Sue, 2016, “Pregnancy and the culture of extreme risk aversion”, The American Journal of Bioethics, 16(2): 21–23. (Scholar)
  • Baylis, Françoise, Rodgers, Sandra, and Young, David, 2008, “Ethical dilemmas in the care of pregnant women: rethinking “maternal-fetal conflicts””, in Singer and Viens (eds.), The Cambridge Textbook of Bioethics, Cambridge University Press, 97–103. (Scholar)
  • Beck U., 1992, Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity, London: Sage. (Scholar)
  • Beckett, Katherine, 2005, “Choosing Cesarean: Feminism and the politics of childbirth in the United States”, Feminist Theory, 6: 251–275. (Scholar)
  • Benatar, David, 2006, Better Never to Have Been: The Harm of Coming into Existence, New York: Oxford University Press. (Scholar)
  • Blehar, Mary, Spong, Catherine, Goldkind, Christine, Gold, Sara F., Sahin, Leyla, and Clayton, Janine A., 2013, “Enrolling pregnant women: issues in clinical research”, Women's Health Issues, 23(1): e39–45. (Scholar)
  • Boonin, David, 2014, The Non–Identity Problem and the Ethics of Future People, Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Scholar)
  • Brock, Daniel, 1995, “The non-identity problem and genetic harms—the case of wrongful handicaps”, Bioethics, 8: 269–275. (Scholar)
  • Bergeron, Veronique, 2007, “The ethics of cesarean section on maternal request: a feminist critique of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists' position on patient-choice surgery”, Bioethics, 21(9): 478–87. (Scholar)
  • Brandon, Anna R., Shivakumar, Geetha, Inrig, Stephen J., Sadler, John Z., and Craddock Lee, Simon J., 2014, “Ethical challenges in designing, conducting, and reporting research to improve the mental health of pregnant women: the voices of investigators and IRB members”, AJOB Empirical Bioethics, 5(2): 25–43. (Scholar)
  • Buchanan, Allen, et al., 2000, Chance to Choice: Genetics and Justice, New York: Cambridge University Press. (Scholar)
  • Burrow, Sylvia, 2012, “On the cutting edge: ethical responsiveness to cesarean rates”, The American Journal of Bioethics, 12(7): 44–52. (Scholar)
  • Byatt, Nancy, Deligiannidis, Kristina M., and Freeman, Marlene P., 2013, “Antidepressant use in pregnancy: a critical review focused on risks and controversies”, Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 127(2): 94–114. (Scholar)
  • Cantor, Julie D., 2012, “Court-ordered care—a complication of pregnancy to avoid”, New England Journal of Medicine, 366(24): 2237–40. (Scholar)
  • Capron, Alex, 1998, “Punishing mothers”, Hastings Center Report, 28(1): 31–33. (Scholar)
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), April 2014, “Key Findings: Lifestyle During Pregnancy Study: Low to Moderate Alcohol Use During Pregnancy and the Risk of Specific Neurodevelopmental Effects in Five Year-Old Children”, Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders, available online. (Scholar)
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), February 2016, “Alcohol and Pregnancy: Why take the risk?”, Vital Signs, available online. (Scholar)
  • Center for Reproductive Rights, 2000, Punishing women for their behavior during pregnancy: an approach that undermines women's health and children's interest, (Briefing Paper), New York: The Center for Reproductive Rights, available online (Scholar)
  • Charles, Sonya, 2011, “Obstetricians and violence against women”, The American Journal of Bioethics, 11(12): 51–56. (Scholar)
  • Chervenak, Frank A. and McCullough, Laurence B., 1991, “Justified limits on refusing intervention”, Hastings Center Report, 21(2): 12–18. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1996, “The fetus as patient: an essential ethical concept for maternal-fetal medicine”, Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine, 5(3): 115–19. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2006, “An ethical critique of boutique fetal imaging: a case for the medicalization of fetal imaging”, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 194(5): 1501. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2011, “An ethically justified framework for clinical investigation to benefit pregnant and fetal patients”, The American Journal of Bioethics, 11(5): 39–49. (Scholar)
  • Chitty, Lyn S. and Bianchi, Diana W., 2013, “Noninvasive prenatal testing: the paradigm is shifting rapidly”, Prenatal Diagnosis, 33(6): 511–513. (Scholar)
  • Coverdale, J. H., McCullough, L. B., and Chervenak, F. A., 2004, “Assisted and surrogate decision making for pregnant patients who have schizophrenia:” Schizophrenia Bulletin, 30(3): 659–64. (Scholar)
  • Crossley, Michele, 2007, “Childbirth, complications, and the illusion of ‘choice’: A case study”, Feminism and Psychology, 17(4): 543–563. (Scholar)
  • Davis, Dena, 2001, Genetic Dilemmas: Reproductive Technologies, Parental Choices, and Children's Futures, New York: Oxford University Press. (Scholar)
  • Davis-Floyd, Robbie, 2004, Birth as an American Rite of Passage, 2nd edition, Berkeley: University of California Press. (Scholar)
  • Deans, Zuzana and Newsom, Ainsley J., 2011,“Should non-invasiveness change informed consent procedures for prenatal diagnosis?”, Health Care Analysis, 19(2): 122–132. (Scholar)
  • DeBruin, Debra, 1994, “Justice and the inclusion of women in clinical studies: an argument for further reform, Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal, 4(2): 117–46. (Scholar)
  • de Jong, Anita and de Wert, Guido, 2015, “Prenatal screening: an ethical agenda for the near future”, Bioethics, 29(1): 46–55. (Scholar)
  • DeVille, K. A. and Kopelman, L. M., 1998, “Moral and social issues regarding pregnant women who use and abuse drugs”, Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America, 25(1): 237–54. (Scholar)
  • Diekema, Douglas S., 2003, “Involuntary sterilization of persons with mental retardation: an ethical analysis”, Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 9(1): 21–6. (Scholar)
  • Douglas, Thomas, and Devolder, Katrien, 2013, “Procreative altruism: beyond individualism in reproductive selection”, Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, 38(4): 400–419. (Scholar)
  • Drabble, Laurie A., Poole, Nancy, Magri, Raquel, Tumwesigye, Nazarius Mbona, Li, Qing, and Plant, Moira, 2011, “Conceiving risk, divergent responses: perspectives on the construction of risk of FASD in six countries”, Substance Use and Misuse, 46(8): 943–58. (Scholar)
  • Draper, Heather J., 1996, “Women, forced caesareans and antenatal responsibilities”, Journal of Medical Ethics, 22(6): 327–33. (Scholar)
  • Duden, Barbara, 1993, Disembodying Women: Perspectives on Pregnancy and the Unborn, Cambridge: Harvard University Press. (Scholar)
  • Ecker, Jeffrey L., 2014, “Death in pregnancy—an American tragedy”, New England Journal of Medicine, 370(10): 889–91. (Scholar)
  • Edwards, Steven D., 2004, “Disability, identity, and the “expressivist objection””, Journal of Medical Ethics, 30(4): 418–420. (Scholar)
  • Elster, Jakob, 2011, “Procreative beneficence—cui bono?”, Bioethics, 25(9): 482–488. (Scholar)
  • Esmaeilzadeh, M., Dictus, C., Kayvanpour, E., Sedaghat-Hamedani, F., Eichbaum, M., Hofer, S., Engelman, G., Fonouni, H., Golriz, M., Schmidt, J., Unterberg, A., Mehrabi, A., and Ahmadi, R., 2010, “One life ends, another begins: Management of a brain-dead pregnant mother—A systematic review”, BioMed Central Medicine, 18(8): 74. (Scholar)
  • Finn, Lisa, 1998, “It's for (y)our own good: an analysis of the discourses surrounding mandatory, unblinded HIV testing and newborns”, Journal of Medical Humanities, 19(2–3): 133–62. (Scholar)
  • Flavin, Jeanne, and Paltrow, Lynn M., 2010, “Punishing pregnant women: defying law, medicine, and common sense”, Journal of Addictive Diseases, 29(2): 231–44. (Scholar)
  • Fost, Norman, 1994, “Case study: the baby in the body”, Hastings Center Report, 24(1): 31–2. (Scholar)
  • Freeman, L., 2015, “Confronting diminished epistemic privilege and epistemic injustice in pregnancy by challenging a ‘panoptics of the womb’”, The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, 40(1): 44–68. (Scholar)
  • Gedge, Elisabeth, 2011, “Reproductive choice and the ideals of parenting”, International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics, 4(2): 32–47. (Scholar)
  • Geller, Stacie E., Koch, Abbie, Pelletieri, Beth, and Canes, Molly, 2011, “Inclusion, analysis, and reporting of sex and race/ethnicity in clinical trials: have we made progress?”, Journal of Women's Health, 20(3): 315–320. (Scholar)
  • Giacomini, Mita, and Baylis, François, 2003, “Excluding women from research: reasons and rejoinders”, Clinical Researcher, 3(10): 12–15. (Scholar)
  • Gilmore, Ian, 2008, “Excessive drinking in young women: not just a lifestyle disease”, British Medical Journal, 336: 952. (Scholar)
  • Gold, Katherine J., and Marcus, Sheila M., 2008, “Effect of maternal illness on pregnancy outcomes”, Expert Review of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 3(3): 391–401. (Scholar)
  • Golden, Janet, 2006, Message in a Bottle: The Making of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. (Scholar)
  • Greenwood, Nechama W., and Wilkinson, Joanne, 2013, “Sexual and reproductive health care for women with intellectual disabilities: a primary care perspective”, International Journal of Family Medicine, 2013: 1–8. (Scholar)
  • Hallgrimsdottir, Helga Kristin, and Benner, Bryan Eric, 2014, “‘Knowledge is power’: risk and the moral responsibilities of the expectant mother at the turn of the twentieth century”, Health, Risk, and Society, 16(1): 7–21. (Scholar)
  • Hans, S. L., 1999, “Demographic and psychosocial characteristics of substance-abusing pregnant women”, Clinics in Perinatology, 26(1): 55–74. (Scholar)
  • Harman, Elizabeth, 2004, “Can we harm and benefit in creating?”, Philosophical Perspectives, 18: 89–113. (Scholar)
  • Heyd, David, 2009, “The intractability of the nonidentity problem”, in Harming Future Persons: Ethics, Genetics, and the Nonidentity Problem, eds. M. Roberts and D. T. Wasserman, Dordrecht: Springer, 3–28. (Scholar)
  • Holden, Constance, 2008, “Women abound in NIH trials”, Science, 322: 219. (Scholar)
  • Holtug, N., 2009, “Who cares about identity?”, in Harming Future Persons: Ethics, Genetics, and the Nonidentity Problem, eds. M. Roberts and D. T. Wasserman, Dordrecht: Springer, 71–92. (Scholar)
  • Hope, Tony and McMillan, John, 2012, “Physicians' duties and the non–identity problem”, American Journal of Bioethics, 12(8): 21–29. (Scholar)
  • Jarvis-Thomson, Judith, 1971, “A defense of abortion”, Philosophy and Public Affairs, 1(1): 47–66.
  • Jecker, Nancy, 2012, “The right not to be born: reinterpreting the nonidentity problem”, comment on “Physicians' duties and the non–identity problem” American Journal of Bioethics, 12(8):34–35. (Scholar)
  • Kaposy, Chris, 2013, “A disability rights critique of the new prenatal test for Down syndrome”, Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal, 23(4): 299–324. (Scholar)
  • Kaposy, Chris, and Baylis, Fran¸l;oise, 2011, “Commentary: The common rule, pregnant women, and research: no need to “rescue” that which should be revised”, The American Journal of Bioethics, 11(5): 60–2. (Scholar)
  • Katz-Rothman, Barbara, 1993, The Tentative Pregnancy: How Amniocentesis Changes the Experience of Motherhood, New York: Norton. (Scholar)
  • Kuehn, Bridget, 2006, “CDC promotes care before conception”, JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, 295(22): 2591–2.
  • Kukla, Rebecca, 2005, Mass Hysteria: Medicine, Culture, and Mothers' Bodies, Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2005a, “The limits of lines: negotiating hard medical choices”, APA Newsletter on Philosophy of Medicine, 5(1), 13–19. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2008, “Measuring Mothering”, International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics, 1(1): 67–90. (Scholar)
  • Kukla, Rebecca, et al., 2009, “Finding autonomy in birth”, Bioethics, 23(1): 1–8. (Scholar)
  • Kumar, R., 2003, “Who can be wronged?”, Philosophy and Public Affairs, 31(2): 99–112. (Scholar)
  • Lawson, Karen, 2003, “Perceptions of deservedness of social aid as a function of prenatal diagnostic testing”, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 33(1): 76–90. (Scholar)
  • Lee, Ellie J., 2009, “Advocating alcohol abstinence to pregnant women in Britain: some sociological observations”, presented at the Changing Parenting Culture seminar series, Aston University, Birmingham, U.K. (Scholar)
  • Lee, Young Mi, and D'Alton, Mary E., 2008, “Cesarean delivery on maternal request: maternal and neonatal complications”, Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 20(6): 597–601. (Scholar)
  • Liaschenko, J., DeBruin, D., and Marshall, M. F., 2011, “Commentary:The two-patient framework for research during pregnancy: a critique and a better way forward”, The American Journal of Bioethics, 11(5): 66–8. (Scholar)
  • Lippman, Abby, 1994, “The genetic construction of prenatal testing: choice, consent, or conformity for women?”, in Women and Prenatal Testing: Facing the Challenges of Genetic Technology, Karen H Rothenberg and Elizabeth J Thomson, eds., Columbus: Ohio State Press. (Scholar)
  • Little, Margaret Olivia, 1996, “Why a feminist approach to bioethics?”, Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal, 6(1): 1–18. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1999, “Abortion, intimacy, and the duty to gestate”, Ethical Theory and Moral Practice, 2(3): 295–312. (Scholar)
  • Lupton, Deborah, 1998, “Risk and the ontology of pregnant embodiment”, in Risk and Sociocultural Theory, D. Lupton, ed., New York: Cambridge University Press. (Scholar)
  • Lyerly, Anne Drapkin, 2006, “Shame, gender, birth”, Hypatia, 21(1): 101–118. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2012, “Ethics and ’normal‘ birth”, Birth 39(4): 315–317. (Scholar)
  • Lyerly, Anne Drapkin, and Faden, Ruth R., 2013, “Mothers matter: ethics and research during pregnancy”, AMA Journal of Ethics, 15(9): 775–8. (Scholar)
  • Lyerly, Anne Drapkin, Little, Margaret Olivia, and Faden, Ruth R., 2008a, “A critique of the ‘fetus as patient’”, American Journal of Bioethics, 8(7): 42–44.
  • –––, 2008b, “The second wave: toward responsible inclusion of pregnant women in research”, International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 1(2): 5–22. (Scholar)
  • Lyerly, Anne Drapkin, and Mahowald, Mary, 2001, “Maternal-fetal surgery: the fallacy of abstraction and the problem of equipoise”, Health Care Analysis, 9(2): 151–65. (Scholar)
  • Lyerly, Anne Drapkin, Mitchell, Lisa M., et al., 2009, “Risk and the pregnant body”, Hastings Center Report, 39(6): 34–42. (Scholar)
  • Macklin, Ruth, 1977, “Moral issues in human genetics: counseling or control?”, Dialogue, 16(3): 375–96. (Scholar)
  • Madeo, Anne C., Biesecker, Barbara B., Brasington, Campbell, Erby, Lori H., and Peters, Kathryn F., 2011, “The relationship between the genetic counselling profession and the disability community: a commentary”, American Journal of Medical Genetics (Part A), 155(8): 1777–1785. (Scholar)
  • Mahowold, Mary B., 2002, “Aren't we all eugenicists? Commentary on Paul Lombardo's taking eugenics seriously”, Florida State University Law Review, 30: p. 219. (Scholar)
  • Malacrida, Claudia, and Boulton, Tiffany, 2014, “The best laid plans? Women's choices, expectations, and experiences in childbirth”, Health, 18(1): 41–59. (Scholar)
  • Malek, Janet, 2010, “Deciding against disability: does the use of reproductive genetic technologies express disvalue for people with disabilities?”, Journal of Medical Ethics, 36(4): 217–21. (Scholar)
  • Mattingly, S. S., 1992, “The maternal-fetal dyad: exploring the two-patient obstetric model”, Hastings Center Report, 22(1): 13–18. (Scholar)
  • McMillan, John, 2014, “Making sense of child welfare when regulating human reproductive technologies”, Journal of Bioethical Inquiry, 11(1):47–55. (Scholar)
  • McCullough, Laurence B., and Chervenak, Frank A., 2008, “A critical analysis of the concept and discourse of ‘unborn child’”, The American Journal of Bioethics, 8(7): 34-39.
  • Mills, Catherine, 2011, Futures of Reproduction, Dordrecht: Springer. (Scholar)
  • Minkoff, Howard, 2006, “The ethics of cesarean section by choice”, Seminars in Perinatology, 30(5): 309–312. (Scholar)
  • Minkoff, Howard and Chervenak, Frank A., 2003, “Elective primary cesarean delivery”, New England Journal of Medicine, 348: 946–50. (Scholar)
  • Minkoff, Howard, and Marshall, Mary Faith, 2016, “Fetal risks, relative risks, and relatives' risks”, The American Journal of Bioethics, 16(2): 3–11. (Scholar)
  • Minkoff, Howard and Paltrow, Lynn, 2004, “Melissa Rowland and the rights of pregnant women”, Obstetrics and Gynecology, 104(6): 1234–36. (Scholar)
  • Mitchell, Lisa M., 2001, Baby's First Picture: Ultrasound and the Politics of Fetal Subjects, Toronto: University of Toronto Press. (Scholar)
  • Morgan, Kathryn, 1998, “Contested bodies, contested knowledges”, in S. Sherwin (ed.), The Politics of Women's Health, Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 83-121. (Scholar)
  • Mullin, Amy, 2005, Reconceiving Pregnancy and Childcare: Ethics, Experience, and Reproductive Labor, New York: Cambridge University Press. (Scholar)
  • Murkoff, H. and Mazel, S., 2003, What to Expect When You're Expecting, 3rd Edition, New York: Workman Publishing. (Scholar)
  • Mykitiuk, Roxanne and Scott, Dayna Nadine, 2010, “Risky pregnancy: liability, blame, and insurance in the governance of prenatal harm”, University of British Columbia Law Review, 43(2): 311–360. (Scholar)
  • Nelson, Hilde Lindemann, 1994, “The architect and the bee: some reflections on postmortem Pregnancy”, Bioethics 8(3): 247–267. (Scholar)
  • Nelson, L. J. and Milliken, N., 1988, “Compelled medical treatment of pregnant women: life, liberty, and law in conflict”, Journal of the American Medical Association, 259(7): 1060–66. (Scholar)
  • Nelson, James Lindemann, 2000, “The meaning of the act: reflections on the expressive force of reproductive decision making and policies”, in Parens and Asch (eds.), Prenatal Testing and Disability Rights, Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 196–213. (Scholar)
  • Olsen, Anna, Banwell, Cathy, and Madden, Annie, 2014, “Contraception, punishment, and women who use drugs”, BioMed Central Women's Health, 14(5), doi:10.1186/1472-6874-14-5 (Scholar)
  • Overall, Christine, 2012, Why Have Children? The Ethical Debate, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. (Scholar)
  • Paltrow, Lynn M., and Flavin, Jeanne, 2013, “Arrests of and forced interventions on pregnant women in the United States, 1973–2005: implications for women's legal status and public health”, Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law, 38(2): 299–343. (Scholar)
  • Parens, Erik and Asch, Adrienne (eds.), 2000, Prenatal Testing and Disability Rights, Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press. (Scholar)
  • Parfit, Derek, 1976, “On doing the best for our children”, in Michael D. Bayles (ed.) Ethics and Population, Cambridge: Schenkman Publishing Company, 59–80. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1984, Reasons and Persons, New York: Oxford University Press. (Scholar)
  • Pearlstein, Teri, 2015, “Depression during pregnancy”, Best Practice & Research Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 29(5): 754–64. (Scholar)
  • Perry, Constance, 2011, “Commentary: Unacceptable risk in pregnancy: whose choice and whose responsibility?”, The American Journal of Bioethics, 11(5): 64–5. (Scholar)
  • Pollitt, Katha, 1990, “Fetal rights: a new assault on feminism”, The Nation, March 26: 410–411. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2004, “Pregnant and dangerous”, The Nation, April 26, 9–10. (Scholar)
  • Press, Nancy and Browner, Carole, 1995, “Risk, autonomy, and responsibility: informed consent for prenatal testing”, Hastings Center Report, 25(3): S9–S12. (Scholar)
  • Puls, Larry, Terry, R, and Hunter, James, 1997, “Primary vaginal cancer in pregnancy: difficulty in the ethical management”, Ethics and Medicine: An International Journal of Bioethics, 13(3): 56–58. (Scholar)
  • Purdy, Laura, 1994, “Case study: the baby in the body”, Hastings Center Report, 24(1), 32. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2001, “Medicalization, medical necessity, and feminist medicine”, Bioethics, 15(3): 248–261. (Scholar)
  • Roberts, Dorothy, 1996, “Reconstructing the patient: starting with women of colour”, in S. Wolf (ed.), Feminism and Bioethics: Beyond Reproduction, New York: Oxford University Press, 116–143. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2009, “Race, gender, and genetic technologies: a new reproductive dystopia?”, Signs, 34(4): 783–804. (Scholar)
  • Roberts, Dorothy, and Jesudason, Sujatha, 2013, “Movement intersectionality: the case of race, gender, disability, and genetic technologies”, Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race, 10(2): 313–28. (Scholar)
  • Roberts, Melinda A. and David T. Wasserman (eds.), 2009, Harming Future Persons: Ethics, Genetics, and the Nonidentity Problem, Dordrecht: Springer. (Scholar)
  • Roberts, Sarah C.M., and Pies, Cheri, 2011, “Complex calculations: how drug use during pregnancy becomes a barrier to prenatal care”, Maternal and Child Health Journal, 15(3): 333–41. (Scholar)
  • Robertson, John, 1996, “Genetic selection of offspring characteristics”, Boston University Law Review, 76: 301–61. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2003, “Procreative liberty in the era of genomics”, American Journal of Law and Medicine, 29: 439–87. (Scholar)
  • Roth, Rachel, 2003, “Making women pay: the hidden cost of fetal rights”, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. (Scholar)
  • Rothchild, Joan, 2005, The Dream of the Perfect Child, Bloomington: Indiana University Press. (Scholar)
  • Said, A., Amer, A.J., Masood, U.R., Dirar, A., and Faris, C., 2013, “A brain-dead pregnant woman with prolonged somatic support and successful neonatal outcome: A grand rounds case with a detailed review of literature and ethical considerations”, International Journal of Critical Illness and Injury Science, 3(3): 220–4.
  • Sanborn, Erica, and Patterson, Annette R., 2014, “Disability training in the genetic counseling curricula: bridging the gap between genetic counselors and the disability community”, American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A, 164: 1909–15. (Scholar)
  • Savulescu, Julian, 2001, “Procreative beneficence: why we should select the best children”, Bioethics, 15(5–6): 413–426. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2007, “In defense of procreative beneficence”, Journal of Medical Ethics, 33(5): 284–288. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2007a, “Future people, involuntary medical treatment in pregnancy and the duty of easy rescue”, Utilitas, 19: 1–20. (Scholar)
  • Savulescu, Julian and Kahane, Guy, 2009, “The moral obligation to create children with the best chance of the best life”, Bioethics, 23(5): 274–290. (Scholar)
  • Saxton, Marsha, 2000, “Why members of the disability community oppose prenatal diagnosis and selective abortion”, in Parens and Asch (eds.), Prenatal Testing and Disability Rights, Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 147–164. (Scholar)
  • Saxton, Marsha, 2006, “Disability rights and selective abortion”, In Lennard Davis (ed.), The Disability Studies Reader, New York: Routledge, 105–16. (Scholar)
  • Schedler, George, 1991, “Does society have the right to force pregnant drug addicts to abort their fetuses?”, Social Theory and Practice, 17(3): 369–84. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1992, “Forcing pregnant drug addicts to abort: rights-based and utilitarian justifications” 18(3): 347–57. (Scholar)
  • Schmitz, Dagmar, 2013, “A new era in prenatal testing: are we prepared?”, Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy, 16(3): 357–364.
  • Schwartz, Peter, 2004, “Is the patient always right?”, Hastings Center Report, 34(2): 13–14. (Scholar)
  • Scully, Jackie Leach, 2008, Disability Bioethics: Moral Bodies, Moral Difference, Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield. (Scholar)
  • Seigel, Marika, 2014, The Rhetoric of Pregnancy, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. (Scholar)
  • Shakespeare, Tom, 2006, Disability Rights and Wrongs Revisted, New York: Routledge. (Scholar)
  • Shakespeare, Tom, and Watson, Nicholas, 2002, “The social model of disability: an outdated ideology?”, Research in Social Science and Disability, 2: 9–28. (Scholar)
  • Shaw, Jessica C., 2013, “The medicalization of birth and midwifery as resistance”, Health Care for Women International, 34(6): 522–536. (Scholar)
  • Sherwin, Susan, 1992, No Longer Patient: Feminist Ethics and Health Care, Philadelphia: Temple University Press. (Scholar)
  • Shields, Kristine, and Lyerly, Anne Drapkin, 2013, “Exclusion of pregnant women from industry-sponsored clinical trials”, Obstetrics and Gynecology, 122(5): 1077–81. (Scholar)
  • Skirton, Heather and Patch, Christine, 2013, “Factors affecting the clinical use of non-invasive prenatal testing: a mixed methods systematic review”, Prenatal Diagnosis, 33: 532–541. (Scholar)
  • Smith, G. C., et al., 2002, “Risk of perinatal death associated with labor after previous cesarean delivery in uncomplicated term pregnancies”, Journal of the American Medical Association, 287: 2684–90. (Scholar)
  • Sparrow, Robert, 2007, “Procreative beneficence, obligation, and eugenics”, Life Sciences Society and Policy, 3(3): 43. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2011, “A not-so-new eugenics: Harris and Savulescu on human enhancement”, Hastings Center Report, 41(1): 32–42. (Scholar)
  • Sperling, Daniel, 2006, Management of Post-mortem Pregnancy: Legal and Philosophical Aspects, Aldershot: Ashgate. (Scholar)
  • Steinbock, Bonnie, 1992, “The relevance of illegality”, Hastings Center Report, 22(1): 19–22. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2007, “prenatal testing for adult-onset conditions: cui bon?” Reproductive Biomedicine Online, 2: 38–42.
  • –––, 2009, “Wrongful life and procreative decisions”, in M. Roberts and D. Wasserman (eds.) Harming Future Persons, Dordrecht: Springer, 155–178. (Scholar)
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